Siege of Nice
At that time, Nice was under the control of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, an ally of Charles V. This is part of the 1543–1544 Mediterranean campaign of Barbarossa, the French forces, led by François de Bourbon, and the Ottoman forces, led by Hayreddin Barbarossa, first joined at Marseilles in August 1543. François de Bourbon had already attempted to make an attack on Nice once. Barbarossa arrived with his fleet, accompanied by the French Ambassador Polin, as almost nothing had been prepared on the French side to assist the Ottoman fleet, Polin was dispatched to meet with Francis I at Marolles and ask him for support. The combined fleet sailed out of Marseille on the 5th of August, the Ottoman force first landed at Villefranche,6 kilometers east of Nice, which it took and destroyed. The French and Ottoman forces collaborated to attack the city of Nice on 6 August 1543, in this action 110 Ottoman galleys combined with 50 French ones. The Franco-Ottomans were confronted by a resistance which gave rise to the story of Catherine Ségurane, culminating with a major battle on 15 August.
The French prevented the Ottomans from sacking the city and they could not however take the castle, the Château de Cimiez, apparently because the French were unable to supply sufficient gunpowder to their Ottoman allies. The last night before leaving, Barbarossa plundered the city, burned parts of it, the relief army, transported on ships by Andrea Doria, landed at Villefranche, and successfully made its way to the Nice citadel. During the campaign, Barbarossa is known to have complained about the state of the French ships and he famously said Are you seamen to fill your casks with wine rather than powder. He nevertheless displayed great reluctance to attack Andrea Doria when the latter was put in difficulty after landing the relief army and it has been suggested that there was some tacit agreement between Barbarossa and Doria on this occasion. At the time, Nice was part of Savoy, independent from France, most versions of the tale have Catherine Ségurane, a common washerwoman, leading the townspeople into battle.
Legend has it that she knocked out a standard bearer with her beater, according to one commonly told story, Catherine took the lead in defending the city by standing before the invading forces and exposing her bare bottom. This is said to have so repulsed the Turkish infantrys Muslim sense of decency that they turned and fled. However, in Turkish culture, the practice of mooning is considered odd or absurdly immoral but never offensive and most probably as a sexual teasing, especially when performed by a female. Historically attested defense of Nice include the destruction of a key bridge. Nevertheless, the legend of Catherine Ségurane has excited the local imagination, louis Andrioli wrote an epic poem about her in 1808, and a play dedicated to her story was written by Jean-Baptiste Toselli in 1878. In 1923, a monument to Catherine was erected near the supposed location of her feat
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
It was founded as the Knights Hospitaller circa 1099 in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, by the Blessed Gerard, making it the worlds oldest surviving chivalric order. It operated from Cyprus, Malta, over which it was sovereign until the French occupation, the order venerates as its patroness Mary, mother of Jesus, under the title Our Lady of Mount Philermos. The Order retains sovereignty under international law, including United Nations permanent observer status, issuing its own passports, the orders military corps, three brigades, are stationed throughout Italy, liaisoned with the Italian Armed Forces. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser International, the order aids victims of disasters, epidemics. In several countries, including France and Ireland, local associations of the order are important providers of emergency services. In the ecclesiastical heraldry of the Roman Catholic Church, the Order of Malta is one of two orders whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms.
The shield is surrounded with a rosary for professed knights. Members may display the Maltese cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon, in order to protect its heritage against frauds, the order has legally registered 16 versions of its names and emblems in some 100 countries. The birth of the dates back to around 1048. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem–the monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land–became independent under the guidance of its founder, by virtue of the Papal Bull, the hospital became an order exempt from the control of the local church. All the Knights were religious, bound by the three vows of poverty and obedience. The order thus added the task of defending the faith to that of its hospitaller mission, as time went on, the order adopted the white eight-pointed Cross that is still its symbol today. The eight points represent the eight beatitudes that Jesus pronounced in his Sermon on the Mount, when the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell after the Siege of Acre in 1291, the order settled first in Cyprus.
