Siege of Toulon

The Siege of Toulon was a military operation by Republican forces against a Royalist rebellion in the southern French city of Toulon during the Federalist revolts. After the arrest of the Girondist deputies on the 2 June 1793, there followed a series of insurrections within the French cities of Lyon, Avignon, Nîmes and Marseille known as Federalist revolts. In Toulon, the revolutionaries evicted the existing Jacobin faction but were soon supplanted by the more numerous royalists. Upon the announcement of the recapture of Marseille and of the reprisals which had taken place there at the hands of the revolutionaries, the royalist forces, directed by the Baron d'Imbert, called for aid from the Anglo-Spanish fleet. On 28 August, Admiral Sir Samuel Hood of the Royal Navy and Admiral Juan de Lángara of the Spanish Navy, committed a force of 13,000 British, Spanish and Piedmontese troops to the French royalists' cause; this was a serious blow to the republic, as the city had a key naval arsenal and was the base for 26 ships of the line.

Without this port there was no hope for French naval ambitions. As a result, any desire to challenge the Allies, the British, for control of the seas would be out of the question. In addition, its loss could set a dangerous precedent for other areas that menaced the republic with revolt; the survival of the Republic was at stake. On 1 October, Baron d'Imbert proclaimed the young Louis XVII to be king of France, hoisted the French royalist flag of the fleur de lys, delivering the town of Toulon to the British navy; the troops of the army said to be of the "Carmagnoles", under the command of General Jean François Carteaux, arrived at Toulon on 8 September, after those troops had recovered Avignon and Marseille, Ollioules. They joined up with the 6,000 men of the Alpine Maritime Army, commanded by General Jean François Cornu de La Poype, who had just taken La Valette-du-Var, sought to take the forts of Mont Faron, which dominated the city to the East, they were reinforced by 3,000 sailors under the orders of Admiral de Saint Julien, who refused to serve the British with his chief, Trogoff.

A further 5,000 soldiers under General La Poype were attached to the army to retake Toulon from the Army of Italy. The Chief of Artillery, commander Elzéar Auguste de Dommartin, having been wounded at Ollioules, had the young captain Napoleon Bonaparte imposed upon him by the special representatives of the Convention and Napoleon's friends —Augustin Robespierre and Antoine Christophe Saliceti. Bonaparte had been in the area escorting a convoy of powder wagons en route to Nice and had stopped in to pay his respects to his fellow Corsican, Saliceti. Bonaparte had been present in the army since the Avignon insurrection, was imposed on Dommartin in this way despite the mutual antipathy between the two men. Despite the mutual dislike between Bonaparte and the chief of artillery, the young artillery officer was able to muster an artillery force, worthy of a siege of Toulon and the fortresses that were built by the British in its immediate environs, he was able to requisition cannon from the surrounding area.

Guns were taken from Marseille and the Army of Italy. The local populace, eager to prove its loyalty to the republic which it had rebelled against, was blackmailed into supplying the besieging force with animals and supplies, his activity resulted in the acquisition of 100 guns for the force. With the help of his friends, the deputies Saliceti and Augustin Robespierre, who held power of life and death, he was able to compel retired artillery officers from the area to re-enlist; the problem of manning the guns was not remedied by this solution alone, under Bonaparte's intensive training he instructed much of the infantry in the practice of employing and firing the artillery that his efforts had acquired. However, in spite of this effort, Bonaparte was not as confident about this operation as was his custom; the officers serving with him in the siege were incompetent, he was becoming concerned about the needless delays due to these officers' mistakes. He was so concerned that he wrote a letter of appeal to the Committee of Public Safety requesting assistance.

