Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities. It includes the construction of underground facilities in order to attack or defend, the use of existing natural caves and artificial underground facilities for military purposes. Tunnels can be used to undermine fortifications and slip into enemy territory for a surprise attack, while it can strengthen a defence by creating the possibility of ambush and the ability to transfer troops from one portion of the battleground to another unseen and protected. Tunnels can serve as shelter for combatants and non-combatants from enemy attack. Since antiquity, sappers have used mining against a walled city, castle or other held and fortified military position. Defenders have dug counter mines to attack miners or destroy a mine threatening their fortifications. Since tunnels are commonplace in urban areas, tunnel warfare is a feature, though a minor one, of urban warfare. Tunnels restrict fields of fire, they can be part of an extensive labyrinth and have cul-de-sacs and reduced lighting creating a closed-in night combat environment.
The Greek historian Polybius, in his Histories, gives a graphic account of mining and counter mining at the Roman siege of Ambracia: The Aetolians... offered a gallant resistance to the assault of the siege artillery and, therefore, in despair had recourse to mines and underground tunnels. Having safely secured the central one of their three works, concealed the shaft with wattle screens, they erected in front of it a covered walk or stoa about two hundred feet long, parallel with the wall. For a considerable number of days the besieged did not discover them carrying the earth away through the shaft; when the trench was made to the required depth, they next placed in a row along the side of the trench nearest the wall a number of brazen vessels made thin. Having marked the spot indicated by any of these brazen vessels, which were extraordinarily sensitive and vibrated to the sound outside, they began digging from within, at right angles to the trench, another underground tunnel leading under the wall, so calculated as to hit the enemy's tunnel.
This was soon accomplished, for the Romans had not only brought their mine up to the wall, but had under-pinned a considerable length of it on either side of their mine. The Aetolians countered the Roman mine with smoke from burning feathers with charcoal. Another extraordinary use of siege-mining in ancient Greece was during Philip V of Macedon's siege of the little town of Prinassos, according to Polybius, "the ground around the town were rocky and hard, making any siege-mining impossible. However, Philip ordered his soldiers during the cover of night collect earth from elsewhere and throw it all down at the fake tunnel's entrance, making it look like the Macedonians were finished completing the tunnels; when Philip V announced that large parts of the town-walls were undermined, the citizens surrendered without delay."Polybius describes the Seleucids and Parthians employing tunnels and counter-tunnels during the siege of Sirynx. The oldest known sources about employing tunnels and trenches for guerrilla-like warfare are Roman.
After the uprising in Germania the insurgent tribes soon started to change defence from only local strongholds into utilising the advantage of wider terrain. Hidden trenches to assemble for surprise attacks were dug, connected via tunnels for secure fallback. In action barriers were used to prevent the enemy from pursuing. Roman legions entering the country soon learned to fear this warfare, as the ambushing of marching columns caused high casualties. Therefore, they approached fortified areas carefully, giving time to evaluate, assemble troops and organize them; when the Romans were themselves on the defensive the large underground aqueduct system was utilised in the defence of Rome, as well as to evacuate fleeing leaders. The use of tunnels as a means of guerrilla-like warfare against the Roman Empire was a common practice of the Jewish rebels in Judea during the Bar Kokhba revolt. With time the Romans understood. Once an entrance was discovered fire was lit, either smoking out the rebels or suffocating them to death.
Well-preserved evidence of mining and counter-mining operations has been unearthed at the fortress of Dura-Europos, which fell to the Sassanians in 256/7 AD during Roman–Persian wars. Mining was a siege method used in ancient China from at least the Warring States period forward; when enemies attempted to dig tunnels under walls for mining or entry into the city, the defenders used large bellows to pump smoke into the tunnels in order to suffocate the intruders. In warfare during the Middle Ages, a "mine" was a tunnel dug to bring down castles and other fortifications. Attackers used this technique when the fortification was not built on solid rock, developing it as a response to stone-b
False Dmitry I
Dmitry I was the Tsar of Russia from 10 June 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dmitry Ivanovich. According to historian Chester S. L. Dunning, Dmitry was "the only Tsar raised to the throne by means of a military campaign and popular uprisings", he was the first, most successful, of three "pretenders" who claimed during the Time of Troubles to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich, who had escaped a 1591 assassination attempt. It is believed that the real Dmitry died in Uglich. Dmitry I entered history circa 1600, after making a positive impression on Patriarch Job of Moscow with his learning and assurance. Upon hearing of this, Tsar Boris Godunov ordered the young man to be seized and examined, whereupon Dmitry fled to Prince Constantine Ostrogski at Ostroh, of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, subsequently entered the service of the Wiśniowieckis, a polonized Ruthenian family. Two family members in particular, the princes Adam and Michał Wiśniowiecki, were intrigued by the stories Dmitry told of whom he purported to be, as it gave the Poles real opportunity to capitalize on the political rancor rising in Moscow.
