Battle of Noordhorn
In 1580, the Dutch stadtholder of Friesland, George van Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg, had shifted its allegiance from the Dutch to the Spanish side. This opened a new front at the door of the Dutch Republic. That year the Dutch, under the leadership of John Norreys, in July 1581, Rennenberg died and was replaced by the Spaniard Francisco Verdugo, whose arrival in Friesland with reinforcements changed the situation. On 30 September Verdugo forced Norreys to give battle using a strategy of attrition, the battle was fought on a rough, marshy ground very favourable to the Spanish army. The English left was cut off from the rest of the States army, during the pursuit of the States troops Verdugo was nearly captured, but left unharmed in the end. Both Norreys and Count William Louis were wounded, and their army suffered a death toll, losing many flags. Verdugo could not capitalize on his victory because of a mutiny the following day by his German regiments, the military situation in Friesland, had reached a turning point, and in 1582 the Spanish made great advances, even taking Steenwijk on 17 November 1582.
In July 1581 after being defeated by John Norreys and Diederik Sonoy at Kollum, Lalaing fell ill, parma sent one of his most accomplished officers, the Spaniard Francisco Verdugo, to take the place of the deceased stadtholder. Passing through Bredevoort and Coevorden and his regiment reached Groningen, with the loyal troops, meanwhile, he took two Dutch forts, one at the mouth of the Emden and another near Groningen. Verdugos arrival quickly altered the situation in Friesland, which had been favourable to the Dutch. Norreys, appointed Master of the Camp by the Dutch States-General, harassed the Spanish army during the winter of 1580–1581, forcing Rennenberg to lift the siege, the most effective force of the Dutch army in Friesland was Norreys English regiment. In June 1581, the States-General appointed Norreys General of all the States troops beyond the Meuse and he was expected to besiege the Spanish forts around Groningen, but he lacked the artillery to do so, having been given only four small guns.
Moreover, Norreys Dutch and Walloon soldiers were unhappy with being under the command of a foreigner. In early September, after a raid on his camp, Verdugo was sure of Norreys intentions of giving battle. Shortly thereafter, determined to fight, Norreys Anglo-Dutch army was deployed over the dike of Niezijl, Verdugo himself drove two stakes into the ground to mark the point that his cavalry was to charge upon the English vanguard. 200 arquebusiers were detached in a house nearby, the left consisted of two cavalry companies plus a battalion formed by the second half of Verdugos foot regiment. Verdugo deployed a forlorn hope of 200 musketeers and arquebusiers into a ditch covering the way,300 steps ahead of his three foot battalions. There existed a certain hostility between Norreys and Morgan, as Prince William of Orange favored Norreys despite Morgans longer experience in the Netherlands, having served since 1572
Battle of Steenbergen (1583)
The victory of the Spaniards ended the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours, and Francis, Duke of Anjou, left the Netherlands in late June. Meanwhile, the Prince of Parma, with the city of Eindhoven insured, continued his advance across North Brabant, the forces of Biron and Norreys suffered at least 3,200 casualties, and almost all the baggage, barrels of gunpowder,36 flags and 3 banners captured. On the Spanish side the casualties were 400 dead or wounded, the French Marshal himself, who tried to repel the attack of the Spaniards, he fell from his horse and broke his leg. A few days later, the lack of pay, and the differences between the French soldiers, and the Dutch and English Protestant troops, ended with hundreds of desertions among Birons troops. The result of the battle was an overwhelming Spanish victory, not only in terms of casualties in favour to the Spaniards, in terms of immediate strategic consequences. The position of Francis, Duke of Anjou, became impossible to hold with the States-General of the Netherlands, the defeat and the end of the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours was a severe blow to the Dutch Protestants and discredited William of Orange, his main supporter.
