A siege tower or breaching tower is a specialized siege engine, constructed to protect assailants and ladders while approaching the defensive walls of a fortification. Because the towers were wooden and thus flammable, they had to have some non-flammable covering of iron. Taking considerable time to construct, siege towers were mainly built if the defense of the fortification could not be overcome by ladder assault. The siege tower sometimes housed spearmen, swordsmen, archers or crossbowmen who shot arrows, because of the size of the tower it would often be the first target of large stone catapults but it had its own projectiles with which to retaliate. Siege towers were used to get troops over an enemy curtain wall, when a siege tower was near a wall, it would drop a gangplank between it and the wall. Troops could rush onto the walls and into the castle or city, the oldest known siege towers were used by the armies of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th century BC, under Ashurnasirpal II. Reliefs from his reign, and subsequent reigns, depict siege towers in use with a number of siege works, including ramps.
Centuries after they were employed in Assyria, the use of the siege spread throughout the Mediterranean. The biggest siege towers of antiquity, such as the Helepolis of the siege of Rhodes in 305 BC, could be as high as 135 feet, such large engines would require a rack and pinion to be moved effectively. It was manned by 200 soldiers and was divided into nine stories, subsequent siege towers down through the centuries often had similar engines. But this huge tower was defeated by the defenders by flooding the ground in front of the wall, the siege of Rhodes illustrates the important point that the larger siege towers needed level ground. Many castles and hill-top towns and forts were virtually invulnerable to siege tower attack simply due to topography, smaller siege towers might be used on top of siege-mounds, made of earth and timber mounds in order to overtop a defensive wall. The remains of such a siege-ramp at Masada, for example, has survived almost 2,000 years and can still be seen today.
On the other hand, almost all the largest cities were on large rivers, or the coast, the tower for such a target might be prefabricated elsewhere and brought dismantled to the target city by water. One of the oldest references to the siege tower in Ancient China was a written dialogue primarily discussing naval warfare. Before labeling the types of warships used, Zixu said, Nowadays in training naval forces we use the tactics of land forces for the best effect. With the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West into independent states, and the Eastern Roman Empire on the defensive, the use of siege towers reached its height during the medieval period. At this siege the attackers made use of sows - mobile armoured shelters which were used throughout the medieval period, the construction of a sloping talus at the base of a castle wall could have reduced the effectiveness of this tactic to an extent
Battle of the Sabis
Julius Caesar, commanding the Roman forces, was surprised and nearly defeated. According to Caesars report, a combination of determined defence, skilled generalship, during the winter of 58-57 BC rumours came to Caesars ears that the Belgic tribes were forming a union because they feared possible Roman interference in their affairs. These reports provided Caesar with a pretext for conquering more than Gaul itself. In response, the other Belgic and Celtic tribes had attacked Bibrax, Caesar countered by defending the oppidum and winning an action at the Aisne. Caesar continued his advance and tribes surrendered one by one, four tribes, the Nervii, the Atrebates, the Aduatuci and the Viromandui refused to submit. The Ambiani told Caesar that the Nervii were the most hostile of the Belgae to Roman rule, a fierce and brave tribe, they did not allow the import of luxury items as they believed these had a corrupting effect and probably feared Roman influence. They had no intention of entering negotiations with the Romans.
Caesar would move on them next, as with all ancient battles, estimates of the forces available to both sides will always be a matter of some speculation. A Roman legion at this period had an establishment of some 4,800 fighting men with additional auxiliary forces. Eight Roman legions took part in the battle and it is not known if they were at full strength, but a reasonable estimate might be in the region of 42,000 men. Caesar claims he had received intelligence from the Remi that the various tribes of the Belgae had promised to contribute a total of 300,000 fighting men. According to Caesar the Remi estimates of the men promised by the four tribes now left to oppose Caesar were,50,000 Nervii,15,000 Atrebates,10,000 Veromandui and 19,000 Aduatuci. If these figures were reliable it would mean that Caesar was immediately faced with a maximum of 75,000 men, promises are not always kept so it is probable the actual number was smaller than this, though still high enough to outnumber the legionaries.