In 1310, led by Grand Master Fra Foulques de Villaret, in the early 14th century, the institutions of the Order and the knights who came to Rhodes from every corner of Europe were grouped according to the languages they spoke. Each Langue included Priories or Grand Priories and Commanderies, the Order was governed by its Grand Master, the Prince of Rhodes, and its Council. The senior positions of the Order were given to representatives of different Langues, after six months of siege and fierce combat against the fleet and army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the Knights were forced to surrender in 1523 and left Rhodes with military honours. The Reformation which split Western Europe into Protestant and Roman Catholic states affected the knights as well, in several countries, including England and Sweden, the order was disestablished. In others, including the Netherlands and Germany, entire bailiwicks or commanderies experienced religious conversions and it was established that the order should remain neutral in any war between Christian nations
Long Turkish War
The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. It was waged from 1593 to 1606 but in Europe is sometimes called the Fifteen Years War, in the series of Ottoman wars in Europe it was the major test of force between the Ottoman–Venetian War and the Cretan War. The next of the major Ottoman-Habsburg wars was the Great Turkish War of 1683-99, the conflict consisted in a great number of costly battles and sieges, but with very little result for either side. The major participants of this war were the Habsburg Monarchy, the Principality of Transylvania and Moldavia opposing the Ottoman Empire, Tuscany and the Papal State were involved to a lesser extent. Skirmishes along the Habsburg–Ottoman border intensified from 1591, in 1592, the fort of Bihać fell to the Ottomans. That victory marked the end of the Hundred Years Croatian–Ottoman War, the war started on July 29,1593, when the Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha launched a campaign against the Habsburg Monarchy and captured Győr and Komarom in 1594.
In early 1594, the Serbs in Banat rose up against the Ottomans, the rebels had, in the character of a holy war, carried war flags with the icon of Saint Sava. The war banners were consecrated by Patriarch Jovan Kantul, and the uprising was aided by Serbian Orthodox metropolitans Rufim Njeguš of Cetinje, along the way, the Ottoman convoy killed all the people in its path as a warning to the rebels. The Ottomans publicly incinerated the relics of Saint Sava on a pyre atop the Vračar plateau on April 27 and had the ashes scattered, aron Vodă of Moldavia and Michael the Brave of Wallachia joined the alliance that year. The Ottomans objective of the war was to seize Vienna, while the Habsburg Monarchy wanted to recapture the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Control over the Danube line and possession of the fortresses located there was crucial, the war was mainly fought in Royal Hungary, Royal Croatia and Slavonia, the Ottoman Empire, and Wallachia. In 1595, the Christians, led by Mansfeld, captured Esztergom and Visegrád, strategic fortresses on the Danube, the Ottomans launched a siege of Eger, conquering it in 1596.
In the following years, Spanish fleets continued to raid the Levant waters, they were privateers such as Alonso de Contreras who took the role of harassing the Ottoman sailing. Michael continued his attacks deep within the Ottoman Empire, taking the forts of Nicopolis, Ribnic, at one point his forces were only 24 kilometres from the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. The push was successful, managing to capture not only Giurgiu but Bucharest and Târgovişte. At this point the Ottoman command grew complacent and stopped pursuing the retreating Wallachian army, focusing instead on fortifying Târgovişte and Bucharest and considering their task all, the Battle of Giurgiu in particular was devastating for the Ottoman forces, which had to retreat across the Danube in disarray. The war between Wallachia and the Ottomans continued until late 1599, when Michael was unable to continue the war due to support from his allies. The turning point of the war was the Battle of Mezőkeresztes, the combined Habsburg-Transylvanian force of 45–50,000 troops was defeated by the Ottoman army
Battle of Marciano
The Battle of Marciano occurred in the countryside of Marciano della Chiana, near Arezzo, Tuscany, on August 2,1554, during the Italian War of 1551. The battle marked the defeat of the Republic of Siena in its war against the Duchy of Florence, and resulted in Siena losing its independence and being absorbed into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In 1554, Cosimo I de Medici, with the support of Emperor Charles V, launched a campaign to conquer Florences last remaining rival in Tuscany. His army was under the command of Gian Giacomo Medici, Marquess of Marignano, the Sienese entrusted the defence to Piero Strozzi, a fierce rival of the Medici family and a general in French service. French troops, as well as some Florentine exiled by the Medici, the Florentine troops approached Siena on the night of January 26,1554. After an initial failed assault, the Marquess of Marignano laid siege to the city, both Baglioni and Montauto failed to capture Pienza and Grosseto. French ships harassed the Florentine resupply lines at Piombino, Cosimo replied to the initial setbacks by hiring Ascanio della Cornia with 6,000 infantry and 300 cavalry, and waiting for further Imperial reinforcements.
