Reinhold Begas was a German sculptor. Begas was born in son of the painter Carl Joseph Begas, he received his early education studying under Ludwig Wilhelm Wichmann. During a period of study in Italy, from 1856 to 1858, he was influenced by Arnold Böcklin and Franz von Lenbach in the direction of a naturalistic style in sculpture; this tendency was marked in the group Borussia, executed for the facade of the exchange in Berlin, which first brought him into general notice. In 1861 Begas was appointed professor at the art school at Weimar, but retained the appointment only a few months; that he was chosen, after competition, to execute the statue of Friedrich Schiller for the Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin, was a high tribute to the fame he had acquired, the result, one of the finest statues in the German metropolis justified his selection. Since the year 1870, Begas dominated the plastic art in the Kingdom of Prussia, but in Berlin. Among his chief works during this period are the colossal statue of Borussia for the Hall of Glory.
Centaur and Nymph Mercury and Psyche Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Begas, Reinhold". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Reinhold Begas at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about Reinhold Begas at Internet Archive
Eugen Boermel spelled Börmel was a German sculptor and inventor. Although born in East Prussia, he spent his youth in Berlin, he began his artistic training in 1874, under Eduard Lürssen at the Prussian Academy of Arts, continuing with Albert Wolff and Fritz Schaper. From 1878 to 1879, he attended the Master Class of Reinhold Begas on a state scholarship; that year he married, obtained a position in the studios of Otto Lessing and remained there for ten years, exhibiting at the Academy. In 1889, he soon attracted many large commissions. In 1896, he was awarded a contract for the monumental Siegesallee project being organized by Kaiser Wilhelm II; this honor was not achieved however, as slanderous letters were directed against him, hateful anti-semitic comments were made about his wife, a scandal soon developed. The Kaiser directed Reinhold Begas to make sure. Boermel won approval upon the recommendation of August zu Eulenburg, the Minister of the Royal Houses, he produced Group 14, consisting of Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg as the center statue, flanked by Lippold von Bredow, the Landeshauptmann of Mittelmark, Bernd Ryke, who served several terms as Mayor of Berlin in the late Fourteenth and early Fifteenth Centuries.
The figures were dedicated on 6 May 1900. Critical reception was devastating, with one commentator labelling them some of the worst on the entire avenue. More thoughtful voices pinpointed the problem as a misguided effort to render smaller designs on a grandiose scale. In October 1899, several of the early busts were vandalized by critics who derisively referred to the Siegesallee as the "Puppenallee", an event referred to as the "Marmorattentat". In response, Boermel designed a device composed of collapsible iron bars with steel tips to protect the statues, but the Kaiser chose to go with heavy iron chains instead. All the figures on the Siegesallee were damaged during World War II and are now on display at the Spandau Citadel, he was an occasional writer, producing some dramatic works and essays on subjects such as "The Artist and Public Corporations" and "How is the Further Development of Monumental Statuary Possible?". Technology attracted his interest and he held several patents related to seismic engineering.
Little is known for certain about the last twenty years of his life, except that he continued to work from his personal studio in Grünewald. There is much disagreement over whether or not he attained the title of "Professor", although he is listed under that title in the official Berlin address book of 1932, the year he died; some sources indicate that the Kaiser awarded him the Order of the Crown, fourth class, in place of a professorship, others say that he became a Professor in 1904. 1897 Berlin, "Krieg und Frieden" figure group for the National Kaiser Wilhelm Monument 1901 Berlin, Prince Albert of Prussia Monument 1903 Danzig, Equestrian statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I 1908 Augsburg-Göggingen, Monument for Friedrich Hessing, a pioneer in the practice of orthopedic surgery, at the Hessing-Klinik 1911, Emperor Franz-Joseph Monument 1913 Berlin, Bust of Ernst Viktor von Leyden, at the Charité, Schumannstraße Peter Bloch, Sibylle Einholz, Jutta von Simson Ethos & Pathos – Die Berliner Bildhauerschule 1786–1914, Vol. 1 Ausstellungskatalog.
Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-7861-1597-4. Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-7861-1598-2 Hans-Jörg Jechel: Reiterdenkmäler Kaiser Wilhelm I.. Bonn 2010 Uta Lehnert: Der Kaiser und die Siegesallee. Réclame Royale. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-496-01189-0. New York Times 1/24/1909 "Professor Boermel Plans Buildings Which, He Declares, Will Be Earthquake Proof". Scientific American 2/1/1902 "Modeling in Black Sand" Wilhelm I Monument @ Akademia Rzygaczy
Contrapposto is an Italian term that means counterpoise. It is used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs; this alternatively relaxed appearance. It can be used to refer to multiple figures which are in counter-pose to one another, it can further encompass the tension as a figure changes from resting on a given leg to walking or running upon it. The leg that carries the weight of the body is known as the engaged leg, the relaxed leg is known as the free leg. Contrapposto is less emphasized than the more sinuous S Curve, creates the illusion of past and future movement. Contrapposto was an important sculptural development, for its appearance marks the first time in Western art that the human body is used to express a psychological disposition; the balanced, harmonious pose of the Kritios Boy suggests a calm and relaxed state of mind, an evenness of temperament, part of the ideal of man represented.
From this point onwards Greek sculptors went on to explore how the body could convey the whole range of human experience, culminating in the desperate anguish and pathos of Laocoön and His Sons in the Hellenistic period. The first known statue to use contrapposto is Kritios Boy, c. 480 BC, so called because it was once attributed to the sculptor Kritios. It is possible likely, that earlier bronze statues had used the technique, but if they did, they have not survived and Kenneth Clark called the statue "the first beautiful nude in art"; the statue is a Greek marble original and not a Roman copy. Prior to the introduction of contrapposto, the statues that dominated ancient Greece were the archaic kouros and the kore. Contrapposto has been used since the dawn of classical western sculpture. According to the canon of the Classical Greek Sculptor Polykleitos in the 4th century BC, it is one of the most important characteristics of his figurative works and those of his successors, Skopas, etc; the Polykletian statues – for example and Doryphoros – are idealized athletic young men with the divine sense, captured in contrapposto.
In these works, the pelvis is no longer axial with the vertical statue as in the archaic style of earlier Greek sculpture before Kritios Boy. Contrapposto can be seen in the Roman copies of the statues of Hermes and Heracles. A famous example is the marble statue of Hermes with the infant Dionysus in Olympia by Praxiteles, it can be seen in the Roman copies of Polyclitus's Amazon. Greek art emphasized humanism along with the human body's beauty. Greek youths competed in athletic contests in the nude. A great contribution to the contrapposto pose was the concept of a canon of proportions, in which mathematical properties are used to create proportions. Classical contrapposto was revived in the Renaissance by the Italian artists Donatello and Leonardo da Vinci, followed by Michelangelo and other artists of the High Renaissance. One of the major achievements of the Italian Renaissance was the re-discovery of contrapposto, although in Mannerism it became over-used; the technique continues to be employed in sculpture.
Examples of contrapposto Greek statue S Curve References SourcesAndrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works Polykleitos of Argos, 16.72 Polykleitos, The J. Paul Getty Museum Polyclitus, 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Teufelsberg is a man-made hill in Berlin, Germany, in the Grunewald locality of former West Berlin. It rises about 80 metres above the surrounding Teltow plateau and 120.1 metres above the sea level, in the north of Berlin's Grunewald Forest. It was named after the Teufelssee in its southerly vicinity; the hill is made of rubble, covers an under-construction Nazi military-technical college. During the Cold War, there was a U. S. listening station on the hill, Field Station Berlin. Teufelsberg is a man-made hill, created in the 20 years following the Second World War by moving 75,000,000 m3 of debris from Berlin. After the Communist putsch in the city parliament of Greater Berlin in September 1948, separate parliaments and magistrates were formed for East and West Berlin; this ended much of the cooperation between West Berlin and the state of Brandenburg, surrounding West Berlin in the North and South. While part of the rubble from destroyed quarters in East Berlin was deposited outside the city boundary, all the debris from West Berlin had to be dumped within the western boundary.
Due to the shortage of fuel in West Berlin, the rubble transport stopped during the Berlin Blockade. Although there are many similar man-made rubble mounds in Germany and other war-torn cities of Europe, Teufelsberg is unique in that the never completed Nazi military-technical college designed by Albert Speer is buried beneath; the Allies tried using explosives to demolish the school, but it was so sturdy that covering it with debris turned out to be easier. In June 1950 the West Berlin Magistrate decided to open a new rubble disposal on that site; the disposal was planned for 12,000,000 m3. With the end of material shortages after the blockade, an average of 600 trucks deposited 6,800 m3 of material daily. On 14 November 1957, the ten millionth cubic metre arrived; the site was closed to dumping in 1972, leaving 26,000,000 m3 of debris, to a lesser extent construction waste. The Senate of Berlin opted to plant greenery on the hill as a beautification project. Teufelsberg was thought to be 115 metres high, which placed it at the same elevation as, was the highest point in West Berlin.