Caesars legions had been marching in Nervian territory for three days, following an ancient road and he learnt from prisoners that the Belgae were massing on the far side of the River Sabis, which was about 10 miles ahead. The Nervii had persuaded the Atrebates and the Veromandui to support them, the Aduatuci were marching to join them, but they did not arrive in time to take part in the battle. Their non-combatants had moved to an area screened by marshes. The Belgae had made their preparations and were now waiting for the Romans, Caesar sent forward experienced scouts to choose the next campsite. He learnt from prisoners taken that sympathisers in the ragtag of surrendered Belgae and other Gauls travelling with the army had gone to the Nervii and it was believed this would intimidate the Romans into withdrawing
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms, an individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used animals, such as camels. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height, another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent. In Europe cavalry became increasingly armoured, and eventually became known for the mounted knights, in the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, modern usage of the term generally refers to specialist units equipped with tanks or aircraft.
The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the armored designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was largely performed by light chariots, the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Persian Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC, at this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was more difficult than mere riding. The cavalry acted in pairs, the reins of the archer were controlled by his neighbours hand. Even at this time, cavalry used swords, shields. The sculpture implies two types of cavalry, but this might be a simplification by the artist, Later images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse.
As early as 490 BC a breed of horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour. However, chariots remained in use for purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph. The southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, the last mention of chariot use in battle was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were usually limited to citizens who could afford expensive war-horses
Ambiorixs revolt was an episode during the Gallic Wars between 54 and 53 BC in which the Eburones tribe, under its leader, rebelled against the Roman Republic. Fifteen Roman cohorts were wiped out at Atuatuca Tungrorum and a garrison commanded by Quintus Tullius Cicero narrowly survived after being relieved by Caesar in the nick of time. The rest of 53 BC was occupied with a campaign against the Eburones and their allies. In 57 BC Julius Caesar conquered Gaul and Belgica In the battle of the Sabis Caesar defeated the Nervii, after this he turned against the Atuatuci, captured their stronghold, and sold the tribe into slavery. The Eburones, who until Caesars destruction of the Atuatuci were vassals of that Belgic tribe, were ruled by Ambiorix and Catuvolcus. In 54 BC there was a poor harvest, and Caesar, to the Eburones he sent Quintus Titurius Sabinus and Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta with the command of a recently levied legion from north of the Po and a detachment of five cohorts. Ambiorix and his tribesmen attacked and killed several Roman soldiers who were foraging for wood in the nearby vicinity, the survivors fled back to their camp, followed by Ambiorix and his men.
The Roman representatives, Quintus Junius, a Spaniard and Gaius Arpineius, a council of war, attended by the leading officers and NCOs, was formed. During this council, two opposing opinions took form, speaking first, Cotta argued that they should not move without an order from Caesar. Moreover, he said it would be better to make for a nearby legion, the officers told their commanders that whichever view prevailed was not as important as coming to a unanimous decision. Cotta was finally forced to give way and Sabinus prevailed, the Romans spent the night in disarray, putting together their belongings and preparing to march out of the Fort once morning came. The enemy heard the hubbub in the Fort and prepared an ambush, when dawn broke, the Romans, in marching order, more heavily burdened than usual left the Fort. When the greater part of the column had entered a ravine, Caesar notes that Sabinus lost his mind, running from cohort to cohort and issuing ineffectual orders. Cotta, by contrast, kept his cool and did his duty as a commander, due to the length of the column, the commanders could not issue orders efficiently so they passed word along the line to the units to form into a square.
The troops fought bravely though with fear and in clashes were successful, Ambiorix ordered his men to discharge their spears into the troops, to fall back if bested and chase back the Romans when they tried to fall into rank. During the engagement, Cotta was hit full in the face by a sling-shot, Sabinus sent word to Ambiorix to treat for surrender. Cotta refused to come to terms and remained steadfast in his refusal to surrender, however, followed through with his plan to surrender. However, after promising Sabinus his life and the safety of his troops, had him surrounded, the Gauls charged down en masse onto the waiting Romans where they killed Cotta, still fighting, and the great majority of the troops
Uxellodunum is an iron age hill fort, or oppidum, located above the river Dordogne near the modern-day French village of Vayrac in the Lot department. This stronghold lay within the lands of the Cadurci tribe, according to Aulus Hirtius in his addendum to Julius Caesars Commentaries on the Gallic War, the last revolt against Romes authority in Gaul occurred here, and was brutally punished. The name apparently means high fort, dun is a Celtic word for fort which is to be found in many place-names, the main source of information about the siege in 51 BC is Book 8 of the Commentaries on the Gallic War. The siege is mentioned briefly by the engineer Sextus Julius Frontinus in his book Stratagems, the siege began after Lucterius, the leader of the Cadurci, and Drapes from the Senones, prepared Uxellodunum against a Roman assault. Caesars commander in the area, the legate Gaius Caninius Rebilus, informed by letter of the situation, Caesar decided to take personal charge of the siege. So he decided to all others by making an example of the defenders of Uxellodunum.
