Siege of Zierikzee
The Siege of Zierikzee was a siege in the Eighty Years War between October 1575 – and July 1576. The Spanish couldnt storm Zierikzee, and therefore tried to cut off all supplies to the city, until February 1576, despite heavy fire, small Dutch vessels were able to reach and supply the city. The defenders did several sorties which inflicted casualties and damage on the Spanish, but by March, the Spanish had sealed all access to the city. The Dutch under Admiral Lodewijk van Boisot and William the Silent did 3 attempts to break the siege, on April 11 a major sea battle was fought, but ended indecisively. A second attack on May 27 failed because the Spanish had been warned, after a third failed attempt, the Dutch withdrew on June 13. Hunger now forced the defenders to start negotiations, which were concluded on July 29, the garrison was allowed to leave the city, but Zierikzee had to pay 100,000 gulden. The city was occupied by the Spanish, but on July 12 a mutiny broke out under the Spanish troops, which didnt receive their long overdue and promised pay.
They extorted money and goods from the population and abandoned Zierikzee on November 3 and they headed to Brabant, and Modragón had no option, but to follow his troops. VAN OPSTAND TOT OORLOG The Spanish Fury
Battle of Oosterweel
The Battle of Oosterweel took place on 13 March 1567 and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years War. The battle was fought near the village of Oosterweel, north of Antwerp, a Spanish professional army under General Beauvoir defeated an army of radical Calvinists rebels under Jan de Marnix. The prisoners were considered rebels and all were killed, william the Silent, the Burggraaf of Antwerp, did not allow the Protestants of the city to come to their aid, because he was, as lord of the city, bound by oath to support the Spanish King. ^ The Dutch people typically view Louis of Nassaus surprise victory at Heiligerlee in 1568 as the first true battle of the Eighty Years War
Battle of Zutphen
The Battle of Zutphen was fought on 22 September 1586, near the village of Warnsveld and the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands, during the Eighty Years War. It was fought between forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, aided by the English, against the Spanish, in 1585, England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the States-General of the Netherlands and formally entered the war against Spain. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was appointed as the Governor-General of the Netherlands, Zutphen was strategically important to Farnese, as it allowed his troops to levy war contributions in the rich Veluwe region. Therefore, he left some troops blockading Rheinberg and marched to relieve the town and he personally supplied Zutphen at first, but as the Anglo-Dutch siege continued, he assembled a large convoy whose delivery to the town he entrusted to the Marquis of Vasto. Leicester learned of this when a courier dispatched by Farnese to Francisco Verdugo, the English and Dutch prepared an ambush, in which many English knights and noblemen were involved.
In the end, the Spanish succeeded in delivering the convoy safely to Zutphen after a hard-fought battle, the Spanish cavalry, composed mainly of Italian and Albanian soldiers, was defeated by the English cavalry under the Earl of Essex. The Spanish infantry, held its ground and delivered the convoy to Zutphen, from there, reinforced by Verdugo, the Spanish troops forced the English to retreat. Zutphen was secured for the Spanish, though in the weeks the English managed to capture a major Spanish fort, Zutphens sconce. Most of the English gains were negated when, months later, in 1585, Queen Elizabeth I of England took the United Provinces of the Netherlands under her protection and signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the States-General. England dispatched 5,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry soldiers to the Low Countries, when Farnese besieged Rheinberg in September 1586, Leicesters army marched towards Zutphen and took a Spanish sconce on the left bank of the IJssel river. On 18 September Leicester laid a bridge over the IJssel and took positions on the right bank of the river.
Leicesters Anglo-Dutch army consisted of 8,000 infantry – mainly English and Scottish, as the siege continued, Farnese left some troops to blockade Rheinberg and supplied Zutphen in person with 600 cavalry and a convoy of 300 wagons of wheat. Leicester was in Deventer then, but on receiving news of Farneses approach and he found, on his arrival, that Counts Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and William Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg had entrenched the army on a mountain along the right bank of the IJssel. Leicester was informed of the ways through which the Spanish army might attempt to supply the town. Led by Farnese himself and Francisco Verdugo, the Spanish troops left Borculo at night, passed next to the Dutch town of Lochem, Farnese prayed in the St. Walburgis church and on walked up its tower to watch the English army. The following morning a war council was held after a captured Scottish officer was interrogated and revealed Leicesters plans and strength. Farnese considered the possibility of defending the town himself, but Verdugo dissuaded him to avoid giving the Queen of England the fame that Prince of Parma was like a prisoner inside Zutphen.