To deal with his superiors who were wanting in skill, he proposed the appointment of a general for command of the artillery, succeeding himself, so that "... command respect and deal with a crowd of fools on the staff with whom one has to argue and lay down the law in order to overcome their prejudices and make them take steps which theory and practice alike have shown to be axiomatic to any trained officer of this corps". After some reconnaissance, Bonaparte conceived a plan which envisaged the capture of the forts of l'Eguillette and Balaguier, on the hill of Cairo, which would prevent passage between the small and large harbours of the port, so cutting maritime resupply, necessary for those under siege. Carteaux, sent only a weak detachment under Major General Delaborde, which failed in its attempted conquest on 22 September; the allies now alerted, built "Fort Mulgrave", so christened in honour of the British commander, Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave, on the summit of the hill. It was supported by three smaller ones, called Saint-Phillipe, Saint-Côme, Saint-Charles.

The impregnable collection was nicknamed, by the French, "Little Gibraltar". Bonaparte was dissatisfied by the sole battery—called the "Mountain", positioned on the height of Saint-Laurent since 19 September, he established another, on the shore of Brégallion, called the "sans-culottes". Hood attempted to silence it, without success, but the British fleet was


Pvris is an American rock band from Lowell, formed by members Lynn Gunn, Alex Babinski, Brian MacDonald. The band formed under the name Paris but changed it to Pvris in the summer of 2013 citing legal reasons, they released an acoustic EP before signing to Rise and Velocity Records. They released the single "St. Patrick" on June 2014, along with a music video, they released their debut album, White Noise, in November 2014, the deluxe version of White Noise on April 22, 2016. On August 25, 2017, they released their second album All We Need of Hell, they released their third EP, Hallucinations, on October 25, 2019. The band was formed in Massachusetts, in 2012 under the name Operation Guillotine, they were a metalcore band, consisting of five members, with Kyle Anthony performing lead vocals. Their line-up soon changed to vocalist/guitarist Lynn Gunn, guitarist Alex Babinski, bassist Brian Macdonald, drummer Brad Griffin. Babinski had been in I Am the Fallen. On March 26, 2013, Pvris released their self-titled EP.

The sound was described as post-hardcore. They played sporadic shows including a mini-tour with Love, Robot. During the summer of 2013, the band played a week on Ernie Ball's Battle of the Bands stage at Warped Tour after winning a contest, it was during this time, on July 26, that they changed their name from'Paris' to'Pvris', citing legal reasons. The use of a'v' as a replacement letter in the band's name was similar to that of the band Chvrches, which frequently has its name stylized in capital letters; the band went on The Rise Up Tour supporting A Skylit Drive in October. Shortly after the end of the tour, they parted ways with their drummer Brad Griffin, continued as a trio. Pvris began teasing fans that they would soon be hitting the studio to write and record new material around this time; that recording process began in December. On February 7, 2014, they announced that they were a part of an Acoustic 4 Way Split with A Loss For Words, Wind in Sails and After Tonight, set to release on April 1, 2014.

Coinciding with the release of their Acoustic EP, Pvris joined A Loss For Words, City Lights, Moms on the fifth anniversary of The Kids Can't Lose Tour from March 29, 2014, to April 13, 2014. When the band went into the studio their sound changed drastically, incorporating pop and electronic elements into their music. Gunn claimed. In June 2014 it was announced the band had signed to Velocity. A music video was released for "St. Patrick" on June 24, the song was released as a single on the same day; the track peaked at number 4 on the Kerrang! Rock Chart, spending over fifteen weeks in the top 20. In an interview with The Huffington Post Gunn elaborated on the excitement that came with being able to release new music to the public. "We've been waiting over six months to release anything… It feels incredible to unleash it to the world. So many more people are into it than we imagined!" The band played two weeks on the Battle of the Bands stage at Warped Tour. During their time spent on Warped Tour The Huffington Post released a second article listing them as one of "18 Artists You Need To Know Halfway Through 2014".

