Siege of Alkmaar
The Siege of Alkmaar was a turning point in the Eighty Years War. The burghers of the Dutch city of Alkmaar held off the Spanish between August 21 and October 8,1573, with boiling tar and burning branches from their city walls. This forced the Spanish commander, Don Fadrique, the son of the hated Alva himself, to retreat, the end of the siege is considered a turning point in the Eighty Years War as Alkmaar was the first city to overcome a siege by the Spanish army. The garrison included a detachment of Scots soldiers who had tried to defend Haarlem. A first hand account of the siege exists in the diary of Nanning van Foreest, several archaeological examinations have uncovered remains of the battle. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650, An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare, the Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict
Battle of Steenbergen (1583)
The victory of the Spaniards ended the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours, and Francis, Duke of Anjou, left the Netherlands in late June. Meanwhile, the Prince of Parma, with the city of Eindhoven insured, continued his advance across North Brabant, the forces of Biron and Norreys suffered at least 3,200 casualties, and almost all the baggage, barrels of gunpowder,36 flags and 3 banners captured. On the Spanish side the casualties were 400 dead or wounded, the French Marshal himself, who tried to repel the attack of the Spaniards, he fell from his horse and broke his leg. A few days later, the lack of pay, and the differences between the French soldiers, and the Dutch and English Protestant troops, ended with hundreds of desertions among Birons troops. The result of the battle was an overwhelming Spanish victory, not only in terms of casualties in favour to the Spaniards, in terms of immediate strategic consequences. The position of Francis, Duke of Anjou, became impossible to hold with the States-General of the Netherlands, the defeat and the end of the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours was a severe blow to the Dutch Protestants and discredited William of Orange, his main supporter.
Moreover, the Spanish progress was unstoppable, and the Prince of Parma moved to Dunkirk, on July 16, the bombardment began, and a few days later, the city surrendered to the Spaniards, along with Nieuwpoort on July 23. Meanwhile, a Spanish detachment captured Veurne and Menen, sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World. The chivalric ethos and the development of military professionalism, spain, 1469-1714, A Society Of Conflict. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, the Founding of the Dutch Republic, War and Politics in Holland 1572–1588. The Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle During the Wars of Religion, ISBN 0-521-32232-4 Biografía de Don Hernando de Acosta
Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Alexander Farnese was Duke of Parma and Castro from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the cities in the south. His talents as a commander and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries. Alessandro was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese of Parma and Margaret and he had a twin brother, who only lived one month. His mother was the half-sister of Philip II of Spain and John of Austria and he led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain under the service of his uncle the King. He fought in the Battle of Lepanto and in the Netherlands against the rebels and he accompanied his mother to Brussels when she was appointed Governor of the Netherlands. In 1565 his marriage with Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with great splendour and it was seven years before he again had the opportunity to display his great military talents.
During that time the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against Spanish rule. In the autumn of 1577, Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, shortly afterwards Don John, whose health had broken down, died. Phillip appointed Farnese to take his place, both as Captain-General of the Army of Flanders, and as Governor-General, Farnese was confronted with a difficult situation. Perceiving that his opponents were divided between Catholic and Protestant and Walloon, he worked to exploit these divisions. By this means, he regained the allegiance of the Walloon provinces for the king, by the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he secured the support of the Malcontents for the royal cause. The rebels in the seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht, formally abjuring Phillips rule, as soon as he had secured a base of operations in Hainaut and Artois, Farnese set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell under his control, Maastricht, Breda and Ghent opened their gates.
In a war composed mostly of sieges rather than battles, he proved his mettle and he finally laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was open to the sea, strongly fortified, and defended with resolute determination and they were led by the famous Marnix van St. Aldegonde and assisted by an ingenious Italian engineer named Federigo Giambelli. The siege began in 1584 and called all of Farneses military genius. He cut off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, the terms offered included the clause that all Protestants had to leave the city within four years
Siege of Leiden
In the end the siege failed when the city was successfully relieved in October 1574. In the war that had broken out, Dutch rebels took up arms against the king of Spain, whose family had inherited the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Most of the counties of Holland and Zeeland were occupied by rebels in 1572, who sought to end the harsh rule of the Spanish Duke of Alba, governor-general of the Netherlands. This territory had a high density of cities, which were protected by huge defense works and by the low-lying boglands. The Duke of Alba tried to break resistance using brute force and he used Amsterdam as a base, as this was the only city in the country of Holland that had remained loyal to the Spanish government. Albas cruel treatment of the populations of Naarden and Haarlem was notorious, the rebels learned that no mercy was shown there and were determined to hold out as long as possible. The county of Holland was split in two when Haarlem was conquered by the Spanish after a costly seven-month siege, Alba attempted to conquer Alkmaar in the north, but the city withstood the Spanish attack.