Farnese returned to Borculo, entrusted the command of the town to Verdugo, while the siege continued, he marched to Lingen with his army to intercept a corps of reiters who were being recruited in Germany under Elizabeth Is orders
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles
A counter mine is a mine dug to allow defenders to attack miners, or destroy a mine threatening their fortifications. The Aetolians countered the Roman mine with smoke from burning feathers with charcoal, when Philip V announced that large parts of the town-walls were undermined, the citizens surrendered without delay. Mining was a method used in ancient China from at least the Warring States period forward. When enemies attempted to dig tunnels under walls for mining or entry into the city, a well-preserved case of mining and counter-mining operations is in Dura Europos, during the siege in 256 AD during the Roman-Persian wars. In warfare during the Middle Ages, a mine was a tunnel dug to bring down castles, attackers used this technique when the fortification was not built on solid rock, developing it as a response to stone-built castles that could not be burned like earlier-style wooden forts. A tunnel would be excavated under the outer defenses either to access into the fortification or to collapse the walls.
These tunnels would normally be supported by wooden props as the digging progressed. Later, explosives like gunpowder were used for greater effect. A tactic related to mining is sapping the wall, where engineers would dig at the base of a wall with crowbars, several methods resisted or countered undermining. Often the siting of a castle could make mining difficult, the walls of a castle could be constructed either on solid rock or on sandy or water-logged land, making it difficult to dig mines. A very deep ditch or moat could be constructed in front of the walls, as was done at Pembroke Castle, or even artificial lakes, as was done at Kenilworth Castle. This makes it difficult to dig a mine, and even if a breach is made. Defenders could dig counter mines, from these they could dig into the attackers tunnels and sortie into them to either kill the miners or to set fire to the pit-props to collapse the attackers tunnel. Alternatively they could under-mine the attackers tunnels and create a camouflet to collapse the attackers tunnels, finally if the walls were breached, they could either place obstacles in the breach, for example a cheval de frise to hinder a forlorn hope, or construct a coupure.
During the Siege of Vicksburg, in 1863, Union troops led by General Ulysses S. Grant tunnelled under the Confederate trenches and detonated a mine beneath the 3rd Louisiana Redan on June 25,1863. The subsequent assault, led by General John A. Logan, gained a foothold in the Confederate trenches where the crater was formed, but the attackers were eventually forced to withdraw. A more famous instance occurred during the Siege of Petersburg, Union troops dug a tunnel under the Confederate lines at Elliotts Salient, when set off, the resulting explosion killed about 300 soldiers. The combat was known as the Battle of the Crater
Battle of Borgerhout
Taking advantage of the Dutch rebel armys indiscipline, Farnese decided at the beginning of 1579 to besiege Maastricht. The assault was divided into three columns, each one provided with a bridge to pass over the camps moat. After one of the attacks, undertaken by Walloon troops, succeeded in securing a bridge, William of Orange, leader of the Dutch revolt, and archduke Matthias of Habsburg, Governor-General of the Netherlands appointed by the States General, witnessed the fight from Antwerps walls. The battle meant the destruction of the villages of Borgerhout and Deurne, Farnese proceeded to besiege Maastricht, which the Spanish Army invested less than a week after the battle and was taken by assault on 29 June of the same year. Farneses successful campaign opened the way to a period of Spanish reconquest of much of the Netherlands. Orange invaded the Netherlands twice, in 1568 and 1572, the second time, the revolt spread into the provinces of Holland and Zealand, and Alba was unable of quelling it.
In reaction, the loyal and rebel provinces united to expel the foreign troops under the Pacification of Ghent, johns striking victory at the Battle of Gembloux in January 1578, was followed by a tactical defeat at Rijmenam in July, and John himself died of plague in October. The States General called for help Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir of the King of France, who entered Mons in July 1578, the Catholic provinces of Namur and Limburg were already controlled by the Spanish. The Union of Arras opened talks in February with Alexander Farnese, in the south, Farnese was planning the capture of Maastricht to use the city with its stone bridge over the Meuse as a base to conquer Brussels and Antwerp in the following campaigns. In November 1578, the Spanish Army left Namur and crossed the Ardennes, Farnese deemed too risky starting the siege of Maastrich at midwinter and with the John Casimirs numerous cavalry on the countryside. For the 1579 campaign, Farnese planned two different movements, the first part of the plan was accomplished when Mondragón took the towns of Kerpen and Straelen between 7 and 15 January.
On 24 January, Farnese moved to attack the States General army, which was at Weert, east of Antwerp. They asked the city council to allow them to enter the city, but it was refused, in the meantime, Farnese entrusted to Count Hannibal dAltemps the capture of Weert and continued his advance upon the Dutch Army. DAltemps encircled Weert with 6,000 men and breached its walls with a two-cannon battery. The defenders of the castle surrendered at discretion but, on Farnese orders, were hanged on the windows, instead of following the Dutch Army to its quarters, lodged in Turnhout with his troops and his court to forage. Before moving to Antwerp he dealt with John Casimirs German Army, Spanish troops attacked and defeated part of the German reiters near Eindhoven on 10 February. Once this matter was finished, Farnese advanced upon Borgerhout, the Dutch States troops quartered in the village of Borgerhout numbered 25 or 40 infantry companies which comprised from 3,000 to 4,000 soldiers, plus 100 additional mounted troops.