There were rumors that Dmitry was an illegitimate son of the Polish king, Stefan Batory, who had reigned from 1575 to 1586. Dmitry's own story was that the Tsar Ivan's widow his mother, anticipating Boris Godunov's assassination attempt, had given the young tsarevich into the care of a doctor, who placed him in various Russian monasteries through the years. After the doctor's death, Dmitry had fled to Poland, working there as a teacher for a brief time, before being accepted into the service of the Wiśniowieckis. Several of those who had known Ivan IV claimed that Dmitry did indeed resemble the young tsarevich. However, regardless of whether or not Dmitry's tale was authentic, the Wiśniowiecki brothers, along with Samuel Tyszkiewicz, Jan Sapieha, Roman Różyński, several other Polish noblemen soon agreed to back the man, his claim, against Tsar Boris Godunov. In March 1604, Dmitry visited the royal court of Sigismund III Vasa in Kraków; the king provisionally supported him, but gave no promise of military aid to help ease the young man's path to the throne.
To attract the support of powerful Jesuits in lieu of the king outright stating anything, Dmitry publicly converted to Roman Catholicism on 17 April 1604, thus convincing papal nuncio Claudio Rangoni to back up the young Russian's claim. During his time at court, Dmitry met Marina Mniszech, daughter of the Polish nobleman Jerzy Mniszech. Dmitry and Marina fell in love; when Boris Godunov received word of Dmitry's Polish support, he spread claims of the younger man being just a runaway monk called Grigory Otrepyev, although on what information these claims were based is uncertain. Regardless, the tsar's public support soon began to wane as Dmitry's loyalists spread counter-rumors. Several Russian boyars pledged themselves to Dmitry, thus giving them a "legitimate" reason not to pay taxes to Tsar Boris. Dmitry, having now gained the full support of the Polish Commonwealth, formed a small army of 3,500 soldiers from various private forces. With these men, he advanced on Russia in March 1605. Boris's many enemies, including the southern Cossacks, joined Dmitry's army on the long march to Moscow.
Thus combined, these forces fought two engagements with reluctant Russian soldiers. The young man's cause was only saved when news of the sudden death of Boris Godunov on 13 April 1605 reached his troops in the aftermath. With the unpopular tsar dead, the last impediment to Dmitry's progress had been swept away. On 1 June, the disaffected boyars of Moscow staged a palace coup, imprisoning newly crowned tsar Feodor II and his mother, the widow of Boris Godunov. On 20 June, Dmitry made his triumphal entry into Moscow, on 21 July, he was crowned tsar by a new Muscovite Patriarch of his own choosing, the Greek Patriarch Ignatius; the new tsar moved to consolidate his power by visiting the tomb of Tsar Ivan, the convent of his widow Maria Nagaya, who accepted him as her son and "confirmed" his story. The Godunovs, including Tsar Feodor and his mother, were executed, with the exception of Tsarevna Xenia, whom Dmitry took as his royal concubine for five months. In contrast to Godunov's policies, many of the noble families Tsar Boris had exiled – such as the Shuiskys and Romanovs – were granted the pardon of Tsar Dmitry and allowed to return to Moscow.
Feodor Romanov, sire of the future imperial dynasty, was soon appointed as metropolitan of Rostov. Dmitry planned to introduce a series of economical reforms, he restored Yuri's
Time of Troubles
The Time of Troubles was a period of Russian history during the interregnum in the Tsardom of Russia between the death of Feodor I and the accession of Michael I from 1598 to 1613. Feodor's death in 1598 without an heir for the title of Tsar of Russia ended the Rurik Dynasty, causing a violent succession crisis with numerous usurpers and impostors claiming the throne. Russia suffered the famine of 1601-03 that killed two million people, one-third of the population, was occupied by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Polish–Muscovite War until 1612 when they were expelled; the Time of Troubles ended upon the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar by the Zemsky Sobor in 1613, establishing the Romanov Dynasty that ruled Russia until the February Revolution in 1917. Tsar Feodor I was the second son of Ivan the Terrible, the first Tsar of Russia who had founded the Tsardom of Russia in 1547 from the Grand Duchy of Moscow, his elder brother, Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich, had been groomed as the heir apparent since a young age and Feodor was never considered a serious candidate for the Russian throne.