All who had borne arms had their hands cut off and were let go. There has been long-running controversy as to the location of Uxellodunum, charles Athanase Walckenaer asserted that Uxellodunum was to be identified with the village of Capdenac on the Lot River. However, archaeological work has since validated the theory that the oppidum in question was at Puy dIssolud, weapons have been found there and features which have been interpreted as relating to the water transfer described in the historical account of the siege. This site was recognised by the French Ministry of Culture in 2001. Various finds from Puy dIssolud are displayed in Martel, Lot at the Musée dUxellodunum, housed in a historic building, there is a Musée Uxellodunum in Vayrac. There have been proposals to develop quality tourism at the site itself, which as at 2008 lacked interpretative material for the visitor
Battle of Bibracte
The Battle of Bibracte was fought between the Helvetii and six Roman legions, under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar. It was the major battle of the Gallic Wars. After following the migration of the Helvetii and defeating them, around 20 June, moved towards Bibracte to obtain the supplies promised by his allies, dumnorix, an Aedui chieftain opposed to the Romans, had been delaying supplies from reaching Caesars army. Informed by deserters of Lucius Æmilius, commander of the cavalry, when Caesar observed this, he sent his cavalry to delay the attack. The baggage train was assembled near the summit, where it could be guarded by the forces present there. After having driven off Caesars cavalry and with their own baggage train secured, according to Caesar, his hill-top battle line easily threw back the Helvetii onslaught by using pila. The legions counterattacked, driving the Helvetii back towards the hill where their baggage train sat. While the legions pursued the Helvetii across the plain in between the hills, the Boii and Tulingi arrived with fifteen men to assist the Helvetii.
At that point the Helvetii returned to the battle in earnest, the battle lasted many hours into the night until the Romans finally took the Helvetic baggage train, capturing both a daughter and son of Orgetorix. According to Caesar,130,000 enemy personnel escaped into the night, unable to pursue on account of battle wounds and the time it took to bury the dead, Caesar rested three days before he followed the fleeing Helvetii. These, in turn, had managed to reach the territory of the Lingones within four days of the battle, Caesar warned the Lingones to not assist them, prompting the Helvetii and their allies to finally surrender. Caesar claimed that 130,000 of the Helvetii and her allies escaped yet only 110,000 returned home. Also according to Caesar the census totals of the tribes at the start of the war were, Battle of Bibracte in German, new Haven, Yale University Press,2007. Caesars Gallic War - direct translation from Latin
Narbonne is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region. It lies 849 km from Paris in the Aude department, of which it is a sub-prefecture, once a prosperous port, and a major city in Roman times, it is now located about 15 km from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is marginally the largest commune in Aude, although the prefecture is the slightly smaller commune of Carcassonne, Narbonne is linked to the nearby Canal du Midi and the Aude River by the Canal de la Robine, which runs through the centre of town. The towns original name is very ancient, the earliest known record of its original name is by the Greek Hecataeus of Miletus in the fifth century BC. In ancient inscriptions the name is rendered in Latin and sometimes translated into Iberian as Nedhena. Narbonne was established in Gaul by the Romans in 118 BC, as Colonia Narbo Martius and it was located on the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, built at the time of the foundation of the colony, and connecting Italy to Spain.
In addition, it was crossed by the Aude River, surviving members of Julius Caesars Legio X Equestris were given lands in the area that today is called Narbonne. Politically, Narbonne gained importance as a competitor to Massalia, Julius Caesar settled veterans from his 10th Legion there and attempted to develop its port while Marseille was supporting Pompey. Among the amenities of Narbonne, its rosemary-flower honey was famous among Romans, the province of Transalpine Gaul was renamed Gallia Narbonensis after the city, which became its capital. Seat of an administration, the city enjoyed economic and architectural expansion. At that point, the city is thought to have had 30, 000–50,000 inhabitants, according to Hydatius, in 462 the city was handed over to the Visigoths by a local military leader in exchange for support, as a result Roman rule ended in the city. It was subsequently the capital of the Visigothic province of Septimania, for 40 years, from 719, Narbonne was part of the Umayyad Empire with a strong Gothic presence.