They were the backbone of the army and William of Orange referred to them as his braves
Siege of Haarlem
The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, after the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar. The city of Haarlem initially held a view in the religious war that was going on in the Netherlands. It managed to escape from the Reformed iconoclasm in 1566 that affected other cities in the Netherlands, when the city of Brielle was conquered by the Geuzen revolutionary army on 1 April, Haarlem did not initially support the Geuzen. The ruler of Spain was not pleased, and sent an army north under command of Don Fadrique, on 17 November 1572 all citizens of the city of Zutphen were murdered by the Spanish army, and on 1 December the city of Naarden suffered the same fate. The city administration of Haarlem sent a deputation of 4 people to Amsterdam to attempt to negotiate with Don Fadrique, the cities defenses were commanded by city-governor Wigbolt Ripperda, a commander put in charge by William the Silent, the Prince of Orange.
He strongly disapproved of negotiating with the Spanish army, called the city guard together, the citys administration was replaced with pro-Orange citizens. When the deputation came back from Amsterdam, they were convicted as traitors, the Sint-Bavokerk was cleared of Roman Catholic symbols the same day. On 11 December 1572 the Spanish army laid siege to Haarlem, the city was not very strong, militarily speaking. Although the city was surrounded by walls, they were not in good shape. The area around the city could not be inundated, and offered the enemy many places to set up camp, the existence of the Haarlemmermeer nearby made it difficult for the enemy to cut off the transportation of food into the city completely. In the Middle Ages it was unusual to fight in the winter, during the first two months of the siege, the situation was in balance. The Spanish army dug two tunnels to reach the city walls and collapse them, the defenders made tunnels to blow up the Spanish tunnels. The situation became worse for Haarlem on 29 March 1573, the Amsterdam army, faithful to the Spanish king, occupied the Haarlemmermeer and effectively blocked Haarlem from the outside world.
The hunger in the city grew, and the situation became so tense that on 27 May many prisoners were taken from the prison, on 19 December no less than 625 shots were fired at the defensive wall between the Janspoort to the Catherijnebridge. This forced the defenders to put up a new wall. Two city gates, the Kruispoort and the Janspoort collapsed from the fighting, kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer, a very strong woman, helped defending the city
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Siege of Leiden
In the end the siege failed when the city was successfully relieved in October 1574. In the war that had broken out, Dutch rebels took up arms against the king of Spain, whose family had inherited the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Most of the counties of Holland and Zeeland were occupied by rebels in 1572, who sought to end the harsh rule of the Spanish Duke of Alba, governor-general of the Netherlands. This territory had a high density of cities, which were protected by huge defense works and by the low-lying boglands. The Duke of Alba tried to break resistance using brute force and he used Amsterdam as a base, as this was the only city in the country of Holland that had remained loyal to the Spanish government. Albas cruel treatment of the populations of Naarden and Haarlem was notorious, the rebels learned that no mercy was shown there and were determined to hold out as long as possible. The county of Holland was split in two when Haarlem was conquered by the Spanish after a costly seven-month siege, Alba attempted to conquer Alkmaar in the north, but the city withstood the Spanish attack.
Alba sent his officer Francisco de Valdez to attack the rebel territory. In the meantime, due to his failure to quell the rebellion as quickly as he had intended, Alba submitted his resignation, the less harsh and more politic Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens replaced him as governor-general. The city of Leiden had plenty of food stored for the siege when it started in October 1573, the siege was very difficult for the Spanish, because the soil was too loose to dig holes, and the city defense works were hard to break. Defending Leiden was a Dutch States rebel army which consisted of English, the leader of the Dutch rebels, William the Silent, Prince of Orange, tried to relieve Leiden by sending an army into the Netherlands under the command of his brother, Louis of Nassau. Valdez halted the siege in April 1574 to face the invading troops, but Sancho dAvila reached them first and defeated the army of Orange in the Battle of Mookerheyde. During the brief respite from the siege, Orange had counselled the citizens of Leiden to restock their city with supplies, and take in a larger rebel garrison to help defend the town.
They disregarded his advice however, with the result that when Valdez army returned to continue the siege on May 26,1574, the city considered surrendering, because there was almost no chance of relief and supplies were dwindling. The rebel army was defeated and the territory was very small compared to the huge Spanish empire. The Prince of Orange, was determined to relieve the city, therefore, he sent a carrier pigeon into the city pleading for it to hold out for three months. But the damage to the countryside would be enormous. However, in the end, the Prince prevailed and the dikes were broken on August 3