Relief of Goes
In August 1572, during the course of the Eighty Years War, the city of Goes, in the Spanish Netherlands, was besieged by Dutch forces with the support of English troops sent by Queen Elizabeth I. This was a menace to the safety of the city of Middelburg. The surprise arrival of the Tercios forced the withdrawal of the Anglo-Dutch troops from Goes, allowing the Spanish to maintain control of Middelburg, in 1567 the hostilities increased, leading to the Eighty Years War. In April 1572, the Sea Beggars, Dutch rebels opposed to Spain, took Brielle, the first city conquered during the war. On 26 August 1572, in command of 7,000 soldiers among which were 1,500 English under Thomas Morgan and Humphrey Gilbert, the Spanish garrison of Goes, much inferior in number, would not withstand the siege for long without reinforcements. The presence in the area of the fleet of the Sea Beggars under Ewout Pietersz Worst prevented it, the river Scheldt was divided into two branches flowing in different directions before it disembogued into the North Sea, the Oosterschelde flowed to the north, the Westerschelde to the west.
Between these two there were the islands of Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland, in the northern part of which laid Goes. The area between Brabant and Zuid-Beveland was largely a flat floodplain exposed to the tides of the North Sea and the river currents of the Scheldt, channels of which intersected the mudflats. When the tide went down the channels had between 1 and 1.5 meters of depth, and when it rose the depth in the main channel reached three meters. Plomaert’s plan was presented to Sancho Dávila and Cristóbal de Mondragón, for its execution Mondragón assembled a force of 3,000 Spanish and German pikemen of the Tercios at Woensdrecht. Shortly before dawn they reached the riverbank of Zuid-Beveland near Yerseke, at 20 km of Goes, at the end of 1572, Arnemuiden and Rammekens remained under Spanish control. The island of Schouwen, including Zierikzee, was held by the Dutch forces until its recapture in 1576 by Luis de Requesens, English warfare, 1511–1642, Warfare and history. The Rise of the Dutch Republic, Entire 1566–74, history of Holland, from the beginning of the tenth to the end of the eighteenth century.
Madrid, Imp. de D. Leonardo Nuñez de Vargas. de Rustant, historia de don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, primero del nombre, duque de Alva, Escrita, y extractada de los mas veridicos autores. Madrid, Spain, En la imprenta de don P. J. Alonso y Padilla
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission and is done with the intention of not returning. In contrast, unauthorized absence or absence without leave refers to a temporary absence, the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, and United States Coast Guard generally refer to this as unauthorized absence or UA. Personnel are dropped from their unit rolls after thirty days and listed as deserters, people who are away for more than thirty days but return voluntarily or indicate a credible intent to return may still be considered AWOL. Those who are away for fewer than thirty days but can credibly be shown to have no intent to return may nevertheless be tried for desertion, in rare occasions, they may be tried for treason if enough evidence is found. Missing movement is another term used to describe members of the armed forces fail to arrive at the appointed time to deploy with their assigned unit, ship. In the United States Armed Forces, this is a violation of the Article 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the offense is similar to absence without leave but may draw more severe punishment.
Failure to repair consists of missing a formation or failing to appear at an assigned place and it is a lesser offense within article 86 of the UCMJ. In 2011, Vienna decided to honour Austrian Wehrmacht deserters, in 2014, on October, 24th a Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice was inaugurated on Viennas Ballhausplatz by Austrias President Heinz Fischer. The monument was created by German artist Olaf Nicolai and is located opposite the Presidents office, the inscription on top of the three step sculpture features a poem by Scottish poet Ian Hamilton Finlay with just two words, all alone. During WWI approximately 600 French soldiers were executed for desertion, during WWI, only 18 Germans who deserted in the First World War were executed. In contrast of the Germans who deserted the Wehrmacht,15,000 men were executed, in June 1988 the Initiative for the Creation of a Memorial to Deserters came to life in Ulm. A central idea was, Desertion is not reprehensible, war is, during WWI a total of 28 New Zealand soldiers were sentenced to death for desertion, of these, five were executed.