Alba sent his officer Francisco de Valdez to attack the rebel territory. In the meantime, due to his failure to quell the rebellion as quickly as he had intended, Alba submitted his resignation, the less harsh and more politic Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens replaced him as governor-general. The city of Leiden had plenty of food stored for the siege when it started in October 1573, the siege was very difficult for the Spanish, because the soil was too loose to dig holes, and the city defense works were hard to break. Defending Leiden was a Dutch States rebel army which consisted of English, the leader of the Dutch rebels, William the Silent, Prince of Orange, tried to relieve Leiden by sending an army into the Netherlands under the command of his brother, Louis of Nassau. Valdez halted the siege in April 1574 to face the invading troops, but Sancho dAvila reached them first and defeated the army of Orange in the Battle of Mookerheyde. During the brief respite from the siege, Orange had counselled the citizens of Leiden to restock their city with supplies, and take in a larger rebel garrison to help defend the town.
They disregarded his advice however, with the result that when Valdez army returned to continue the siege on May 26,1574, the city considered surrendering, because there was almost no chance of relief and supplies were dwindling. The rebel army was defeated and the territory was very small compared to the huge Spanish empire. The Prince of Orange, was determined to relieve the city, therefore, he sent a carrier pigeon into the city pleading for it to hold out for three months. But the damage to the countryside would be enormous. However, in the end, the Prince prevailed and the dikes were broken on August 3
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester KG was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth Is, from her first year on the throne until his death. He was a suitor for the hand for many years. Dudleys youth was overshadowed by the downfall of his family in 1553 after his father, Robert Dudley was condemned to death but was released in 1554 and took part in the Battle of St. Quentin under Philip II of Spain, which led to his full rehabilitation. On Elizabeth Is accession in November 1558, Dudley was appointed Master of the Horse, in October 1562, he became a Privy Councillor and, in 1587, was appointed Lord Steward of the Royal Household. In 1564, Dudley became Earl of Leicester and, from 1563, one of the greatest landowners in North Wales, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was one of Elizabeths leading statesmen, involved in domestic as well as foreign politics alongside William Cecil and Francis Walsingham. Although he refused to be married to Mary, Queen of Scots, Dudley was for a time relatively sympathetic to her until, from the mid-1580s.
As patron of the Puritan movement, he supported non-conforming preachers, a champion of the international Protestant cause, he led the English campaign in support of the Dutch Revolt. His acceptance of the post of Governor-General of the United Provinces infuriated Queen Elizabeth, the expedition was a military and political failure, and it ruined the Earl financially. Leicester was engaged in many business ventures and was one of the main backers of Francis Drake. During the Spanish Armada, the Earl was in command of the English land forces. In this function, he invited Queen Elizabeth to visit her troops at Tilbury and this was the last of many events he had organised over the years, the most spectacular being the festival at his seat Kenilworth Castle in 1575 on occasion of a three-week visit by the Queen. Dudley was a patron of the arts, literature. Robert Dudleys private life interfered with his career and vice versa. When his first wife, Amy Robsart, fell down a flight of stairs and died in 1560, the resulting scandal very much reduced his chances in this respect.
Popular rumours that he had arranged for his wifes death continued throughout his life, for 18 years he did not remarry for Queen Elizabeths sake and when he finally did, his new wife, Lettice Knollys, was permanently banished from court. This and the death of his legitimate son and heir were heavy blows. Shortly after the death in 1584, a virulent libel known as Leicesters Commonwealth was circulated in England. It laid the foundation of a literary and historiographical tradition that depicted the Earl as the Machiavellian master courtier
Kingdom of England
In the early 11th century the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, united by Æthelstan, became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway. The completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown, from the accession of James I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament and this concept became legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its state the United Kingdom. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn, originally names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning land of the English, by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period.