On June 11, Strozzi attempted a sally to relieve the pressure on Siena and he moved towards Pontedera, forcing Medeghino to raise the siege to follow him. This did not prevent Strozzi from joining with a French contingent with 3,500 infantry,700 horse and 4 cannons in the territory of Lucca and his brother, Leone Strozzi, had been killed by an arquebus ball in the course of the struggle for Grosseto. Strozzi therefore marched back to Siena, where the situation had become desperate. In July, he failed to capture Piombino, in southern Tuscany and his field army included 14,000 infantry, about 1,000 cavalry, and five guns. His force easily overwhelmed the small Florentine garrisons on his way, although the attempt, on July 20 and he managed to capture Lucignano, Marciano della Chiana and other centres in the following days. After some days of inactivity, Medeghino raised the siege of Siena, after some initial skirmishes, the two large armies clashed when Strozzi, short of food, decided to retire towards Lucignano in the night of August 1.
Strozzis army occupied the slope of a hill that descended towards the Scannagallo creek. Il Medeghino deployed 1,200 light cavalry on his left wing, the centre infantry corps was composed by 2,000 Spanish veterans and other Corsican recruits and 4,000 German Landsknechts under Niccolò Madruzzo. The right wing was formed by 4,000 Tuscan,2,000 Spanish and 3,000 Roman poorly trained infantry, the reserve included 200 Spanish soldiers, veterans of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, and a company of horse arquebusiers from Naples. The battle began with the attack of the Medeghinos cavalry wing, whose impetus easily routed its French-Sienese counterpart and it has been reported that the French commanders of that unit and Fourquevaux, had been bribed by the Medeghino with 12 tin flasks filled with golden coins. To counter this first setback, Strozzi decided to launch down from the hill the German infantry of his center
Conquest of Tunis (1535)
The Conquest of Tunis in 1535 was an attack on Tunis, under the control of the Ottoman Empire, by the Habsburg Empire of Charles V and its allies. In 1533, Suleiman the Magnificent ordered Hayreddin Barbarossa, whom he had summoned from Algiers, altogether 70 galleys were built during the winter of 1533–1534, manned by slave oarsmen, including 2,000 Jewish ones. Barbarossa thus established a naval base in Tunis, which could be used for raids in the region. The expense involved for Charles V was considerable, and at 1,000,000 ducats was on par with the cost of Charles campaign against Suleiman on the Danube. Despite a request by Charles V, Francis I denied French support to the expedition, Francis I was under negotiations with Suleiman the Magnificent for a combined attack on Charles V, following the 1534 Ottoman embassy to France. Francis I only agreed to Pope Paul IIIs request that no fight between Christians occur during the time of the expedition. On 1 June 1535, protected by a Genoese fleet, Charles V destroyed Barbarossas fleet and, after a costly yet successful siege at La Goletta, in the ruins, the Spanish found cannonballs with the French Fleur-de-lys mark, evidence of the contacts stemming from the Franco-Ottoman alliance.
The resulting massacre of the city left an estimated 30,000 dead, Barbarossa managed to flee to Algiers with a troop of several thousand Turks. Muley Hasan was restored to his throne, the stench of the corpses was such that Charles V soon left Tunis and moved his camp to Radès. Furthermore, he was Holy Roman Emperor and had de jure control over much of Germany as well, Ottoman defeat in Tunis motivated the Ottoman Empire to enter into a formal alliance with France against the Habsburg Empire. Ambassador Jean de La Forêt was sent to Constantinople, and for the first time was able to become permanent ambassador at the Ottoman court, Charles V celebrated a neo-classical triumph over the infidel at Rome on April 5,1536 in commemoration of his victory at Tunis. He Spanish governor of La Goulette, Luys Peres Varga, built fortified the island of Chikly in the lake of Tunis to strengthen the defences between 1546 and 1550. Barbarossa managed to escape to the harbour of Bône, where a fleet was waiting for him, from there, he sailed to accomplish the Sack of Mahon, where he took 6,000 slaves and brought them to Algiers.