"Lynn Gunn is a force that cannot be denied, redolently poignant in both her most excitable and serene vocalizations. The first female-led signing of Rise Records, a label that has implausibly made metalcore music accessible and desirable, the label may have just made its smartest acquisition yet."The band supported Mayday Parade in October and November on their The Honeymoon Tour. In early September, the band supported Emarosa on Personal tour. Pvris joined the Ice Grills 2014 Tour in Japan from September 16, 2014, to September 21, 2014; the tour featured Lyndsey and Brian playing with A Loss For Words, State Champs, as well as Pvris providing acoustic support. On September 22, 2014, Pvris announced their debut album "White Noise" due for release on November 4, 2014; the following day, Pvris released a music video for "My House". On October 6, 2014, Pvris released "The Empty Room Sessions" of My House. On October 16, 2014, Pvris released the self-titled track "White Noise" off of their upcoming debut album.

On November 10, 2014, it was announced that Pvris would be supporting Pierce the Veil and Sleeping with Sirens on the second leg of their World Tour, Mallory Knox will be supporting them. The tour runs from January 23 to March 4, ending in Oklahoma City. On March 25, 2015, Pvris released the official video for'White Noise'. On June 11, 2015, Pvris won the Relentless Kerrang! Awards 2015 for Best International Newcomer. On June 22, 2015, Pvris released their cover of Chandelier by Sia off Punk Goes Pop 6's deluxe edition. On July 2, 2015, Pvris released the official music video for "Holy". On July 21, 2015, Pvris released the official music video for "Fire"; the following day, at the Alternative Press Music Awards, they took home the award for Breakthrough Band. The band supported Bring Me the Horizon in the U. S. in October supported them the following month in the UK. In February and March, the band supported Fall Out Boy on their tour of the U. S. On January 5, 2016, Pvris made their network television debut by performing "My House" and "White Noise" on Jimmy Kimmel Live!.

On February 17, 2016, the band premiered a new song, titled "You and I" on Radio 104.5. The song wa

Phil Cornwell

Philip Cornwell is an English comedian, actor and writer. He is well known in the UK as being part of the Dead Ringers television and radio series, achieved international recognition as the voice of Murdoc Niccals in the virtual band Gorillaz. Cornwell has co-written and performed principal roles in The Glam Metal Detectives and Stella Street, he is well known as DJ Dave Clifton from I'm Alan Partridge and Alpha Papa. Cornwell was born in the County of Essex, he is popularly known for voicing Murdoc Niccals in Gorillaz. He provided the voices of Mick Jagger and David Bowie for the Steve Wright in the Afternoon show on BBC Radio 1 in the late-1980s and early-1990s; these impersonations - augmented by many others, including the series narrator, Michael Caine - formed the backbone of the BBC TV series Stella Street and performed with John Sessions. In 1996 he performed in a comedy spoof sketch TV advert to The Professionals imitating Martin Shaw's character of Doyle for the release of the Nissan Almera.

In 1997 as part of the same advertising campaign he performed another spoof sketch of the 1970s television series The Sweeney. He played the part of Captain of the cockleboat Renown in the TV mini-series Dunkirk, he has appeared in several films made by the Comic Strip, including the role as Dave Spanker in Detectives on the Edge of a Nervous Breakdown. He played Dave Clifton, a local radio DJ on Radio Norwich - a fictional radio station in both series of I'm Alan Partridge, he voiced Sir Lancelot in the animated children's television series King Arthur's Disasters. He was the voice of Gilbert the Alien in the 1980s TV series Get Fresh, which span off into Gilbert's Fridge, a series starring the character, he played King Stupid in the CBBC series Stupid!, having replaced Marcus Brigstocke, because the latter was involved in Excuse My French on BBC2. Cornwell appeared in the Doctor Who episode, "The Fires of Pompeii". In 2010 he presented/hosted the Friday night Euro Lottery draw show on BBC1. In 2011 he did several stand up comedy gigs as character Switzerland McNaughtiehorse.

Cornwell is a supporter of Tottenham Hotspur F. C. and presents the weekly podcast The Spurs Show with Mike Leigh. In January 2013 he appeared in the ITV comedy drama series Great Night Out as Tonky. Cornwell is married to Amy Cornwell, together they have six children. Gorillaz - Murdoc Niccals Phil Cornwell on IMDb