These soldiers were pardoned in 2000 through the Pardon for Soldiers of the Great War Act. Those who deserted before reaching the front were imprisoned in what were claimed to be harsh conditions, the execution of soldiers for desertion is controversial, particularly considering the age of some of the soldiers and the potential of shell-shock. 270, dated August 16,1941, was issued by Joseph Stalin, the order required superiors to shoot deserters on the spot. Their family members were subjected to arrest,227, dated July 28,1942, directed that each Army must create blocking detachments which would shoot cowards and fleeing panicked troops at the rear. During World War II, the Soviets executed 158,000 soldiers for desertion, analyses of desertion rates argue that motivations were far less ideological than individual accounts claim. Desertion rates increased prior to announcements of upcoming operations, and were highest during the summer and winter, seasonal desertions were probably a response to the harsh weather conditions of the winter and immense field work required in the summer
Destruction of Neuss
The Destruction of Neuss occurred in July 1586, during the Cologne War. Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parmas troops surrounded the city of Neuss, in total, approximately 3000 civilians died, out of a population of approximately 4500, and the entire garrison was killed. Neuss had been seized by supporters of the Protestant Prince-Elector Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg in February 1586. Adolf, Count of Moers and Neuenahr and supplied the city and took most of his troops north, to Moers and Venlo, Cloedt had a garrison of 1600 men, mostly Germans and Dutch soldiers, some had military experience, but many were recent recruits. In June, the Duke of Parma approached the city and surrounded its landed fortifications, he was supported by Karl von Mansfeld, Francisco Verdugo, the next day, being the feast of St. Once the cannonade began, Parmas 45 artillery pounded at the walls for 30 hours with iron cannonballs weighing 30 to 50 pounds, the Spanish made several attacks, each repelled. With the ninth assault, the wall was breached, and soldiers poured into the city, the Italians from one end.
They met in the marketplace in the middle, gravely injured, had been carried into the town. The Spanish and Italian forces entered the town from opposing ends, Parma was reportedly inclined to honor the garrison commander, Ernst demanded his blood. Soldiers found Cloedt and the man was hanged from the window. Italian and Spanish soldiers, on their rampage through the city, slaughtered the rest of the garrison, who had taken refuge in some of the churches, were initially spared, but when the fire started, they were forced into the street. Parma wrote to the king that over 4000 lay dead in the ditches, english observers confirmed this report, and elaborated that only 8 buildings remained standing. Although Parma had taken the city, his Protestant opponents took some comfort in the fact that the city had been destroyed in the process and was of no use as a garrison. Parma had nearly unfettered access to the Electorates northern regions, called the Niederstift, Gebhard renounced of the Electorate in 1588.
Despite Ernst of Bavarias unchallenged possession, Parma continued to acquire, the history of Holland and the Dutch nation, vol. Der Kampf um das Erzstift Köln zur Zeit der Kurfürsten, Hajo, A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press,1959
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence
Siege of Haarlem
The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, after the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar. The city of Haarlem initially held a view in the religious war that was going on in the Netherlands. It managed to escape from the Reformed iconoclasm in 1566 that affected other cities in the Netherlands, when the city of Brielle was conquered by the Geuzen revolutionary army on 1 April, Haarlem did not initially support the Geuzen. The ruler of Spain was not pleased, and sent an army north under command of Don Fadrique, on 17 November 1572 all citizens of the city of Zutphen were murdered by the Spanish army, and on 1 December the city of Naarden suffered the same fate. The city administration of Haarlem sent a deputation of 4 people to Amsterdam to attempt to negotiate with Don Fadrique, the cities defenses were commanded by city-governor Wigbolt Ripperda, a commander put in charge by William the Silent, the Prince of Orange.
He strongly disapproved of negotiating with the Spanish army, called the city guard together, the citys administration was replaced with pro-Orange citizens. When the deputation came back from Amsterdam, they were convicted as traitors, the Sint-Bavokerk was cleared of Roman Catholic symbols the same day. On 11 December 1572 the Spanish army laid siege to Haarlem, the city was not very strong, militarily speaking. Although the city was surrounded by walls, they were not in good shape. The area around the city could not be inundated, and offered the enemy many places to set up camp, the existence of the Haarlemmermeer nearby made it difficult for the enemy to cut off the transportation of food into the city completely. In the Middle Ages it was unusual to fight in the winter, during the first two months of the siege, the situation was in balance. The Spanish army dug two tunnels to reach the city walls and collapse them, the defenders made tunnels to blow up the Spanish tunnels. The situation became worse for Haarlem on 29 March 1573, the Amsterdam army, faithful to the Spanish king, occupied the Haarlemmermeer and effectively blocked Haarlem from the outside world.