On 19 November 1581, Tsarevich Ivan was accidentally killed by their father during a fit of rage, making Feodor the heir apparent, after Tsar Ivan's death on 28 March 1584 he was coronated as the Tsar of Russia on 31 May. Feodor was pious and took little interest in politics, instead ruling through Boris Gudunov, the brother of his wife Irina Godunova, his closest advisor, a boyar. Feodor only produced one child, a daughter named Feodosia who died at the age of two, when he died in January 1598, the Rurikid dynasty that had ruled Russia since the 800s AD became extinct. Gudunov, who had acted as a de facto regent for Feodor, was elected his successor by a Zemsky Sobor. Russia experienced a major famine from 1601 to 1603 after poor harvests were encountered, with night time temperatures in all summer months below freezing, wrecking crops; the famine is believed to be caused by a global trend in climate change, known as the General Crisis, with one probable cause of climatic changes was the eruption of Huaynaputina volcano in Peru in 1600.
Widespread hunger led to the mass starvation of about two million Russians, a third of the population. The government distributed money and food for poor people in Moscow, leading to refugees flocking to the capital and increasing the economic disorganization. Rural districts were desolated by plague. Gudunov's reign was not as successful as his administration under the Tsar, the general discontent was expressed as hostility towards him as a usurper; the oligarchical faction of the Russian nobility headed by the Romanovs, who had unsuccessfully opposed the election of Godunov, considered it a disgrace to obey a boyar. Large bands of armed brigands roamed the country committing all manner of atrocities, the Don Cossacks on the frontier were restless, demonstrating that the central government could not keep order. Conspiracies were frequent after Tsar Feodor's death and rumours circulated that his younger brother, was still alive and in hiding despite thought to have been stabbed to death at an early age either by accident or by Godunov's order.
The political instability in Russia was exploited by several usurpers known as False Dmitris who claimed to be Tsarevich Dmitri and sought to claim as heir to the Tsardom. In 1603, False Dmitri I — first of the so-called False Dmitris — appeared in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth professing to be the rightful heir to the Russian throne; the mysterious False Dmitri I attracted support both in Russia by those discontented with Godunov and outside its borders in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Papal States. Factions within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth saw him as a tool to extend their influence over Russia, or at least gain wealth in return for their support; the Papacy saw it as an opportunity to increase the hold of Roman Catholicism over the predominantly Eastern Orthodox Russians. A few months in 1603, Polish forces crossed the frontier with a small force of 4,000 Poles, Russian exiles, German mercenaries and Cossacks from the Dnieper and the Don, in what marked the beginning of the Polish–Muscovite War.
King Sigismund III Vasa did not declare war, but supported the intervention as the Polish were too preoccupied with conflicts with Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to start another war with Russia. Instead, some powerful magnates from the szlachta decided to support False Dmitri I with their own forces and money, in the expectation of rich rewards afterward. After Godunov's death in 1605, False Dmitri I made his triumphal entry into Moscow and was crowned Tsar on 21 July, moving to consolidate his power by visiting the tomb of Tsar Ivan, the convent of his widow Maria Nagaya, who accepted him as her son Dmitri and "confirmed" his story. False Dimitri I was married per procura to Marina Mniszech on 8 May 1606, in exchange for promises of vast grants of land and wealth, converted to Catholicism and relied upon Polish Jesuits and Polish nobles that played a prominent role at his court, as well as on Mniszech's private armies. False Dmitri I became unpopular quickly into his reign, as many in Russia saw him as a tool of the Poles.
On 17 May 1606, ten days after his marriage, Dmitri was killed by armed mobs during an uprising in Moscow after being ousted from the Kremlin, many of his Polish advisors were killed or imprisoned during the rebellion. Vasili IV Shuysky, a member of the House of Shuysky and relative of the Rurikids, seized power and was elected Tsar by an assembly composed of his supporters. Shuysky's rule was weak as he did not satisfy the Russian boyars, C
The Poles referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas, in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas. Poland's history dates back over a thousand years, to c. 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Kalisz and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state. The subsequent Christianization of Poland, in 966 CE, marked Poland's advent to the community of Western Christendom. Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor.
Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicists Marie Skłodowska Curie and Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianists Fryderyk Chopin and Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, novelist Joseph Conrad, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U. S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor. Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years, they organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the Baltic Sea coast and in Greater Poland; the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, one of the West Slavic nations. The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of, Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic Poles since time immemorial and only was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts, Baltic peoples and others.
After 1945 the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support. According to this view, the Lusatian Culture which archaeologists have identified between the Oder and the Vistula in the early Iron Age, is said to be Slavonic. In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutas, regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is uncharted. Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are 38 million Poles in Poland alone. There are Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including, indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and eastern Lithuania, western Ukraine, western Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova.
There is a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II. The term "Polonia" is used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States and Canada. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or Soviet rule. In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New Jersey, New York City, Pittsburgh and New England; the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II; the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989.
In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. Smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo; the city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music and culture are quite common in the region. A recent large migration of Poles took place followi
Siege of Troitsky monastery
The Siege of the Troitsky monastery was an abortive attempt of the Polish–Lithuanian irregular army that acted in support of False Dmitry II to capture the Trinity Monastery north of Moscow. The siege lasted for 16 months, from 23 September 1608 until 12 January 1610. In December 1608, the Polish army of some 15,000 men, led by Jan Piotr Sapieha and Aleksander Lisowski, laid siege to the fortress of the Trinity Monastery, protecting the northern approaches to Moscow; the Russian garrison consisted of dvoryane, monastic servants and peasants, led by the voyevodas Prince Grigory Dolgorukov and Aleksey Golokhvastov. In the early October 1608, the attackers began mining the monastery. Numerous assaults in October and November were repelled by the Russians and resulted in heavy losses for the Polish army; the besieged undertook frequent sallies, one of which ended with the explosion of a mine under a monastery tower and the destruction of an enemy battery on the Red Mountain, with two peasants and Sloba, losing their lives during this sally.
There had been no significant military activity from late November 1608 until May 1609, but the besieged garrison suffered many casualties due to an outbreak of scurvy. In May through July 1609, the Russians repelled a number of enemy attacks. On 19 October 1609, 4 January 1610, auxiliary detachments under the command of David Zherebtsov and Grigory Valuyev managed to make their way into the fortress. Under the threat of the approaching army of Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, the Polish forces raised the siege on 12 January 1610 and retreated to Dmitrov; this defeat was a major blow for False Dmitry II. After King Sigismund III Vasa arrived at Smolensk in September 1609, majority of his Polish supporters left him and joined with the armies of the Polish king. At the same time, a strong Russo-Swedish army under Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky and Jacob De la Gardie approached Tushino, forcing him to flee his camp disguised as a peasant and go to Kostroma, he was killed by his own men on 11 December 1610. Time of Troubles Sigismund III of Poland
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, fortifications, ships or armament to another power. A surrender may be accomplished peacefully, without fighting, or it may be the result of defeat in battle. A sovereign state may surrender following defeat in a war by signing a peace treaty or capitulation agreement. A battlefield surrender, either by individuals or when ordered by officers results in those surrendering becoming prisoners of war. Merriam-Webster defines surrender as "the action of yielding one's person or giving up the possession of something into the power of another", traces the etymology to the Middle English surrendre, from French sur- or sus-, suz "under" + rendre "to give back". A white flag or handkerchief is taken or intended as a signal of a desire to surrender, but in international law, it represents a desire for a parley that may or may not result in a formal surrender. A surrender will involve the handing over of weapons. Individual combatants can indicate a surrender by discarding weapons and raising their hands empty and open above their heads.
Flags and ensigns are hauled down or furled, ships' colors are struck. When the parties agree to terms, the surrender may be conditional; the leaders of the surrendering group negotiate privileges or compensation for the time and loss of life saved by the victor through the stopping of resistance. Alternatively, in a surrender at discretion, the victor makes no promises of treatment, unilaterally defines the treatment of the vanquished party. An early example of a military surrender is the defeat of Carthage by the Roman Empire at the end of the Second Punic War. Over time accepted laws and customs of war have been developed for such a situation, most of which are laid out in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the Geneva Conventions. A belligerent will agree to surrender unconditionally only if incapable of continuing hostilities. Traditionally, a surrender ceremony was accompanied by the honors of war; the Third Geneva Convention states that prisoners of war should not be abused. US Army policy, for example, requires that surrendered persons should be secured and safeguarded while being evacuated from the battlefield.
