A war elephant is an elephant, trained and guided by humans for combat. The war elephant's main use was to charge the enemy, instilling terror. Elephantry are military units with elephant-mounted troops. War elephants played a critical role in several key battles in antiquity, but their use declined with the spread of firearms in the early modern period. Military elephants were restricted to non-combat engineering and labour roles, some ceremonial uses. However, they continued to be used in combat in some parts of the world such as Thailand and Vietnam into the 19th century. An elephant trainer, rider, or keeper is called a mahout. Mahouts were responsible for handling elephants. To accomplish this, they utilize metal chains and a specialized hook called an aṅkuśa or'elephant goad'. According to Chanakya as recorded in the Arthashastra, first the mahout would have to get the elephant used to being led; the elephant would have learn. The elephants were taught to run and maneuver around obstacles, move in formation.
These elephants would be fit to learn how to systematically charge enemies. The first elephant species to be tamed was the Asian elephant, for use in agriculture. Elephant taming – not full domestication, as they are still captured in the wild, rather than being bred in captivity – may have begun in any of three different places; the oldest evidence comes from the Indus Valley Civilization, around 4500 BC. Archaeological evidence for the presence of wild elephants in the Yellow River valley in Shang China may suggest that they used elephants in warfare; the wild elephant populations of Mesopotamia and China declined because of deforestation and human population growth: by c. 850 BC the Mesopotamian elephants were extinct, by c. 500 BC the Chinese elephants were reduced in numbers and limited to areas well south of the Yellow River. Capturing elephants from the wild remained a difficult task, but a necessary one given the difficulties of breeding in captivity and the long time required for an elephant to reach sufficient maturity to engage in battle.
Sixty-year-old war elephants were always prized as being at the most suitable age for battle service and gifts of elephants of this age were seen as generous. Today an elephant is considered in its prime and at the height of its power between the ages of 25 to 40, yet elephants as old as 80 are used in tiger hunts for they are more experienced. It is thought that all war elephants were male because of males' greater aggression, but it is rather because a female elephant in battle will run from a male. There is uncertainty as to when elephant warfare first started but it is accepted that it began in ancient India; the early Vedic period did not extensively specify the use of elephants in war. However in the Rigveda the king of Gods and chief Vedic deity Indra is depicted as riding either Airavata, a mythological elephant, or on the horse Uchchaihshravas as his mounts. Elephants were utilized in warfare by the Vedic period by the 6th century BC; the increased conscription of elephants in the military history of India coincides with the expansion of the Vedic Kingdoms into the Indo-Gangetic Plain suggesting its introduction during the intervening period.
The practice of riding on elephants in peace and war was common among Aryans and non-Aryans, royalty or commoner, in the 6th or 5th century BC. This practice is believed to be much older than proper recorded history; the ancient Indian epics Ramayana and Mahābhārata, dating from 5th–4th century BC, elaborately depict elephant warfare. They are recognized as an essential component of military processions. In ancient India the army was fourfold, consisting of infantry, cavalry and chariots. Kings and princes principally ride on chariots, considered the most royal, while ride the back of elephants. Although viewed as secondary to chariots by royalty, elephants were the preferred vehicle of warriors the elite ones. While the chariots fell into disuse, the other three arms continued to be valued. Many characters in the epic Mahābhārata were trained in the art. According to the rules of engagement set for the Kurukshetra War two men were to duel utilizing the same weapon and mount including elephants.
In the Mahābhārata the akshauhini battle formation consists of a ratio of is 1 chariot: 1 elephant: 3 cavalry: 5 infantry soldiers. Many characters in the Mahābhārata were described as skilled in the art of elephant warfare e.g. Duryodhana rides an elephant into battle to bolster the demoralized Kaurava army. Scriptures like the Nikāya and Vinaya Pitaka assign elephants in their proper place in the organization of an army; the Samyutta Nikaya additionally mentions the Gautama Buddha being visited by a'hatthāroho gāmaṇi'. He is the head of a village community bound together by their profession as mercenary soldiers forming an elephant corp. Ancient Indian kings valued the elephant in war, some stating that an army without elephants is as despicable as a forest without a lion, a kingdom without a king, or as valor unaided by weapons; the use of elephants further increased with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. King Bimbisara, who began the expansion of the Magadha kingdom, relied on his war elephants.