The hunger in the city grew, and the situation became so tense that on 27 May many prisoners were taken from the prison, on 19 December no less than 625 shots were fired at the defensive wall between the Janspoort to the Catherijnebridge. This forced the defenders to put up a new wall. Two city gates, the Kruispoort and the Janspoort collapsed from the fighting, kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer, a very strong woman, helped defending the city
Siege of Mons (1572)
In the spring of 1572, after the capture of Valenciennes by a Protestant force under Louis of Nassau, the Dutch commander continued with his offensive and took Mons by surprise on 24 May. On 23 May Louis of Nassau arrived at Mons with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry, Louis took control of the city, and a few days later, was reinforced by about 4,500 infantry and cavalry under the command of the Count of Montgomery. On 23 June Fadriques forces arrived at Mons and laid siege to the city, Louis sent a message to Genlis, urging that he should join to the army of his brother, William of Orange, but Genlis ignored the message, and advanced against the Spaniards. On 19 July Genlis and his forces encamped near Mons, in a circular plane, Don Fadrique, aware his arrival, advanced towards him with 4,000 infantry,1,500 cavalry, and 3,000 armed villagers for the occasion. Genlis sent a detachment to reconnoitre, but after seeing the advance of the Spanish forces, Don Frederic de Toledo is coming upon us, they cried.
The Spanish cavalry of Philip of Noircarmes, without delay, charged against the French army, followed by infantry, the attack caused panic among the French Huguenots, and then, the Spanish infantry shattered the French army. The Spanish victory was complete, and the army of Genlis was entirely routed, about 2,000 French soldiers were killed or wounded, and 700 captured, including 70 nobles and officers. The leader of the French army, Adrien de Hangest, was captured, the Captain Francisco de Bobadilla was honored with carrying the news of the victory to the King Philip II, for the proven value during the battle. Meantime, the Prince of Orange with his new army continued to advance towards Mons, on 23 July, after the capture of Roermond, his troops mutinied. On 27 August, with guarantees of payment of some cities in Holland, crossed the Meuse, advancing over Diest, Termonde and Nivelles. On 11 August Gaspard de Coligny, with the approval of the King Charles IX, had written to the Prince, the result was St.
Bartholomews Day massacre on 23 August. In early September, Don Fernando, Duke of Alba, arrived at Mons with reinforcements, on 10 September arrived near Mons, and Alba, knowing the Oranges arrival, positioned his troops for a possible attack. After the failed attack, the Prince retreated to the village of Harmignies, in this raid 600 rebels were killed, for only 60 Spaniards. Hundred of horses were captured, and a part of the tents. During the action, William of Orange himself was in profound slumber, and was saved by the barking of his Spaniel dog, with a heavy heart, William wrote to his brother Louis of his forlorn condition and inability to relieve Mons. The Prince retreated with his army to Nivelles and Mechelen, marching to the Rhine, thereafter he made his way almost alone to Holland, the only province which still remained true to him. After the defeat of the army of French Huguenots under Adrien de Hangest, even the French Huguenots under his command mutinied as a consequence for the support of the King of France to the massacre of St.
Bartholomew. On 19 September Louis of Nassau surrendered Mons to the Duke of Alba, Louis of Nassau would be received by the Duke of Alba, the Duke of Medinaceli and Don Fadrique
Battle of Noordhorn
In 1580, the Dutch stadtholder of Friesland, George van Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg, had shifted its allegiance from the Dutch to the Spanish side. This opened a new front at the door of the Dutch Republic. That year the Dutch, under the leadership of John Norreys, in July 1581, Rennenberg died and was replaced by the Spaniard Francisco Verdugo, whose arrival in Friesland with reinforcements changed the situation. On 30 September Verdugo forced Norreys to give battle using a strategy of attrition, the battle was fought on a rough, marshy ground very favourable to the Spanish army. The English left was cut off from the rest of the States army, during the pursuit of the States troops Verdugo was nearly captured, but left unharmed in the end. Both Norreys and Count William Louis were wounded, and their army suffered a death toll, losing many flags. Verdugo could not capitalize on his victory because of a mutiny the following day by his German regiments, the military situation in Friesland, had reached a turning point, and in 1582 the Spanish made great advances, even taking Steenwijk on 17 November 1582.
In July 1581 after being defeated by John Norreys and Diederik Sonoy at Kollum, Lalaing fell ill, parma sent one of his most accomplished officers, the Spaniard Francisco Verdugo, to take the place of the deceased stadtholder. Passing through Bredevoort and Coevorden and his regiment reached Groningen, with the loyal troops, meanwhile, he took two Dutch forts, one at the mouth of the Emden and another near Groningen. Verdugos arrival quickly altered the situation in Friesland, which had been favourable to the Dutch. Norreys, appointed Master of the Camp by the Dutch States-General, harassed the Spanish army during the winter of 1580–1581, forcing Rennenberg to lift the siege, the most effective force of the Dutch army in Friesland was Norreys English regiment. In June 1581, the States-General appointed Norreys General of all the States troops beyond the Meuse and he was expected to besiege the Spanish forts around Groningen, but he lacked the artillery to do so, having been given only four small guns.