New measurements show that Teufelsberg is 120.1 metres high, making it higher than Großer Müggelberg. In February 1955, a 24 m long ski jump opened on the hill, designed by the ski jumper and architect Heini Klopfer. A larger ski jump opened March 1962, offering space for 5,000 spectators. Ski jumping ceased in 1969; the jumps were removed in 1999. Teufelsberg has been a location for several recent movies and television programmes, such as The Gamblers, Covert Affairs and We Are the Night in which the finale takes place on Teufelsberg; as in the whole of Grunewald Forest, wild boar roam the hill. The US National Security Agency built one of its largest listening stations atop the hill, rumoured to be part of the global ECHELON intelligence gathering network. "The Hill", as it was known colloquially by the many American soldiers who worked there around the clock and who commuted there from their quarters in the American Sector, was located in the British Sector. In July 1961, Mobile Allied listening units began operations on Teufelsberg, having surveyed various other locales throughout West Berlin in a search for the best vantage point for listening to Soviet, East German, other Warsaw Pact nations military traffic.
They found. This discovery led to a large structure being built atop the hill, which would come to be run by the NSA. Construction of a permanent facility was begun in October 1963. At the request of US government, the ski lifts were removed because they disturbed the signals; the station continued to operate until the fall of East Germany and the Berlin Wall, but after that the station was closed and the equipment removed. The buildings and antenna radomes still remain in place. During the NSA Operations some other curious things happened: It was noticed that during certain seasons the reception of radio signals was better than during the rest of the year. The'culprit' was found after a while: it was the Ferris wheel of the annual German-American Volksfest Festival on the Hüttenweg in Zehlendorf. From on, the Ferris wheel was left standing for some time after the festival was over. While there were rumors that the Americans had excavated a shaft down into the ruins beneath, never proven, was based on reports that those who maintained equipment in one of the first enclosed antenna structures accessed the upper levels of the inflated dome via an airlock that led to a "tunnel", embedded in the structure's central column.
Speculation as to what might have existed within the restricted area gave rise to rather elaborate but false rumors. In the 1990s, as Berlin experienced an economic boom after German reunification, a group of investors bought the former listening station area from the City of Berlin with the intention to build hotels and apartments. There was talk of preserving the listening station as a spy museum. Berlin's building boom produced a glut of buildings and the Teufelsberg
Albert the Bear
Albert the Bear was the first Margrave of Brandenburg from 1157 to his death and was Duke of Saxony between 1138 and 1142. Albert was the only son of Otto, Count of Ballenstedt, Eilika, daughter of Magnus Billung, Duke of Saxony, he inherited the valuable estates in northern Saxony of his father in 1123, on his mother's death, in 1142, succeeded to one-half of the lands of the house of Billung. Albert was a loyal vassal of his relation, Lothar I, Duke of Saxony, from whom, about 1123, he received the Margraviate of Lusatia, to the east. Albert's entanglements in Saxony stemmed from his desire to expand his inherited estates there. After the death of his brother-in-law, Henry II, Margrave of the Nordmark, who controlled a small area on the Elbe called the Saxon Northern March, in 1128, disappointed at not receiving this fief himself, attacked Udo V, Count of Stade, the heir, was deprived of Lusatia by Lothar. Udo, was said to have been assassinated by servants of Albert on 15 March 1130 near Aschersleben.
In spite of this, he went to Italy in 1132 in the train of the king, his services there were rewarded in 1134 by the investiture of the Northern March, again without a ruler. In 1138 Conrad III, the Hohenstaufen King of the Germans, deprived Albert's cousin and nemesis, Henry the Proud of his Saxon duchy, awarded to Albert if he could take it. After some initial success in his efforts to take possession, Albert was driven from Saxony, from his Northern march by a combined force of Henry and Jaxa of Köpenick, compelled to take refuge in south Germany; when peace was made with Henry in 1142, Albert renounced the Saxon duchy and received the counties of Weimar and Orlamünde. It was at this time that Albert was made Archchamberlain of the Empire, an office which afterwards gave the Margraves of Brandenburg the rights of a prince-elector. Once he was established in the Northern March, Albert's covetous eye lay on the thinly populated lands to the north and east. For three years he was occupied in campaigns against the Slavic Wends, who as pagans were considered fair game, whose subjugation to Christianity was the aim of the Wendish Crusade of 1147 in which Albert took part.