The Mahajanapadas would be conquered by the Nanda Empire under the reign of Mahapadma Nanda. Pliny the Elder and Plutarch estimated the Nanda Army strength in the east as 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 chariots, 6,000 war elephants. Alex
A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon vary in caliber, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, firepower; the word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can be translated as tube, cane, or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery if not a more specific term such as mortar or howitzer, except for high calibre automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons; the earliest known depiction of cannon appeared in Song dynasty China as early as the 12th century, however solid archaeological and documentary evidence of cannon do not appear until the 13th century. In 1288 Yuan dynasty troops are recorded to have used hand cannons in combat, the earliest extant cannon bearing a date of production comes from the same period.
By 1326 depictions of cannon had appeared in Europe and immediately recorded usage of cannon began appearing. By the end of the 14th century cannon were widespread throughout Eurasia. Cannon were used as anti-infantry weapons until around 1374 when cannon were recorded to have breached walls for the first time in Europe. Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and larger pieces appeared. In 1464 a 16,000 kg cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after 1453 with the introduction of limber, which improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. European cannon reached their longer, more accurate, more efficient "classic form" around 1480; this classic European cannon design stayed consistent in form with minor changes until the 1750s. Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning "large tube", which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the Greek κάννα, "reed", generalised to mean any hollow tube-like object.
The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom; the cannon may have appeared as early as the 12th century in China, was a parallel development or evolution of the fire-lance, a short ranged anti-personnel weapon combining a gunpowder-filled tube and a polearm of some sort. Co-viative projectiles such as iron scraps or porcelain shards were placed in fire lance barrels at some point, the paper and bamboo materials of fire lance barrels were replaced by metal; the earliest known depiction of a cannon is a sculpture from the Dazu Rock Carvings in Sichuan dated to 1128, however the earliest archaeological samples and textual accounts do not appear until the 13th century. The primary extant specimens of cannon from the 13th century are the Wuwei Bronze Cannon dated to 1227, the Heilongjiang hand cannon dated to 1288, the Xanadu Gun dated to 1298.
However, only the Xanadu gun contains an inscription bearing a date of production, so it is considered the earliest confirmed extant cannon. The Xanadu Gun weighs 6.2 kg. The other cannon are dated using contextual evidence; the Heilongjiang hand cannon is often considered by some to be the oldest firearm since it was unearthed near the area where the History of Yuan reports a battle took place involving hand cannon. According to the History of Yuan, in 1288, a Jurchen commander by the name of Li Ting led troops armed with hand cannon into battle against the rebel prince Nayan. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before 1259 while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by 1220, Stephen Haw goes further by stating that guns were developed as early as 1200. Sinologist Joseph Needham and renaissance siege expert Thomas Arnold provide a more conservative estimate of around 1280 for the appearance of the "true" cannon. Whether or not any of these are correct, it seems that the gun was born sometime during the 13th century.
References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries. Cannon featured in literary pieces. In 1341 Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, transfix several persons at once."By the 1350s the cannon was used extensively in Chinese warfare. In 1358 the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands on during the siege of Suzhou in 1366; the Korean kingdom of Joseon started producing gunpowder in 1374 and cannon by 1377. Cannon appeared in Đại Việt by 1390 at the latest. During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372. From the 13th to 15th centuries cannon-armed Chinese ships travelled throughout Southeast Asia; the first of the western cannon to be introduced were breach-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by 1523 and began improving on.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until 1510 when a monk brought one back from China, did not produce a
Army of the Mughal Empire
The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the cavalry-based armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empire's third emperor, Akbar; the army had no regimental structure and the soldiers were not directly recruited by the emperor. Instead, such as nobles or local leaders, would recruit their own troops, referred to as a mansab, contribute them to the army; the Mughals originated in Central Asia. Like many Central Asian armies, the mughal army was horse-oriented; the ranks and pay of the officers were based on the horses. Babur's army looked like an army of Afghan origin. Akbar introduced a new system called the mansabdari system. Emperors followed this system. Mughal emperors maintained a small standing army, they numbered only in thousands. Instead the officers called.
The Mughal Emperors maintained small standing armies. The emperor's own troops were called Ahadis, they were directly recruited by the Mughal emperor himself from the emperor's own blood relatives and tribesmen. They had their own pay roll and pay master, were better paid than regular hormen sowars, they are gentlemen soldiers on administrative duties in the palace. They included palace guards, emperor's own body guards shahiwalas, gatekeepers, they had their own horses. The emperor maintained a division of foot soldiers and had his own artillery brigade. Akbar introduced this unique system; the Mughal army had no regimental structure. In this system each officer worked for government was a military officer, responsible for recruiting and maintaining his quota of horsemen, his rank was based on the horsemen he provided, from ten, the lowest, up to 5000. A prince had the rank of 25000; this called as sowar system. An officer must keep a 1:2 ratio of men to horses. Horses must be verified and branded, preferably an Arabian breed.
He must maintain his quota of horses and cots for transportation, as well as foot soldiers and artillery. Soldiers were paid in cash or jagir, cash paid for month to maximum one year; the emperor allocated jagir for maintenance of mansabs. The Mughal army had no real divisions, though it had four types of warriors: cavalry, infantry and navy; the cavalry held the primary role, the others were auxiliary. The cavalry was the superior branch of the Mughal army; the horsemen recruited by mansabdars were high class people, better paid than foot soldiers and artillery men. They must have at least two of good equipment, they used swords, shields, more guns. Their armour was made up of steel or leather, they wore the traditional dress of their tribes; the regular horseman was called a sowar. Mughal cavalry included elephants used by generals, they bore well good armour. They were used for transportation to carry heavy goods and heavy guns; some of rajput mansabdar provided camel cavalry also. They were men from desert areas like Rajastan.
Emperors' Own infantry called as Ahsam. Mansabadars provided infantrymen, they are ill-paid and ill-equipped. They lacked discipline; this group included swordsmen, as well as servants and artisans. They used a wide variety of weapons like swords, lances, pistols, muskets, etc, they wore no armour. It was an important branch of mughal army. Earlier mughal rulers made good use of it, it was used by babur to achieve an empire Hindustan. Mughal artillery consisted of light artillery. Heavy cannon were expensive and heavy for transportation. Used in battlefield was somewhat risky, they were dragged by elephants to battlefields. They sometimes exploded, killing the crew members. Light artillery was most useful in battle field, they were made up of bronze and drawn with horses. This included camel bear swivel guns, they were effective in battlefield. But time to time the emperors show no interest in development of cannons, they became much out of date. Granadiers and raketies came under this category, it was the poorest branch of the Mughal military.
The Empire did maintain warships, however they were small. The fleet consisted of transport ships; the Navy's main duty was controlling piracy, but they were used in war. Mughal weapons Tipu Sultan Edwardes, Stephen Meredyth. Mughal Rule In India. Sharma, S. R. Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is 378 kilometres west of the state capital, Lucknow, 206 kilometres south of the national capital New Delhi, 58 kilometres south of Mathura and 125 kilometres north of Gwalior. Agra is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, the 24th most populous in India. Agra is a major tourist destination because of its many Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Agra is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Jaipur. Agra falls within the Braj cultural region; the region around the modern city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevaṇa. However, the 11th-century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, it was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD. Sultan Sikandar Lodī was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in 1506.
He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in power there for nine more years and several palaces, wells and a mosque were built by him in the fort during his period being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Between 1540 and 1556, beginning with Sher Shah Suri ruled the area, it was the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1648. Agra features a semiarid climate; the city features mild winters and dry summers and a monsoon season. However the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India; this is a primary factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate. As of 2011 India census, Agra city has a population of 1,585,704, while the population of Agra cantonment is 53,053; the urban agglomeration of Agra has a population of 1,760,285. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra city has an average literacy rate of 73%, below the national average of 74%.
Literacy rate of males is higher than that of women. The sex ratio in the city was 875 females per thousand males while child sex ratio stood at 857. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%. According to the 2011 census, Agra district has a population of 4,380,793 equal to the nation of Moldova or the US state of Kentucky; this gives it a ranking of 41st in India. The district has a population density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre. 52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus are 88.8 %. Hinduism and Jainism are the major religions in Agra city with 80.7%, 15.4% viz. 1.0% of the population adhering to them. The Catholic minority is served by its own Metropolitan Archdiocese of Agra. There was an early reference to an “Agrevana” in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, Ptolemy is said to have called the site “Agra.” and yet Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504.
After the Sultan's death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Mughal Badshah Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526; the golden age of the city began with the Mughals. It was known as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Badshahs Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān. Akbar made it the eponymous seat of one of his original twelve subahs, bordering Delhi, Allahabad and Ajmer subahs. Shāh Jahān shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1648. Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity. Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of river Yamuna; the garden is called the Garden of Relaxation. His grandson Akbar the Great raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra a centre for learning, arts and religion. Akbar built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpūr Sikrī.
This city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone. His son Jahāngīr had a love of flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Tāj Mahal. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtāz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653. Shāh Jahān shifted the capital to Delhi during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there. Akbarabād remained the capital of India during the rule of Aurangzeb until he shifted it to Aurangabad in the Deccan in 1653. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under the influence of Marathas and was called Agra, before falling into the hands of the British Raj in 1803. In 1835 when the Presidency of Agra was established by the British, the city became the seat of government, just two years it was witness to the Agra famine of 1837–38. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 British rule across India was threatened, news of the rebellion had reached Agra on 11 May and on 30
A mortar is a simple, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate with a lightweight bipod mount and a sight. They launch explosive shells in high-arcing ballistic trajectories. Mortars are used as indirect fire weapons for close fire support with a variety of ammunition. Mortars have been used for hundreds of years in siege warfare. Many historians consider the first mortars to have been used at the 1453 siege of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. An Italian account of the 1456 siege of Belgrade by Giovanni da Tagliacozzo said that the Ottoman Turks used seven mortars that fired "stone shots one Italian mile high"; the time of flight of these was long enough that casualties could be avoided by posting observers to give warning of their trajectories. However, earlier mortars were used in Korea in a 1413 naval battle when Korean gunsmiths developed the Wan'gu; the earliest version of the Wan'gu dates back to 1407. Choi Hae-san, the son of Choe Mu-seon, is credited with inventing the first Wan'gu.
Early mortars, such as the Pumhart von Steyr, were large and heavy, could not be transported. Made, these weapons were no more than iron bowls reminiscent of the kitchen and apothecary mortars whence they drew their name. An early transportable mortar was invented by Baron Menno van Coehoorn; this mortar fired an exploding shell. This innovation was taken up, necessitating a new form of naval ship, the bomb vessel. Mortars played a significant role in the Venetian conquest of Morea and in the course of this campaign an ammunition store in the Parthenon was blown up. An early use of these more mobile mortars as field weapons was by British forces in the suppression of the Jacobite rising of 1719 at the Battle of Glen Shiel. High angle trajectory mortars held a great advantage over standard field guns in the rough terrain of the West Highlands of Scotland; the mortar had fallen out of general use in Europe by the Napoleonic era and interest in the weapon was not revived until the beginning of the 20th century.
Mortars were used by both sides during the American Civil War. At the Siege of Vicksburg, General US Grant reported making coehorn mortars "by taking logs of the toughest wood that could be found, boring them out for six- or twelve-pound shells and binding them with strong iron bands; these answered as Coehorns, shells were thrown from them into the trenches of the enemy". During the Russo-Japanese War, Lieutenant-General Leonid Gobyato of the Imperial Russian Army applied the principles of indirect fire from closed firing positions in the field and, with the collaboration of General Roman Kondratenko, he designed the first mortar that fired navy shells; the German Army studied the Siege of Port Arthur, where heavy artillery had been unable to destroy defensive structures like barbed wire and bunkers. As a result, they developed. Used during World War I, they were made in three sizes. World War I saw the introduction of the Stokes mortar, it was the forerunner of all modern mortars in use today.
These modern weapons are light, easy to operate, yet possess enough accuracy and firepower to provide infantry with quality close fire support against soft and hard targets more than any other means. It was not until the Stokes Mortar was devised by Sir Wilfred Stokes in 1915 during the First World War that the modern mortar transportable by one person was born. In the conditions of trench warfare, there was a great need for a versatile and portable weapon that could be manned by troops undercover in the trenches. Stokes's design was rejected in June 1915 because it was unable to use existing stocks of British mortar ammunition, it took the intervention of David Lloyd George and Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. Matheson of the Trench Warfare Supply Department to expedite manufacture of the Stokes mortar; the weapon proved to be useful in the muddy trenches of the Western Front, as a mortar round could be aimed to fall directly into trenches, where artillery shells, due to their low angle of flight, could not go.
The Stokes mortar was a simple muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smoothbore metal tube fixed to a base plate with a lightweight bipod mount. When a mortar bomb was dropped into the tube, an impact sensitive primer in the base of the bomb would make contact with a firing pin at the base of the tube, detonate, firing the bomb towards the target, it could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards firing the original cylindrical unstabilised projectile. A modified version of the mortar, which fired a modern fin-stabilised streamlined projectile and had a booster charge for longer range, was developed after World War I. By World War II, it could fire as many as 30 bombs per minute, had a range of over 2,500 yards with some shell types; the French developed an improved version of the Stokes mortar as the Brandt Mle 27, further refined as the Brandt Mle 31. These weapons were the prototypes for all subsequent light mortar developments around the world. Mortar carriers are vehicles.
Numerous vehicles have been used to mount morta
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar ابو الفتح جلال الدين محمد اكبر, popularly known as Akbar I as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river, his power and influence, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.
Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of culture, he was fond of literature, created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Persian, Latin and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, artists, scribes and readers. He did much of the cataloging himself through three main groupings. Akbar established the library of Fatehpur Sikri for women, he decreed that schools for the education of both Muslims and Hindus should be established throughout the realm, he encouraged bookbinding to become a high art. Holy men of many faiths, poets and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar's courts at Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts and learning. Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts and architecture. Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic creed derived from Islam and Hinduism as well as some parts of Zoroastrianism and Christianity.
A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centered on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema and orthodox Muslims. Many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this blended religion was Birbal. Akbar's reign influenced the course of Indian history. During his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in wealth, he instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the sectarian tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust and loyalty of the native subjects, he had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in native festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation and good-will of his subjects. Thus, the foundations for a multicultural empire under Mughal rule were laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Prince Salim known as Jahangir. Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
There he met and married the 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the next year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh, where his parents had been given refuge by the local Hindu ruler Rana Prasad. During the extended period of Humayun's exile, Akbar was brought up in Kabul by the extended family of his paternal uncles, Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza, his aunts, in particular Kamran Mirza's wife, he spent his youth learning to hunt and fight, making him a daring and brave warrior, but he never learned to read or write. This, did not hinder his search for knowledge as it is said always when he retired in the evening he would have someone read. On 20 November 1551, Humayun's youngest brother, Hindal Mirza, died fighting in a battle against Kamran Mirza's forces. Upon hearing the news of his brother's death, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief. Out of affection for the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, to his son Akbar.
Their betrothal took place in Kabul, shortly after Akbar's first appointment as a viceroy in the province of Ghazni. Humayun conferred on the imperial couple all the wealth and adherents of Hindal and Ghazni. One of Hindal's jagir was given to his nephew, appointed as its viceroy and was given the command of his uncle's army. Akbar's marriage with Ruqaiya was solemnized in Jalandhar, when both of them were 14-years-old, she was his first chief consort. Following the chaos over the succession of Sher Shah Suri's son Islam Shah, Humayun reconquered Delhi in 1555, leading an army provided by his Persian ally Tahmasp I. A few months Humayun died. Akbar's guardian, Bairam Khan concealed the death. Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim
The term swivel gun refers to a small cannon, mounted on a swiveling stand or fork which allows a wide arc of movement. Another type of firearm referred to as a swivel gun was an early flintlock combination gun with two barrels that rotated along their axes to allow the shooter to switch between rifled and smoothbore barrels. Swivel guns should not be confused with pivot guns, which were far larger weapons mounted on a horizontal pivot, or screw guns, which are a mountain gun with a segmented barrel. An older term for the type is peterero; the name was taken from the Spanish name for the gun, pedrero, a combination of the word piedra and the suffix -ero, because stone was the first type of ammunition fired. Swivel guns are among the smallest types of cannon measuring less than 1 m in length and with a bore diameter of up to 3.5 cm. They can fire a variety of ammunition but were used to fire grapeshot and small caliber round shot, they were aimed through the use of a wooden handle, somewhat similar in shape to a baseball bat, attached to the breech of the weapon.
Most swivel guns were muzzleloaders, but there were some breech-loading swivel guns as early as the 14th century, making them among the first such examples of this type of weapon. Breech-loading swivel guns had a breech shaped like a beer mug, which the gunner would take by the handle and insert into the body of the swivel gun with the breech's opening facing forwards; the gunpowder and projectiles were loaded into the breech. If a number of breeches were prepared beforehand, the gunner could maintain a high rate of fire for a brief period by swapping out the used breech and replacing it with a freshly loaded one. Swivel guns were used principally aboard sailing ships, serving as short-range anti-personnel ordnance, they were not ship-sinking weapons, due to their small caliber and short range, but could do considerable damage to anyone caught in their line of fire. They were useful against deck-to-deck boarders, against approaching longboats bearing boarding parties, against deck gun crews when ships were hull-to-hull.
Due to their small size, swivel guns were portable and could be moved around the deck of a ship quite easily. They could be mounted on vertical timbers which were either part of the ship's structure or were bolted to that structure along either side, which provided the gunner with a reasonably steady platform from which to fire, their portability enabled them to be installed. The small size of swivel guns enabled them to be used by a wide variety of vessels, including those too small to accommodate larger cannons, permitted their use on land. Swivel guns had peaceful uses, they were used for signalling purposes and for firing salutes, found uses in whaling, where bow-mounted swivel guns were used to fire harpoons, fowling, where swivel guns mounted on punts were used to shoot flocks of waterfowl. Swivel guns were extensively used by the kingdoms and empires of Asia China and kingdoms in Nusantara. Majapahit conquest is fought using breech-loading swivel guns called cetbang by Majapahit navy, against more traditional boarding style warfare of other kingdoms in Nusantara.
The first Chinese swivel guns were cast as early as 1520 after being introduced from Europe, Korea followed suit by the 1560s. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, Korean naval forces used swivel guns and larger cannon to great effect in interdicting the invading Japanese forces. Wall piece Zamburak McLaughlin, Ian; the Sloop of War 1650-1763. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321878. Swivel Guns and Swivel Gun Harpoons Lewis and Clark's swivel cannon Swivel Guns or Paterero