Moreover, the Spanish progress was unstoppable, and the Prince of Parma moved to Dunkirk, on July 16, the bombardment began, and a few days later, the city surrendered to the Spaniards, along with Nieuwpoort on July 23. Meanwhile, a Spanish detachment captured Veurne and Menen, sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World. The chivalric ethos and the development of military professionalism, spain, 1469-1714, A Society Of Conflict. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, the Founding of the Dutch Republic, War and Politics in Holland 1572–1588. The Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle During the Wars of Religion, ISBN 0-521-32232-4 Biografía de Don Hernando de Acosta
Capture of Brielle
The Capture of Brielle by the Watergeuzen, on 1 April 1572 marked a turning point in the uprising of the Low Countries against Spain in the Eighty Years War. The Watergeuzen were led by William van der Marck, Lord of Lumey, after they were expelled from England by Elizabeth I, they needed a place to shelter their 25 ships. As they sailed towards Brielle, they were surprised to find out that the Spanish garrison had left in order to deal with trouble in Utrecht, on the evening of April 1, the 600 men sacked the undefended port. As they were preparing to leave, one of the men there was no reason they should leave where they were. 1 april is the Dutch name for April Fools Day, the Capture of Brielle is still celebrated by its inhabitants each year on the first of April. The kalknacht origins lie in the actions of locals who painted chalk on the doors of those citizens, by doing this they targeted those houses for the Geuzen to find all people who could resist the capture. The Capture of Brielle and its aftermath forms a part of the plot in Cecelia Hollands novel The Sea Beggars - though the depiction in the book in many ways departs from the historical facts
The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt, but submitted to Spain. The religious clash of cultures built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, the first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged, the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, the continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch imposed a blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns.
The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence, the focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already de facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power, in a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500 and he was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands, subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and León which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance, virtually all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s.
Flanders had long been a wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the empire, Charles Vs empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, distributed throughout Europe and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empires borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars, further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, during the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities, by the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority then
Battle of Oosterweel
The Battle of Oosterweel took place on 13 March 1567 and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years War. The battle was fought near the village of Oosterweel, north of Antwerp, a Spanish professional army under General Beauvoir defeated an army of radical Calvinists rebels under Jan de Marnix. The prisoners were considered rebels and all were killed, william the Silent, the Burggraaf of Antwerp, did not allow the Protestants of the city to come to their aid, because he was, as lord of the city, bound by oath to support the Spanish King. ^ The Dutch people typically view Louis of Nassaus surprise victory at Heiligerlee in 1568 as the first true battle of the Eighty Years War
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles
English Fury at Mechelen
The English Fury at Mechelen or the Capture of Mechelen was an event in the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War on April 9,1580. The city of Mechelen was conquered by Calvinist forces from Brussels which included a contingent of English soldiers. The city was sacked and the nomenclature was given. In 1579, the Lordship of Mechelen was one of the few territories in the Netherlands that had remained loyal to the Spanish King, most surrounding cities, like Antwerp and Ghent were ruled by Calvinists. There in 1580, plans were made to take all remaining loyal cities. The Calvinist mayor of Brussels, Olivier van den Tympel, gathered a force, supported by English troops under command of John Norreys. After a short battle with Mechelens Schutterij and Spanish troops the city was easily taken, the English however turned against the population and plundered homes and monasteries. Some sixty civilians were killed and Archbishop Mathias Hovius hid in a cupboard for three days and fled the city, dressed as a peasant, the Spanish garrison artillery commander Pedro Lobo a large friar was killed by John Norreys himself with his bare hands.
Mechelen remained under Calvinist rule until it was reconquered in 1585 by the Spanish under Alexander Farnese, the 1580 event was named the English Fury after the Spanish Fury that hit the city in 1572. Citations Bibliography Harline & Put, Craig E. & Eddy F. Verloren schapen, schurftige herders, the Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650, An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Volume 1. Sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World, Liverpool University Press - Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies. The Founding of the Dutch Republic, Finance, external links History Reconsidered, Eighty Years War 1568 -1648
Spanish Fury at Mechelen
The Spanish Fury at Mechelen was an event in the Eighty Years War on October 2,1572 in which the city of Mechelen was conquered by the Spanish army and brutally sacked. In spring and summer 1572, many cities in the Low Countries came under control of William of Orange, some supporting the rebels. Mechelen had opened its gates to the troops of William on August 31, William continued his advance towards Mons, but left a garrison in Mechelen under command of Bernard van Merode. On September 21, William was forced by a large Spanish army under the Duke of Alba to withdraw to Holland, the Duke of Alba now wanted to retake all cities in the south and decided to make an example of one of them. He ordered his son Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo to punish Mechelen for tolerating a rebel garrison, plundering this rich city would quiet his troops, which had not received any pay in a long time. When Bernard de Merode heard that a much stronger Spanish force was approaching Mechelen, he, the mainly Catholic people of Mechelen welcomed the Spanish by singing psalms of penitence in a gesture of surrender.