Albert was a part of the army. And at the end of the war, recovered Havelberg, lost since 983. Diplomatic measures were more successful, by an arrangement made with the last of the Wendish princes of Brandenburg, Pribislav of the Hevelli, Albert secured this district when the prince died in 1150. Taking the title "Margrave in Brandenburg", he pressed the "crusade" against the Wends, extended the area of his mark, encouraged German migration, established bishoprics under his protection, so became the founder of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1157, which his heirs — the House of Ascania — held until the line died out in 1320. In 1158 a feud with Henry's son, Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, was interrupted by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On his return in 1160, he, with the consent of his sons. In 1162 Albert accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to Italy, where he distinguished himself at the storming of Milan. In 1164 Albert joined a league of princes formed against Henry the Lion, peace being made in 1169, Albert divided his territories among his six sons.
He died on 13 November 1170 in Stendal, was buried at Ballenstedt. Albert's personal qualities won for him the cognomen of the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong hand, could pick what way was straightest among crooked things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg for one there, a conspicuous country since," says Carlyle, who called Albert "a restless, much-managing, wide-warring man." He is called by writers "the Handsome." Albert was married in 1124 to Sophie of Winzenburg and they had the following children: Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg Count Hermann I of Orlamünde Siegfried, Bishop of Brandenburg from 1173–1180, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, the first ranked prince, from 1180–1184 Heinrich, a canon in Magdeburg Count Albert of Ballenstedt Count Dietrich of Werben Count Bernhard of Anhalt, Duke of Saxony from 1180-1212 as Bernard III Hedwig, married to Otto II, Margrave of Meissen Daughter, married c. 1152 to Vladislav of Bohemia Adelheid, a nun in Lamspringe Gertrude, married in 1155 to Duke Diepold of Moravia Sybille, Abbess of Quedlinburg Eilika Thomas Carlyle, History of Friedrich ii Chapter iv: Albert the Bear The History Files: Rulers of Brandenburg
Gustav Heinrich Eberlein was a German sculptor and writer. He was the son of a border guard. At the age of eight, his family moved to Hannoversch Münden, which would be his home for the remainder of his life, despite many years spent elsewhere, his parents lacked the money to provide him with formal artistic training, so he obtained instruction wherever possible from the local goldsmith. In 1866, thanks to the patronage of a pastor who had recognized his talents, he was able to attend the Academy of Fine Arts in Nuremberg. In 1869, he went to Berlin on a scholarship. Three years another scholarship enabled him to study in Rome. Upon his return to Berlin, he received significant support from Martin Gropius. Despite growing success, the next decade was difficult, his three-year-old son died in 1882 his mother in 1888. This was followed by a divorce in 1891. A year he married the Countess Maria von Hertzberg, an aspiring young artist, was appointed a Professor at the Prussian Academy of Arts the year after that.
In 1900, he came out in strong opposition to the "Lex Heinze". That same year, all but a few of his figures were removed from display at the Great Berlin Exhibition, not only because of the law but probably, because of his support for French and Belgian sculptors. In fact, as tensions between Germany and its western neighbors grew, Eberlein's outspoken advocacy of peace and disarmament caused him to lose his public commissions, he was able to find work elsewhere, notably in South America, but his finances never recovered and he was divorced for a second time in 1912. The following year, he auctioned off most of his possessions in anticipation of emigrating, but those plans were put off because of World War I, he received some orders during the war and created a small museum at his studios in Berlin but, after the war, criticism was renewed. He was well known for his small figures and portrait sculpture and produced over 900 works; the majority of his larger bronze monuments were melted down during World War II.
Most of his 300 original plaster models were disposed of by the city of Münden after his death. In 1962, work related to a construction project revealed 80 figures and 11 paintings that were preserved and restored between 1983 and 1989. Many are now in the collection of Berlin, he was able to avert destitution only by adopting his housemaid as his daughter, ensuring that he would be cared for by her family. By the time of his death, he was nearly forgotten, he was buried at the Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof in Berlin. Altona, Germany - The Peace Berlin Tiergarten - Richard Wagner and Albert Lortzing monuments. Berlin Tiergarten - Figures for the Siegesallee project of Wilhelm II, he did two groups:Group 26. Group 30. Buenos Aires - "Monument to General José de San Martín and the Armies of Independence". Hannoversch Münden - Germania Statue; this was the result of an aggressive advertising campaign by the foundry, which included the statue in its catalog. Montevideo - Figures in the Second Concourse of the "Monument to Artigas".