Moreover, Norreys Dutch and Walloon soldiers were unhappy with being under the command of a foreigner. In early September, after a raid on his camp, Verdugo was sure of Norreys intentions of giving battle. Shortly thereafter, determined to fight, Norreys Anglo-Dutch army was deployed over the dike of Niezijl, Verdugo himself drove two stakes into the ground to mark the point that his cavalry was to charge upon the English vanguard. 200 arquebusiers were detached in a house nearby, the left consisted of two cavalry companies plus a battalion formed by the second half of Verdugos foot regiment. Verdugo deployed a forlorn hope of 200 musketeers and arquebusiers into a ditch covering the way,300 steps ahead of his three foot battalions. There existed a certain hostility between Norreys and Morgan, as Prince William of Orange favored Norreys despite Morgans longer experience in the Netherlands, having served since 1572
Battle of Steenbergen (1583)
The victory of the Spaniards ended the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours, and Francis, Duke of Anjou, left the Netherlands in late June. Meanwhile, the Prince of Parma, with the city of Eindhoven insured, continued his advance across North Brabant, the forces of Biron and Norreys suffered at least 3,200 casualties, and almost all the baggage, barrels of gunpowder,36 flags and 3 banners captured. On the Spanish side the casualties were 400 dead or wounded, the French Marshal himself, who tried to repel the attack of the Spaniards, he fell from his horse and broke his leg. A few days later, the lack of pay, and the differences between the French soldiers, and the Dutch and English Protestant troops, ended with hundreds of desertions among Birons troops. The result of the battle was an overwhelming Spanish victory, not only in terms of casualties in favour to the Spaniards, in terms of immediate strategic consequences. The position of Francis, Duke of Anjou, became impossible to hold with the States-General of the Netherlands, the defeat and the end of the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours was a severe blow to the Dutch Protestants and discredited William of Orange, his main supporter.
Moreover, the Spanish progress was unstoppable, and the Prince of Parma moved to Dunkirk, on July 16, the bombardment began, and a few days later, the city surrendered to the Spaniards, along with Nieuwpoort on July 23. Meanwhile, a Spanish detachment captured Veurne and Menen, sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World. The chivalric ethos and the development of military professionalism, spain, 1469-1714, A Society Of Conflict. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, the Founding of the Dutch Republic, War and Politics in Holland 1572–1588. The Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle During the Wars of Religion, ISBN 0-521-32232-4 Biografía de Don Hernando de Acosta
Siege of Zierikzee
The Siege of Zierikzee was a siege in the Eighty Years War between October 1575 – and July 1576. The Spanish couldnt storm Zierikzee, and therefore tried to cut off all supplies to the city, until February 1576, despite heavy fire, small Dutch vessels were able to reach and supply the city. The defenders did several sorties which inflicted casualties and damage on the Spanish, but by March, the Spanish had sealed all access to the city. The Dutch under Admiral Lodewijk van Boisot and William the Silent did 3 attempts to break the siege, on April 11 a major sea battle was fought, but ended indecisively. A second attack on May 27 failed because the Spanish had been warned, after a third failed attempt, the Dutch withdrew on June 13. Hunger now forced the defenders to start negotiations, which were concluded on July 29, the garrison was allowed to leave the city, but Zierikzee had to pay 100,000 gulden. The city was occupied by the Spanish, but on July 12 a mutiny broke out under the Spanish troops, which didnt receive their long overdue and promised pay.
They extorted money and goods from the population and abandoned Zierikzee on November 3 and they headed to Brabant, and Modragón had no option, but to follow his troops. VAN OPSTAND TOT OORLOG The Spanish Fury
Siege of Eindhoven (1583)
After three months of siege, and the failed attempts by the States-General to assist Bonnivets forces, the defenders surrendered to the Spaniards on April 23. With the capture of Eindhoven, the Spanish forces made advances in the region. On September 29,1580, Duke of Anjou, supported by William of Orange, based on the terms of the treaty, Anjou assumed the title of Protector of the Liberty of the Netherlands and became sovereign of the United Provinces. On February 10,1582, after a courtship of Queen Elisabeth I in England, Anjou arrived to the Netherlands. On January 17,1583, the French forces led by Francis of Anjou tried to conquer the city of Antwerp by surprise, the inhabitants, still traumatised by the Spanish plunder seven years earlier, were determined to prevent another occupation by foreign troops by all means possible. Anjou was decisively defeated by the people of Antwerp, losing as many as 2,000 men, on February 7, the Spanish forces reached the gates of Eindhoven and laid siege to the fortress city.