The Carolingian Pepin the Short conquered Narbonne from the Muslims in 759 after which it part of the Carolingian Viscounty of Narbonne. He invited, according to Christian sources, prominent Jews from the Caliphate of Bagdad to settle in Narbonne, in the 12th century, the court of Ermengarde of Narbonne presided over one of the cultural centers where the spirit of courtly love was developed. In the 11th and 12th centuries, Narbonne was home to an important Jewish exegetical school, Jews had settled in Narbonne from about the 5th century, with a community that had risen to approximately 2000 in the 12th century. At this time, Narbonne was frequently mentioned in Talmudic works in connection with its scholars, one source, Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo, gives them an importance similar to the exilarchs of Babylon. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the community went through a series of ups, Narbonne itself fell into a slow decline in the 14th century, for a variety of reasons. One was due to a change in the course of the Aude River, the Aude river had a long history of overflowing its banks
Battle of Magetobriga
The Battle of Magetobriga was fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul. The Aedui tribe was defeated and massacred by the forces of their hereditary rivals. The Sequani and Arverni enlisted the aid of the German Suebi tribe under their king Ariovistus, following their defeat, the Aedui sent envoys to the Roman Senate, their traditional ally, for aid. The Roman general Julius Caesar would subsequently use their request for aid as a basis for launching his conquest of Gaul, according to Strabo, the cause of the conflict between the Haedui and Sequani was commercial. The Arar River formed part of the border between the hereditary rivals, each tribe claimed the Arar and the tolls on trade along it. The Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests, in 63 BC the Sequani and Arverni secured the aid of Ariovistus, a king of the Germanic Suebi tribe, to settle the hereditary dispute. Ariovistus crossed the Rhine with a confederation of Germanic tribes, the Battle of Magetobriga, the final battle between the Aedui and their enemies, took place close to the Sequani town of Magetobria 10 km from Luxeuil.
Ariovistus 15,000 Germanic tribesmen turned the tide, and the Aedui became tributary to the Sequani, in return, Ariovistus was promised land grants in Gaul. In 63 BC, following the Aeduis defeat at Magetobriga, the Aedui druid Diviciacus travelled to Rome, while in Rome, Diviciacus was a guest of Cicero, who spoke of his knowledge of divination and natural philosophy, and names him as a druid. Cicero wrote in 60 BC of a defeat sustained by the Haedui, N public affairs for the moment the chief subject of interest is the disturbance in Gaul. For the Haedui—our brethren—have recently fought a battle, and the Helvetii are undoubtedly in arms. In the wake of victory, and to the dismay of his allies, according to Caesar, he seized a third of the Sequani territory and proceeded to settle 120,000 Germani there as the nucleus of a new Germanic kingdom. That move left the Sequani between him and the Jura mountains, not a situation for either if they were not going to be allies. Ariovistus made the decision to out the Sequani from the strategic Doubs valley.
He demanded a further third of Celtic land for his allies the Harudes, Caesar makes it clear that Germanic tribes were actually in the land of the Sequani and were terrorizing them. They are said to all the oppida, but this statement is not entirely true. Presumably, the country to the north of there was under Germanic control, following Caesar’s victory over the Helvetii, the majority of the Gallic tribes congratulated Caesar and sought to meet with him in a general assembly. The Aeduan Druid and statesment Diviciacus, acting as spokesmen for the Gallic delegation, the Gallic request afforded Caesar the perfect pretext to expand his intervention as the savior and not the conqueror of Gaul
Archery is the sport, practice or skill of using a bow to propel arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus, archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity, a person who participates in archery is typically called an archer or a bowman, and a person who is fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite. The bow and arrow seems to have invented in the Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10, 000–9000 BC. The arrows were made of pine and consisted of a mainshaft, there are no definite earlier bows, previous pointed shafts are known, but may have been launched by spear-throwers rather than bows. The oldest bows known so far come from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark and arrows have been present in Egyptian culture since its predynastic origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered Khiam-points may well be arrowheads.
Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Parthians, Koreans, akkadians were the first to use composite bows in war according to the victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. The Welsh longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy, in the Americas archery was widespread at European contact. Archery was highly developed in Asia, the Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of skilled archers. Central Asian tribesmen and American Plains Indians became extremely adept at archery on horseback, lightly armoured, but highly mobile archers were excellently suited to warfare in the Central Asian steppes, and they formed a large part of armies that repeatedly conquered large areas of Eurasia. Shorter bows are more suited to use on horseback, and the bow enabled mounted archers to use powerful weapons. It is possible that barbarian peoples were responsible for introducing archery or certain types of bows to their civilized counterparts—the Xiong-nu, short bows seem to have been introduced to Japan by northeast Asian groups.
The development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare, albeit efforts were made to preserve archery practice. In Wales and England, for example, the government tried to practice with the Longbow until the end of the 16th century. This was because it was recognised that the bow had been instrumental to military success during the Hundred Years War, early firearms were inferior in rate-of-fire, and were very susceptible to wet weather
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Gallia Aquitania, known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire. It lies in present-day southwest France, where it gives its name to the region of Aquitaine. It was bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, fourteen Celtic tribes and twenty Aquitanian tribes occupied the northern parts of the Pyrenees and, from the country of the Cemmenus to the ocean, bounded by two rivers, the Garumna and the Liger. The major tribes are listed at the end of this section, most of the Atlantic coast of the Aquitani was sandy and thin-soiled, it grew millet, but was unproductive with respect to other products. Along this coast was the gulf held by the Tarbelli, in their land, large quantities of gold could be mined with a minimum of refinement. The interior and mountainous country in this region had better soil, the Petrocorii and the Bituriges Cubi had fine ironworks, the Cadurci had linen factories, the Ruteni and the Gabales had silver mines. According to Strabo, the Aquitani were a wealthy people, the Romans called the tribal groups pagi.
These were organized into larger groups that the Romans called civitates. These administrative groupings were taken over by the Romans in their system of local control, Gaul as a nation was not a natural unit. In order to protect the route to Spain, Rome helped Massalia against bordering tribes, following this intervention, the Romans conquered what they called Provincia, or the ‘Province’ in 121 BC. Provincia extended from the Mediterranean to Lake Geneva, and was known as Narbonensis with its capital at Narbo. Some of the falls into modern Provence, still recalling the Roman name. The main struggle against the Romans came against Julius Caesar under Vercingetorix at Battle of Gergovia, the Gaulish commander was captured at the siege of Alesia and the war ended. Caesar seized the remainder of Gaul, justifying his conquest by playing on Roman memories of savage attacks over the Alps by Celts, italy was now to be defended from the Rhine. Caesar named Aquitania the triangle shaped territory between the Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Garonne river and he fought and almost completely subdued them in 56 BC after Publius Crassuss military exploits assisted by Celtic allies.
New rebellions ensued anyway up to 27-28 BC, with Agrippa gaining a victory over the Gauls of Aquitania in 38 BC. It was the smallest region of all three mentioned above, following that a land stretching to the Loire River was added by Augustus. This reorganization took place after the census conducted in 27 BC, based on Agrippas observations of language, race, at this point, Aquitania along with Narbonensis and Belgica now made up Gallia and became an imperial province
Balista was the praetorian prefect under Valerian. After Persians defeated and captured that emperor in the Battle of Edessa, a body of Roman troops was rallied by an officer, Macrianus. Joined by Odaenathus, the Lord of Palmyra, they routed the Persian army that was returning from the ravaging of Cilicia, Macrianus proclaimed his sons and Quietus, as emperors. He stayed with Quietus in the East, while Macrianus and his son moved with the army against the West. In the Balkans, Macriani were routed by the commander of Roman cavalry, Aureolus, a loyal to Gallienus. Then Gallienus invited Odenathus to turn against his allies, Ballista. Neither the time nor manner of Balistas death can be ascertained with certainty, but it is believed to have happened about November 261, another suggestion is that they were killed by their own men at Emesa. Ballista is the hero of the Warrior of Rome novels by Harry Sidebottom, Ballista is the protagonist of a series of historical novels, Warrior of Rome, by Harry Sidebottom