While not a formal military law, the Code of the US Fighting Force disallows surrender unless "all reasonable means of resistance exhausted and... certain death the only alternative": the Code states, "I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist". False surrender is a type of perfidy in the context of war, it is a war crime under Protocol I of the Geneva Convention. False surrenders are used to draw the enemy out of cover to attack them off guard, but they may be used in larger operations such as during a siege. Accounts of false surrender can be found frequently throughout history. One of the more infamous examples was the alleged false surrender of British troops at Kilmichael, during the Irish War of Independence. Capitulation, an agreement in time of war for the surrender to a hostile armed force of a particular body of troops, a town or a territory. Debellatio occurs. No quarter occurs when a victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life of the vanquished when they surrender at discretion.
Under the laws of war, "it is forbidden... to declare that no quarter will be given". Unconditional surrender is a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law
Ivan Isayevich Bolotnikov was the leader of a popular uprising in Russia in 1606–1607 known as the Bolotnikov Rebellion. The uprising was part of the Time of Troubles in Russia. Little information is available about Ivan Bolotnikov's life before the uprising, it is belonged to the household of Prince Andrei Telyatevsky. It appears that Bolotnikov fled from his master's estate was captured by the Crimean Tatars, sold to the Turks as a galley slave, he somehow managed to escape from his owners, reached Venice, was captured in Poland en route to Russia by the associates of Mikhail Molchanov. Molchanov sent Ivan Bolotnikov to the town of Putyvl to meet a voyevoda named Grigory Shakhovskoy; the latter put him in charge of a Cossack unit. Ivan Bolotnikov used this opportunity to muster a small army of runaway kholops, peasants and vagabonds, disgruntled with social and economic situation in Russia, he promised them to establish a new social system. By the order of Grigory Shakhovskoy and his army advanced to Kromy in August 1606, defeating the Muscovite army under the command of Prince Yury Trubetskoy.
From there, he ravaged the city. At the time there were several other rebellions taking place across Russia, the participants of which would join Ivan Bolotnikov's army. Most of the insurgents organized themselves into three main groups under the command of Grigory Sumbulov, Prokopy Lyapunov, Istoma Pashkov. All these rebels united and besieged Moscow, settling in a village of Zagorye on October 12, 1606; the consensus among these rebellious groups, did not last long. Soon, the noblemen realized that most of Ivan Bolotnikov's plans had been aimed against them, so they figured it would be much safer to return their support to Vasili Shuisky. On November 15, Sumbulov and Lyapunov left Zagorye and gave themselves up to the authorities, asking the tsar for forgiveness. Now that Bolotnikov's army had lost some of its men, Vasili Shuisky decided to make his move. On December 2, Prince Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky attacked the enemy near Kolomenskoye. During the battle, Istoma Pashkov and his men joined the Muscovite army.
Left all by himself, Ivan Bolotnikov fled to Kaluga. Vasili Shuisky's commanders Fyodor Mstislavsky and Ivan Shuisky laid siege to the city, but Bolotnikov and his Cossacks managed to repel their attacks until the end of winter. In the spring of 1607, another imposter by the name of False Peter came to Tula with a whole mob of robbers to meet with Prince Grigory Shakhovskoy. After this, the latter dispatched Prince Andrei Telyatevsky and his men to help out Ivan Bolotnikov, forcing Prince Mstislavsky to lift the siege of Kaluga. Bolotnikov moved to Tula. Thus, all the rebels met together in one place, their joint forces numbering some 30,000 people, it was that Vasili Shuisky decided to attack all of them at once and left Moscow on May 21, 1607. He besieged Tula, but the insurgents managed to hold out until October despite deprivations and hunger. Bolotnikov sent letters to no avail. Bolotnikov decided to negotiate his surrender; the tsar promised to pardon the insurgents in return for Tula. On October 10, the rebels surrendered to the authorities.
Shuisky, did not keep his promise. Instead, he transported all of the rebel leaders to Moscow on October 30, executed each of them in a different way. Ivan Bolotnikov was transported to Kargopol and drowned; this article includes content derived from the Russian Biographical Dictionary, 1896–1918