The States-General urged the Duke of Anjou to assemble his army and march towards Eindhoven, Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein from his base at Geertruidenberg, sent 4 squadrons of cavalry and 5 companies of infantry to reinforce Bonnivets forces. Although Biron was not very keen to accept, but the French statesman Pomponne de Bellièvre persuaded him to accept the charge. At the same time, Dutch troops stationed in Gelderland were ordered to advance through Utrecht towards Eindhoven and Scottish companies based in northern Flanders had orders to advance on Eindhoven, but these troops refused to move without their pay. Finally, on April 23, the States garrison was forced to surrender, with the conquest of Eindhoven, Parmas forces made great advances in the region, and gained the allegiance of the majority of the towns of northern Brabant. The Spanish victory increased the crisis between the Duke of Anjou and the States-General, Anjou laid the blame for the fall of Eindhoven to the States, while the States were fed up with his ambitions, and the inefficiency and slowness of his troops.
However, the Prince of Orange, strong supporter of the alliance, Biron moved his army to the north of Roosendaal, between Breda and Bergen op Zoom, where he intended lay siege to Wouw. On June 17, and after the capture of Diest by the Spaniards on May 27, the position of Anjou became impossible to hold with the States, and he eventually left the Netherlands in late June. His departure discredited William of Orange, his main supporter, the pace of the Spanish advance continued, and Dunkirk was the new target of the Prince of Parma. French Fury French Wars of Religion Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours List of Stadtholders of the Low Countries List of Governors of the Spanish Netherlands Black, spain, 1469–1714, A Society Of Conflict. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, the Founding of the Dutch Republic, War and Politics in Holland 1572–1588. ISBN 978-0-19-920911-8 García Hernán, Enrique. /Maffi, guerra y Sociedad en la Monarquía Hispánica. The Dutch Republic, Its Rise and Fall 1477–1806, the Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle During the Wars of Religion
Siege of Zutphen (1591)
The Siege of Zutphen was an eleven-day siege of the city of Zutphen by Dutch and English troops led by Maurice of Nassau, during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The siege began on 19 May 1591 after a clever ruse by the besiegers, Zutphen was a Hanseatic city on the east bank of the River IJssel. In 1572, with the resurgence of the Dutch rebellion against Philip II of Spain, the city was recaptured by the Spaniards led by Don Frederick, and the population was punished and slaughtered for the surrender earlier that year. York subsequently died there of smallpox a year although he may have been poisoned by the Spanish to keep him from betraying again. As a consequence the town of Deventer soon followed, handed over to the Spaniards by William Stanley. In 1590 Maurice had taken Breda by hiding soldiers within a peat barge and was able to use Breda as a base for further operations. The Dutch army could launch an offensive at three points, to the South, to the East and to the North, Maurice chose the East with the towns along the River Ijssel heading towards Nijmegen.
By the beginning of 1591 Maurices first goal was to take back Zutphen, with the parallel waterways he could move the troops and artillery as quickly as possible and keep the Spanish from reinforcing the besieged towns. The garrison of Zutphen itself consisted of nearly 1,000 Spaniards and Walloons, Maurices army consisted of 9000 soldiers and 1600 horsemen which marched to Zutphen, along with 100 ships. In order to take Zutphen, the sconce on the west bank of the river had to be taken, once this had been taken the town could be besieged proper once all the heavy guns from the barges had disembarked. Maurice hoped to use another ruse similar to the one he had used at Breda with the peat barge, Francis Vere, in charge of the English troops, wanted the dirt removed from the 1587 treachery and thus wanted to lead the assault. Vere got his wish and Maurice ordered him to take the sconce on the Veluwe opposite Zutphen by sending no more than a dozen men and disguise them as farmers, some even dressed as women.
It was hoped that the Spanish would think they were escaping from the Dutch army. Once the sconce was captured Zutphen would have no hope of holding out, Vere led the English troops to Doesburg and set the plan in motion. The disguised soldiers ran towards the fort, pursued by a cavalry charge. The garrison opened the gates and let the soldiers in. When the order was given the English cut down the guard quickly enough to allow the Dutch cavalry to rush in, soon the Dutch/English force overpowered the Spanish and turned the guns on Zutphen. After this successful strategy Marice began the siege proper after easily crossing the now secured bridge and were reinforced by Count William Louis Frisian companies