Despite this, Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo unleashed his troops upon the city for three days of slaughter and pillaging, Alba reported to King Philip II afterwards that no nail was left in the wall. In the short term, the sack of Mechelen had the desired effect, all cities in Albas path surrendered without resistance. The next example would be set in the Spanish Fury at Zutphen on November 15
Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Alexander Farnese was Duke of Parma and Castro from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the cities in the south. His talents as a commander and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries. Alessandro was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese of Parma and Margaret and he had a twin brother, who only lived one month. His mother was the half-sister of Philip II of Spain and John of Austria and he led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain under the service of his uncle the King. He fought in the Battle of Lepanto and in the Netherlands against the rebels and he accompanied his mother to Brussels when she was appointed Governor of the Netherlands. In 1565 his marriage with Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with great splendour and it was seven years before he again had the opportunity to display his great military talents.
During that time the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against Spanish rule. In the autumn of 1577, Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, shortly afterwards Don John, whose health had broken down, died. Phillip appointed Farnese to take his place, both as Captain-General of the Army of Flanders, and as Governor-General, Farnese was confronted with a difficult situation. Perceiving that his opponents were divided between Catholic and Protestant and Walloon, he worked to exploit these divisions. By this means, he regained the allegiance of the Walloon provinces for the king, by the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he secured the support of the Malcontents for the royal cause. The rebels in the seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht, formally abjuring Phillips rule, as soon as he had secured a base of operations in Hainaut and Artois, Farnese set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell under his control, Maastricht, Breda and Ghent opened their gates.
In a war composed mostly of sieges rather than battles, he proved his mettle and he finally laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was open to the sea, strongly fortified, and defended with resolute determination and they were led by the famous Marnix van St. Aldegonde and assisted by an ingenious Italian engineer named Federigo Giambelli. The siege began in 1584 and called all of Farneses military genius. He cut off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, the terms offered included the clause that all Protestants had to leave the city within four years
Battle of Rijmenam (1578)
The Spanish forces were dealt a strategic defeat. After the Pacification of Ghent the entire Habsburg Netherlands had risen against Philip II of Spain, from January,1578 on, the reinforcements that were sent to Don Juan by way of the Spanish Road had made him strong enough to go on the offensive. Almost immediately, he gained a victory in the Battle of Gembloux. This motivated foreign powers to intervene on behalf of the States-General, queen Elizabeth of England sent money and troops, as did the Duke of Anjou. These reinforcements formed the backbone of a reconstituted States Army that took up formation in an encampment at Rijmenam during July,1578. The nominal commander of this force was the Count of Boussu and it consisted mainly of English mercenaries under Sir John Norris and Sir Richard Bingham, Scottish mercenaries under Robert Stuart, and French Huguenots under François de la Noue. Without those considerable reinforcements it counted about 18, 000-foot and 2,000 horse, Don Juan, on the other hand, could free no more than 12, 000-foot and 5,000 horse.
This inferiority of forces motivated him to battle before the forces of the Count Palatine could unite with those of the army at Rijmenam. However, during a council of war before the battle his second-in-command, the Duke of Parma, Don Juan decided to attack. After having spent the night opposite the enemy, Don Juans army attacked early in the morning of 31 July 1578, the States Army was drawn up in front of the village of Rijmenam, with its flanks anchored in forests on both sides. In front of the army a system of entrenchments had been dug, Don Juan approached these trenches in the hope that Boussu would come out and engage him in the open, but Boussu refused to be drawn. This time Boussu took the bait and ordered Norris to head him off, a skirmish ensued but neither Norris, nor Leyva followed through However, a few English soldiers had become lost between the lines and this drew in reinforcements from both sides. Both the Scots under Stuart and Spanish infantry under Fernando de Toledo came forward, at the same time the entire Spanish infantry started an advance on the trenches, led by Parma who went ahead on foot, pike in hand.
Meanwhile, Toledo pushed Norris back inside the village, Norris directly counterattacked after having set fire to a few houses in the village. This was misinterpreted by the Spanish commanders as an attempt by Boussu to burn his baggage train, thinking that the States Army was retreating, they now pressed the attack, despite attempts from Don Juan and Parma to stop them. When Leyva and Toledo had reached the center of the village and it now turned out that the apparent deployment of the States Army in front of the village had been a ruse to draw the Spaniards in. In reality, the camp of Boussu was located behind the village. Five hundred Spanish musketeers and six hundred cavalry now found themselves in perilous circumstances
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence