Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479)
The First Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Republic of Venice and her allies and the Ottoman Empire from 1463 to 1479. Fought shortly after the capture of Constantinople and the remnants of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottomans, it resulted in the loss of several Venetian holdings in Albania and Greece, most the island of Negroponte, a Venetian protectorate for centuries; the war saw the rapid expansion of the Ottoman navy, which became able to challenge the Venetians and the Knights Hospitaller for supremacy in the Aegean Sea. In the closing years of the war, the Republic managed to recoup its losses by the de facto acquisition of the Crusader Kingdom of Cyprus. Following the Fourth Crusade, the lands of the Byzantine Empire were divided among several western Catholic Crusader states, ushering in the period known in Greek as Latinokratia. Despite the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty in the 13th century, many of these "Latin" states survived until the rise of a new power, the Ottoman Empire.
Chief among these was the Republic of Venice, which had founded an extensive maritime empire, controlling numerous coastal possessions and islands in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In its first conflict with the Ottomans, Venice had lost the city of Thessalonica in 1430, following a long siege, but the resulting peace treaty left the other Venetian possessions intact. In 1453, the Ottomans captured the Byzantine capital and continued to expand their territories in the Balkans, Asia Minor and the Aegean. Serbia was conquered in 1459, the last Byzantine remnants, the Despotate of Morea and the Empire of Trebizond were subdued in 1460–1461; the Venetian-controlled Duchy of Naxos and the Genoese colonies of Lesbos and Chios became tributary in 1458, only for the latter to be directly annexed four years later. The Ottoman advance thus posed a threat to Venice's holdings in southern Greece, following the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in 1463, in the Adriatic coast as well. According to the Greek historian Michael Critobulus, hostilities broke out because of the flight of an Albanian slave of the Ottoman commander of Athens to the Venetian fortress of Coron with 100,000 silver aspers from his master's treasure.
The fugitive converted to Christianity, demands for his rendition by the Ottomans were therefore refused by the Venetian authorities. Using this as a pretext, in November 1462, Turahanoğlu Ömer Bey, the Ottoman commander in central Greece and nearly succeeded in taking the strategically important Venetian fortress of Lepanto. On 3 April 1463 however, the governor of the Morea, Isa-Beg Ishaković, took the Venetian-held town of Argos by treason. Although Venice, dependent on the trade with the Ottomans, had in the past been reluctant to confront them in war, the urgings of the papal legate, Cardinal Bessarion, an impassioned speech by the distinguished Council member Vettore Cappello, tipped the balance, on 28 July, the Senate narrowly voted for declaring war on the Porte. Pope Pius II used this opportunity to form yet another Crusade against the Ottomans: on 12 September 1463, Venice and Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus signed an alliance, followed on 19 October by an alliance with the Pope and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.
According to its terms, upon victory, the Balkans would be divided among the allies. The Morea and the western Greek coast would fall to Venice, Hungary would acquire Bulgaria, Serbia and Wallachia, the Albanian principality under Skanderbeg would expand into Macedonia, the remaining European territories of the Ottomans, including Constantinople, would form a restored Byzantine Empire under the surviving members of the Palaiologos family. Negotiations were begun with other rivals of the Ottomans, such as Karamanids, Uzun Hassan and the Crimean Khanate; the new alliance launched a two-pronged offensive against the Ottomans: a Venetian army, under the Captain General of the Sea Alvise Loredan, landed in the Morea, while Matthias Corvinus invaded Bosnia. At the same time, Pius II began hoping to lead it in person. In early August, the Venetians retook Argos and refortified the Isthmus of Corinth, restoring the Hexamilion wall and equipping it with many cannons, they proceeded to besiege the fortress of the Acrocorinth, which controlled the northwestern Peloponnese.
The Venetians engaged in repeated clashes with the defenders and with Ömer Bey's forces, until they suffered a major defeat on 20 October, which resulted in the wounding and subsequent death of the Marquis Bertoldo d'Este. The Venetians were forced to lift the siege and retreat to the Hexamilion and to Nauplia. In Bosnia, Matthias Corvinus seized over sixty fortified places and succeeded in taking its capital, Jajce after a 3-month siege, on 16 December. Ottoman reaction was swift and decisive: Sultan Mehmed II dispatched his Grand Vizier, Mahmud Pasha Angelović, with an army against the Venetians. To confront the Venetian fleet, which had taken station outside the entrance of the Dardanelles Straits, the Sultan further ordered the creation of the new shipyard of Kadirga Limani in the Golden Horn, of two forts to guard the Straits and Sultaniye; the Morean campaign was swiftly victorious for the Ottomans: although messages received from Ömer Bey had warned of the strength and firepower of the Venetian position at the Hexamilion, Mahmud Pasha decided to march on, hoping to catch them at unawares.
In the event, the Ottomans reached the Isthmus just in time to see the Venetian army and riddled with dysentery, leave its positions and sail to Na
Baleč was an Albanian medieval fortified town near Shkodër in what is now Albania. It was built on the hill; the settlement originated in Roman times. During Byzantine rule over the area, it was part of the Dyrrhachium theme, it was a seat of a župa of the Kingdom of Duklja, still of the Lordship of Zeta. Baleč suffered much damage during the Second Scutari War between the Serbian Despotate and the Republic of Venice. After the Republic of Venice gained control over it at the beginning of the 15th century, its size was reduced to a small pronoia with only 25 houses, the fortress was abandoned and fell to ruin. Skanderbeg's forces rebuilt the fortress during his war with Venice in 1448 and established a strong garrison in it, but the Venetian forces soon drove them away and demolished the fortress. Ottoman plans to rebuild Baleč and populate it with Turkish settlers were never implemented and Baleč remained in ruins, which can still be seen today; some authors derive the name of the Balšić noble family from the name of this town.
Alternative names for this family include Balesium, Balezum and Barizi. According to another opinion, the root of the Balšić anthroponym is the name of village Balovc near Podujevo, derived from Balin Potok, it is thought that Balec comes from Illyrian, might be connected with the Albanian word "ballë". The first who came to this conclusion was Milan Sufflay. Baleč was built on the site of a former settlement of the Roman period, destroyed by Avars and Slavs, its fortress has a Roman origin. Baleč was near the road that led from Shkodër to Duklja and Onogošt, near several important settlements and water resources. Baleč was part of Byzantine Dyrrhachium until the Kingdom of Duklja, under Stefan Vojislav, captured it and made it the capital of the župa of Barezi. According to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, after the death of Stefan Vojislav in 1044 control over Baleč and the Barezi župa was inherited by his son Mihailo I Vojislavljević. In the 14th century, control over the region, including Baleč, passed to the Lordship of Zeta, ruled by the Balšić family.
At the beginning of the 15th century, the Venetian Republic took control of Baleč, which became a pronoia, whose pronoiarios lay under obligation to recognize the rights of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Balecium, if were to return and claim them. Radič Humoj, a member of Humoj family, was appointed by the governor of Scutari as pronoier over Baleč in period 1402—1403, confirmed by decision of Venetian Senate on 16 September 1404. Venetian census of 1417 shows that Baleč pronoia was directly subordinated to the governor of Scutari and had 25 houses. After Radič's death, the Venetian governor of Scutari gave the Baleč pronoia to Radić's brother Andrija and his son Kojčin. Decision of Scutari's governor was confirmed by Venetian Senate on 13 February 1419. In December 1447 Skanderbeg began his war against besieged Dagnum; when he realised that his siege was unsuccessful he ordered the rebuilding of the fortress of Baleč, unoccupied and in ruins. The main purpose of placing a garrison at Baleč was to cut the supply routes to besieged Dagnum and to gain control over the lands around Shkodër.
The 2,000 soldiers of the Baleč garrison were under the command of Skanderbeg's nephew Hamza Kastrioti and Marin Spani, but Kastrioti was ordered to attack Drivast, leaving Spani in sole command. Marin found the newly rebuilt fortress insecure and, when his relative Peter Spani informed him that a large Venetian force was heading there, he retreated with his soldiers to Danj; the Venetian forces burned the wooden parts and demolished the rebuilt walls. Andrija and Kojčin Humoj, together with Simeon Vulkata, led the pro-Venetian alliance against Skanderbeg, fighting fiercely for control over Baleč and Drivast in 1447. Although the Baleč area was under firm Venetian control since the beginning of the 15th century, Baleč became impoverished and had ceased to exist as a town long before 1448, when the rebuilt fortress was destroyed by the Venetians and the town was only a memory. At the beginning of 1474 the whole region around Shkodër, including the abandoned Baleč, came under Ottoman rule. According to some sources the Ottoman sultan had intentions to rebuild Podgorica and Baleč in 1474 and to settle them with 5,000 Turkish families in order to establish an additional obstacle for cooperation of Crnojević's Zeta and besieged Venetian Shkodër.
However the plans about Balec were not realized and Marin Barleti described Balec as ruins. For ecclesiastical history see Roman Catholic Diocese of BaleciumThere were many Orthodox churches in Baleč and surrounding villages. There are records about an Orthodox monastery in the village Kupinik completely populated by Slavs, which owned a mill on the river Rioli near Baleč. There are ruins of two churches in Baleč with their altars orientated toward East. In 1879 Russian consul Ivan Stepanovič Jastrebov, published his notes about his visit to Shkodër, which included visit to ruins of Baleč. Jastrebov described the ruins of two Orthodox churches in Baleč, whose ruins belonged to the territory of Rioli tribe, he explained that the first church was a cathedral with dimensions of 25 times 10 steps, a narthex with dimensions 17 times 10 steps. Jastrebov described another church on the southern side of Baleč as smaller and built in the same stile as cathedral. At the beginning of the 14th century, Baleč was the seat of a small Catholic diocese
The Albanians are an ethnic group native to the Balkan Peninsula and are identified by a common Albanian ancestry, culture and language. They live in Albania, North Macedonia, Serbia as well as in Croatia and Italy, they constitute a diaspora with several communities established in the Americas and Oceania. The ethnogenesis of the Albanians and the Albanian language is a matter of controversy among the historians and ethnologists, they appear for the first time in historical records from the 11th century mentioning a tribe of people living in the area which today constitutes the mountainous region around the Mat and Drin. The Shkumbin splits the Albanians into two cultural and linguistical subgroups, the Ghegs and Tosks, though both groups identify with a common ethnic and national culture; the history of the Albanian diaspora is centuries old and has its roots in migration from the Middle Ages established in Southern Europe and subsequently on across other parts of the world. Between the 13th and 18th centuries, sizeable numbers of Albanians migrated to escape either various social, economic or political difficulties.
One population who became the Arvanites settled Southern Greece between the 13th and 16th centuries assimilating into and now self-identifying as Greeks. Another population who emerged as the Arbëreshës settled Sicily and Southern Italy constituting the oldest continuous Albanian diaspora. Smaller populations such as the Arbanasis whose migration dates back to the 18th century are located in Southern Croatia and scattered across Southern Ukraine. In the 13th century, the Ghegs converted to Roman Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy as a means to resist the Slavic Serbs. In the 15th century, Skanderbeg led the medieval Albanian resistance to the Ottoman conquest. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Albanians in large numbers converted to Islam, in part due to the privileged legal and social position of Muslims in the empire and coercion by Ottoman authorities in times of war. Albanians attained important political and military positions within the Ottoman Empire and culturally contributed to the wider Muslim world.
Following the Albanian National Awakening, during the Balkan Wars, in 1912, Albanians were partitioned between the newly-formed Independent Albania and Serbia and Montenegro. From 1945 to 1992, Albania was ruled by a communist government. Albanians in neighbouring Yugoslavia underwent periods of discrimination that concluded with the breakup of that state in the early 1990s and the independence of Kosovo in 2008; the Albanians and their country Albania have been identified by many ethnonyms. The most common native ethnonym is "Shqiptar", plural "Shqiptarë". From these ethnonyms, names for Albanians were derived in other languages, that were or still are in use. In English "Albanians"; the term "Albanoi" is first encountered twice in the works of Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, the term "Arvanitai" is used once by the same author. He referred to the "Albanoi" as having taken part in a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 1043, to the "Arbanitai" as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium; these references have been disputed as to.
Historian E. Vranoussi believes, she notes that the same term in medieval Latin meant "foreigners". The reference to "Arvanitai" from Attaliates regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078 is undisputed. In Byzantine usage, the terms "Arbanitai" and "Albanoi" with a range of variants were used interchangeably, while sometimes the same groups were called by the classicising name Illyrians; the first reference to the Albanian language dates to the latter 13th century. The ethnonym Albanian has been hypothesized to be connected to and stem from the Albanoi, an Illyrian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy with their centre at the city of Albanopolis. Linguists believe that the alb part in the root word originates from an Indo-European term for a type of mountainous topography, from which other words such as alps are derived. Through the root word alban and its rhotacized equivalents arban and arbar, the term in Albanian became rendered as Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë for the people and Arbënia/Arbëria for the country.
The Albanian language was referred to as Arbërisht. While the exonym Albania for the general region inhabited by the Albanians does have connotations to Classical Antiquity, the Albanian language employs a different ethnonym, with modern Albanians referring to themselves as Shqiptarë and to their country as Shqipëria. Two etymologies have been proposed for this ethnonym: one, derived from the etymology from the Albanian word for eagle. In Albanian folk etymology, this word denotes a bird totem, dating from the times of Skanderbeg as displayed on the Albanian flag; the other is within scholarship that connects it to the verb'to speak' from the Latin "excipere". In this instance the Albanian endonym like Slav and others would have been a term connoting "those who speak [intelligibly, th
Shkodër or Shkodra known as Scutari or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding county of Shkodër, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic; the city is one of the most ancient cities in the Balkans and the fourth most populous city in the country and exerts strong influences in culture, religion and entertainment of northern Albania. Geographically, the city of Shkodër sprawls across the Mbishkodra plain between the freshwater marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps. Like most of the Dinaric Alps, the mountains are dominated by dolomite rocks; the lake, named after the city of Shkodër, is the largest lake in Southern Europe close to the Adriatic Sea. The city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west; the region that today corresponds to the city territory was founded in the 4th century BC by the ancient Illyrian tribes of the Ardiaei and Labeates. It is evidenced by the inscriptions that were discovered in the Rozafa Castle.
During that time the city was known under the name Scodra. The city has developed on a 130 metres hill, strategically located in the outflow of Lake Shkodër into the Buna; the Romans annexed the city after the third Illyrian War in 168 BC, when Gentius was defeated by the Roman force of Anicius Gallus. In the 3rd century AD, Shkodër became the capital of Praevalitana due to the administrative reform of the Roman emperor Diocletian. With the spread of Christianity in the 4th century, the Archdiocese of Scodra was founded and was assumed in 535 by Byzantine Justinian I. During many different epochs it has retained its status as a major city in the wider region, due to its strategic position close to the Adriatic Sea and the Italian port cities, but with land-routes to other important cities and towns in neighbouring regions; the etymology of the term Shkodër is a subject. The name was first attested in antiquity in the Latin form Scodra, the Ancient Greek Σκόδρα and the Ancient Greek genitive Σκοδρινῶν, discovered on coins from the 2nd century BC.
Although the ultimate origin of the term is uncertain. The further development of the name has been a subject of discussion among linguists over the linguistic provenance of the Albanian people and the Albanian language. While Eqrem Çabej and Shaban Demiraj treat the development from Skodra to modern Shkodra as evidence of regular development within the Albanian language, Matzinger argues that it fails to display certain known phonological changes that would have to have happened if the name had been continually in use in proto-Albanian since pre-Roman times. In modern times, the term was adapted to Italian as Scutari. In Serbo-Croatian, Shkodër is known as Skadar, in Turkish as İşkodra. Shkodër is the largest city in northern Albania, lying near latitude 42° 4' N, longitude 19 ° 31' E. Geologically, Shkodër extends strategically on the Mbishkodra Plain between the marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps, the southernmost continuation of the Dinaric Alps; the northeast is dominated by Mount Maranaj standing at 1,576 metres above the Adriatic.
Hydrologically, the city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west. Rising From Lake Shkodër, Buna flows into the Adriatic Sea; the river joins the Drin for 2 kilometres southwest of the city. In the east, Shkodër is bordered by Kir, which originates from the north flowing into the Drin, that surrounds Shkodër in the south; the location of Shkodër has been of great strategic importance in its history. It has helped the city to its wealth in its history or made it the subject of conflicts between foreign powers. Lake Shkodër forms the frontier of Albania and Montenegro; the lake became the symbol of the consistent economic and social divide of the city. Although, the lake is the largest lake in Southern Europe and an important habitat for various animal and plant species. Further, the Albanian section has been designated as a Nature Reserve. In 1996, it has been recognised as a wetland of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention.
River Buna connects the lake with the Adriatic Sea, while the Drin provides a link with Lake Ohrid in the southeast of Albania. It is a cryptodepression, filled by the river Morača and drained into the Adriatic by the 41 km long Buna. According to the Köppen climate classification, Shkodër experiences mediterranean climate, wet enough in July to be a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences; the average yearly temperature varies from 14.5 °C to 16.8 °C. Although, mean monthly temperature ranges between 1.4 °C to 9.8 °C in January and 19.3 °C to 32.4 °C in August. The average yearly precipitation is about 1,700 millimetres, which makes the area one of the wettest in Europe; the earliest signs of human activity in the lands of Shkodër can be traced back to the Bronze Age. The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the lake, have brought people here from early antiquity. Artefacts and inscriptions, discovered in the Rozafa Castle, are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans in the city.
Although, it was known under the name Scodra and was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, which ruled over a large territory between modern Albania up to Croatia. Queen Teuta, King Agron, King Gentius, were among the mos
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy, it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. Venice became home to an wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons.
Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello; the republic was ruled by the Doge, elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens supported the system of governance; the city-state employed ruthless tactics in its prisons. The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic; the city state suffered. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Venice became part of a unified Italy in the 19th century. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics". During the 5th century, North East Italy was devastated by the Germanic barbarian invasions. A large number of the inhabitants moved to the coastal lagoons. Here they established a collection of lagoon communities, stretching over about 130 km from Chioggia in the south to Grado in the north, who banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire dwindled in northern Italy; these communities were subjected to the authority of the Byzantine Empire. At some point in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the Byzantine province of Venice elected their first leader Ursus, confirmed by Constantinople and given the titles of hypatus and dux, he was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursus's successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s, he represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politics of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional divisions within Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine, they desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence; the other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom.
The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence. Many centuries the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars. A Byzantine fleet sailed to Venice in 807 and deposed the Doge, replacing him with a Byzantine governor. During the reign of the Participazio family, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, bulwarks and stone buildings; the modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being bor
Siege of Berat (1455)
The Siege of Berat began July, 1455 at the Albanian city of Berat, when the Albanian army of Skanderbeg besieged the fortress held by Ottoman forces. When Skanderbeg began his rebellion, Berat belonged to the Albanian prince Theodore Muzaka; when in 1449 Theodore Muzaka was dying he sent for Skanderbeg to take over the castle in the name of League of Lezhë. Skanderbeg sent. In the meantime a force of Ottoman soldiers came from their garrison in Gjirokastër scaled the poorly guarded walls of Berat at night, slaughtered the Albanian garrison of about 500 soldiers, hanged the dying Theodore Muzaka and claimed the castle, while the captain Pal Kuka was ransomed. Berat was located on an important strategic position as it controlled much of southern Albania as well as the vital supply routes leading to southern Macedonia and Greece. Skanderbeg and his forces besieged the Ottoman-occupied castle and began pounding it with the help of the Aragonese artillery; the commander of the Ottoman garrison proposed to hand over the city if no reinforcements would come for a month.
Believing the situation was well in hand and that the castle would fall, Skanderbeg left with a sizable contingent of his army in the direction of Vlorë. Although he tutored his commanders, Skanderbeg could never bring them up to his level of knowledge in military affairs, his formal training and experience in Anatolia and his service with the Ottoman army proved to be valuable for the Albanian resistance against the Ottomans. At the head of the remaining force he left Karl Muzaka Thopia, his brother-in-law, since Berat was a possession of Muzaka’s family. After a successful bombardment, the Ottoman commander of the garrison agreed to turn over the keys to the castle if the sultan had not sent reinforcements within a certain amount of time; this was a ploy to fool the Albanian forces into a false sense of security and delay any actions, giving reinforcements time to arrive. The sultan sent an army of 20,000 troops led by Issa beg Evrenoz; the reinforcements surprised the Albanian army in mid-July, 1455.
Only one Albanian commander, Vrana Konti, managed to resist the initial Ottoman onslaught and pushed back several attacking waves. When Skanderbeg returned, the Ottoman relief force was repulsed and defeated, but the Albanians were exhausted and their numbers had dwindled to the point where the siege could not be continued. More than 5,000 of Skanderbeg's men died, including 800 men of a 1,000-man-strong contingent of Neapolitans from Alphonso V as experts in demolition and siege warfare; the commander of the siege, Muzaka Thopia died during the conflict. Skanderbeg himself was not at the battle, having moved southwest to inspect the routes to Vlorë and hinder a potential surprise attack from the garrison there. Upon hearing the news, he rushed back, but by the time of his arrival the battle was over. Italian chronicles of the time describe Skanderbeg as performing feats of bravery “with sword and mace” and that many owed their life to his opportune intervention; the results at Berat were disastrous and badly crippled the Albanian resistance for a time.
Berat was never again to be taken by the League. Franco, Comentario de le cose de' Turchi, et del S. Georgio Scanderbeg, principe d' Epyr, Venice: Altobello Salkato, ISBN 99943-1-042-9 Frashëri, Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra, 1405–1468, Tiranë: Botimet Toena, ISBN 99927-1-627-4 Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero, London: Centre for Albanian Studies, ISBN 978-1-873928-13-4 Noli, Fan Stylian, General Books, ISBN 978-1-150-74548-5 Schmitt, Oliver Jens, Skënderbeu, Tiranë: K&B, ISBN 978-9995666750