The Ottomans responded by recapturing the city in 1574, however the Ottoman governors of Tunis were semi-autonomous Beys who acted as privateers against Christian shipping. Grant, R. G.2005 La Marina Cántabra,1968 Cervantes Virtual Roger Crowley, Empires of the sea,2008 Faber & Faber ISBN 978-0-571-23231-4 Garnier, Edith LAlliance Impie Editions du Felin,2008, Paris ISBN 978-2-86645-678-8 Interview
Siege of Castelnuovo
Castelnuovo had been conquered by elements of various Spanish tercios the year before during the failed campaign of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean waters. The walled town was besieged by land and sea by a powerful Ottoman army under Hayreddin Barbarossa, during the siege the Barbarossas army suffered heavy losses due to the stubborn resistance of Sarmientos men. However, Castelnuovo eventually fell into Ottoman hands and almost all the Spanish defenders, the loss of the town ended the Christian attempt to regain control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The courage displayed by the Old Tercio of Naples, was praised and admired throughout Europe and was the subject of numerous poems, in 1538 the main danger to Christianity in Europe was the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. The armies of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had been stopped at Vienna in 1529, Barbarossa captured the islands of Syros, Ios, Tinos, Kasos and besieged Corfu. The Italian cities of Otranto and Ugento and the fortress of Castro, in February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in creating a league which united the Papacy itself, the Republic of Venice, the Empire of Charles V, the Archduchy of Austria and the Knights of Malta.
The Allied fleet for the campaign was supposed to consist of 200 galleys and another 100 auxiliary ships, but only 130 galleys and an army of around 15,000 infantry, mostly Spaniards, were all that could be gathered. The commander of the army was unquestionably Hernando Gonzaga, Viceroy of Sicily, differences among the commanders of the fleet diminished its effectiveness against an experienced opponent like Barbarossa. This was seen in the Battle of Preveza, fought in the Gulf of Arta, but the Holy League fleet provided support to the land forces that landed on the Dalmatian coast and captured the town of Castelnuovo. This small town was a strategic fortress between the Venetian possessions of Cattaro and Ragusa in the known as Venetian Albania. Venice therefore claimed ownership of the city, but Charles V refused to cede it and this was the beginning of the end of the Holy League. The town of Castelnuovo was garrisoned with approximately 4,000 men, the main force was a tercio of Spanish veteran soldiers numbering about 3,500 men under the experienced Maestro de Campo Francisco Sarmiento de Mendoza y Manuel.
This tercio, named Tercio of Castelnuovo, was formed by 15 flags belonging to other tercios, among them the Old Tercio of Lombardy, dissolved the year before after a mutiny for lack of pay. The chaplain of Andrea Doria, named Jeremías, remained in Castelnuovo along with 40 clerics, the reason for the garrisons large size was that Castelnuovo was projected to be the beachhead for a great offensive against the heart of the Ottoman Empire. However, the fate of the troops who were in the fortress depended entirely on the support of the fleet, moreover, in a short time Venice withdrew from the Holy League after accepting a disadvantageous agreement with the Ottomans. Without Venetian ships, the Allied fleet had no chance to defeat the Ottoman fleet commanded by Barbarossa, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ordered Barbarossa to reorganize and rearm his fleet during the winter months to have it ready for the battle in the spring of 1539. 10,000 infantry soldiers and 4,000 Janissaries were embarked aboard the warships to reinforce the troops of the galleys, meanwhile, used the peaceful months prior to the siege to improve the defenses of the town, repairing walls and bastions and building new fortifications.
In the event he could not do due to a lack of available means