The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French, by the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum, Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first king to call himself King of England. In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with use of Rex Anglie. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum, from the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. In 1604 James VI and I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy, East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex, Sussex. The Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon life in general, the English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, the decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful. It absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825, the kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore, in 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he apparently regarded as a turning point in his reign. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred, asser added that Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles
English Fury at Mechelen
The English Fury at Mechelen or the Capture of Mechelen was an event in the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War on April 9,1580. The city of Mechelen was conquered by Calvinist forces from Brussels which included a contingent of English soldiers. The city was sacked and the nomenclature was given. In 1579, the Lordship of Mechelen was one of the few territories in the Netherlands that had remained loyal to the Spanish King, most surrounding cities, like Antwerp and Ghent were ruled by Calvinists. There in 1580, plans were made to take all remaining loyal cities. The Calvinist mayor of Brussels, Olivier van den Tympel, gathered a force, supported by English troops under command of John Norreys. After a short battle with Mechelens Schutterij and Spanish troops the city was easily taken, the English however turned against the population and plundered homes and monasteries. Some sixty civilians were killed and Archbishop Mathias Hovius hid in a cupboard for three days and fled the city, dressed as a peasant, the Spanish garrison artillery commander Pedro Lobo a large friar was killed by John Norreys himself with his bare hands.
Mechelen remained under Calvinist rule until it was reconquered in 1585 by the Spanish under Alexander Farnese, the 1580 event was named the English Fury after the Spanish Fury that hit the city in 1572. Citations Bibliography Harline & Put, Craig E. & Eddy F. Verloren schapen, schurftige herders, the Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650, An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Volume 1. Sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World, Liverpool University Press - Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies. The Founding of the Dutch Republic, Finance, external links History Reconsidered, Eighty Years War 1568 -1648
Destruction of Neuss
The Destruction of Neuss occurred in July 1586, during the Cologne War. Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parmas troops surrounded the city of Neuss, in total, approximately 3000 civilians died, out of a population of approximately 4500, and the entire garrison was killed. Neuss had been seized by supporters of the Protestant Prince-Elector Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg in February 1586. Adolf, Count of Moers and Neuenahr and supplied the city and took most of his troops north, to Moers and Venlo, Cloedt had a garrison of 1600 men, mostly Germans and Dutch soldiers, some had military experience, but many were recent recruits. In June, the Duke of Parma approached the city and surrounded its landed fortifications, he was supported by Karl von Mansfeld, Francisco Verdugo, the next day, being the feast of St. Once the cannonade began, Parmas 45 artillery pounded at the walls for 30 hours with iron cannonballs weighing 30 to 50 pounds, the Spanish made several attacks, each repelled. With the ninth assault, the wall was breached, and soldiers poured into the city, the Italians from one end.
They met in the marketplace in the middle, gravely injured, had been carried into the town. The Spanish and Italian forces entered the town from opposing ends, Parma was reportedly inclined to honor the garrison commander, Ernst demanded his blood. Soldiers found Cloedt and the man was hanged from the window. Italian and Spanish soldiers, on their rampage through the city, slaughtered the rest of the garrison, who had taken refuge in some of the churches, were initially spared, but when the fire started, they were forced into the street. Parma wrote to the king that over 4000 lay dead in the ditches, english observers confirmed this report, and elaborated that only 8 buildings remained standing. Although Parma had taken the city, his Protestant opponents took some comfort in the fact that the city had been destroyed in the process and was of no use as a garrison. Parma had nearly unfettered access to the Electorates northern regions, called the Niederstift, Gebhard renounced of the Electorate in 1588.
Despite Ernst of Bavarias unchallenged possession, Parma continued to acquire, the history of Holland and the Dutch nation, vol. Der Kampf um das Erzstift Köln zur Zeit der Kurfürsten, Hajo, A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press,1959
Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter and mapmaker. Hogenberg was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg, in 1568 he was banned from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. He is known for portraits and topographical views as well as historical allegories and he produced scenes of contemporary historical events