Rome - Goethe monument. Santiago - "German Fountain", Plaza de Armas. Tilsit - Statue of Queen Louise Various statues of Wilhelm I in Arnsberg, Gera, Krefeld, Mannheim, Mönchengladbach and Wuppertal. "As a German sculptor views New York's architecture". The American Architect and Building News. James R. Osgood & Company. 94: 78-79. 1908. Bénézit, Emmanuel. "Eberlein, Gustav". Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, dessinateurs & graveurs de tous les temps et de tous les pays. Paris: Éditions Gründ. "Eberlein, Gustav Heinrich". Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon. De Gruyter Saur. 1 December 2016. ISSN 1865-0511. Alternate URL Wheeler, Edward J. ed.. "Gustav Eberlein: Art ambassador of the Kaiser". Current Literature. 44: 167-171. Meißner, Günter, ed.. "Eberlein, Gustav Heinrich". Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die Bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker. Vol. 31. München: K. G. Saur. p. 561ff. ISBN 978-3-598-22771-4. Rosenberg, Adolf. Eberlein. Künstler-Monographien. Bielefeld & Leipzig, Germany: Velhagen & Klasing.
Thieme, U.. "Eberlein, Gustav". Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Vol. 10. Leipzig: E. A. Seemann. P. 303f. Vollmer, Hans. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des XX. Vol. 2: E-J. E. A. Seemann. Literature by and about Gustav Eberlein in the German National Library catalogue Homepage of Gustav Eberlein Forschung e. V
The Landwehr Canal, or Landwehrkanal in German, is a 10.7-kilometre long canal parallel to the Spree river in Berlin, built between 1845 and 1850 according to plans by Peter Joseph Lenné. It connects the upper part of the Spree at the Osthafen in Friedrichshain with its lower part in Charlottenburg, flowing through Kreuzberg and Tiergarten. Lenné designed a canal with sloped walls, an average width of 20 m at the surface and locks near both ends to control the water depth. In the course of two enlargements, it reached a breadth of 22 m and a depth of 2 m. Today the waterway is used by tourist boats and pleasure craft; the Landwehr Canal leaves the Spree River in the Osthafen in Friedrichshain, east of the city centre. It descends through the Schleusenufer and heads in a straight line south west to its junction with the Neukölln Ship Canal, which provides a connection to the Teltow Canal. Here the Landwehr Canal turns north west through Kreuzberg, along the Paul-Lincke-UferIn Kreuzberg the canal passes the entrance to the former Luisenstadt Canal that, between 1852 and 1926, provided a further connection to the Spree River.
Although this has since been filled and converted to a public garden, its route can still be traced by the parallel flanking streets with their distinctive damm suffixes. Further west in Kreuzberg, the canal is paralleled for about 1 kilometre by the U1 line of the Berlin U-Bahn, which runs here as an elevated railway. After passing the elevated Möckernbrücke and Hallesches Tor stations, the U1 crosses the canal on a high level bridge that spans the railway bridge that once gave access to the, now demolished, Anhalter Bahnhof. Shortly after that, the elevated U2 line crosses the canal. After entering Tiergarten, the canal flows between the Großer Tiergarten Park and the Berlin Zoological Garden. Here the canal is bridged by the Berlin Stadtbahn; this historic elevated railway carries S-Bahn, InterCity trains. The Landwehr Canal rejoins the Spree River in Charlottenburg opposite the entrance to the Charlottenburg Canal at a waterways crossroad known as Spreekreuz. After Rosa Luxemburg was murdered on January 15, 1919, her body was dumped into the Landwehr Canal, where it was not found until June 1.
A memorial marks the site. In 1920, Anna "Anastasia" Anderson attempted suicide by jumping into the water. In 1932, initial construction of the Shell-Haus overlooking the canal was completed. On 27 April 1945, the Russian Army was closing in on the German Army's final defensive stronghold in the Tiergarten district of Berlin; as some Russian troops were using the U-bahn tunnels for their advance, German military engineers acting on Hitler's direct orders, blew up retaining walls by a railway tunnel adjoining the canal, drowning many civilians and evacuated army casualties who were given refuge in the tunnels. On 8 June 1962, a party of fourteen East German refugees commandeered the river steamer Friedrich Wolff, erected steel plates around the wheelhouse and sailed from the Spree into the Landwehr Canal. An East German patrol boat intercepted them and opened fire, but West German police returned fire and all landed safely on the canal bank, in the West