Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia
Henry Raspe succeeded his nephew Hermann II as Landgrave of Thuringia in central Germany in 1241. In 1226, Henry's brother Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, died en route to the Sixth Crusade, Henry became regent for his under-age nephew Hermann II, Landgrave of Thuringia, he managed to expel his nephew and the boy's young mother, St. Elisabeth of Hungary, from the line of succession and ca. 1231 formally succeeded his brother as landgrave. In 1242 Henry, together with King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, was selected by Emperor Frederick II to be administrator of Germany for Frederick's under-age son Conrad. After the papal ban on Frederick imposed by Pope Innocent IV in 1245, Raspe changed sides, on 22 May 1246 he was elected anti-king in opposition to Conrad; the strong papal prodding that led to his election earned Raspe the derogatory moniker of "Pfaffenkönig". Henry defeated Conrad in the Battle of Nidda in southern Hesse in August 1246, laid siege to Ulm and Reutlingen. Having suffered a mortal wound, he died February 1247 in Wartburg Castle near Eisenach in Thuringia.
In 1228, he married the daughter of Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg. After her death, he married the daughter of Leopold VI, Duke of Austria. After her death, he married the daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant. All three of his marriages were childless. After his death, the Emperor enfeoffed Thuringia to the son of his sister Jutta. Cox, Eugene L.. The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton University Press. Knodler, Julia. "Germany:Narrative". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. Rasmussen, Ann Marie. Mothers and Daughters in Medieval German Literature. Syracuse University Press. Stubbs, William. Germany in the Later Middle Ages, 1200-1500. Longmans, Green and Co. Van Cleve, Thomas C.. "The Crusade of Frederick II". In Wolff, Robert Lee. A History of the Crusades. Vol. II; the University of Wisconsin Press
Magdeburg is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the Elbe River. Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor and founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the town's cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe; until 1631, Magdeburg was one of the largest and most prosperous German cities, a notable member of the Hanseatic League. Magdeburg has been destroyed twice in its history; the Catholic League sacked Magdeburg in 1631, resulting in the death of 25,000 non-combatants, the largest loss of the Thirty Years' War. Allies bombed the city in 1945. Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences. Magdeburg is situated on autobahn route 2, hence is at the connection point of the East with the West of Europe, as well as the North and South of Germany.
As a modern manufacturing centre, the production of chemical products, steel and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering and life-cycle management, health management and logistics. In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary. In June 2013 Magdeburg was hit by record breaking flooding. Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg, the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs. In 929 King Otto I granted the city to his English-born wife Edith as dower. Queen Edith loved the town and resided there. In 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I visited Magdeburg and was buried in the cathedral, he granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes and to corvée labour from the surrounding countryside. The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968 at the synod of Ravenna; the archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Merseburg and Naumburg-Zeitz.
The archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river. In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold trade exhibitions and conventions, which form the basis of the family of city laws known as the Magdeburg rights; these laws were modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg. In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. With more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire; the town had an active maritime commerce on the west, with the countries of the North Sea, maintained traffic and communication with the interior. The citizens struggled against the archbishop, becoming nearly independent from him by the end of the 15th century. Around Easter 1497, the twelve-year-old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, where he was exposed to the teachings of the Brethren of the Common Life.
In 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the city's defection from Roman Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy. Emperor Charles V outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the League of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League; as it had not accepted the Augsburg Interim decree, the city, by the emperor's commands, was besieged by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, but it retained its independence. The rule of the archbishop was replaced by that of various administrators belonging to Protestant dynasties. In the following years Magdeburg gained a reputation as a stronghold of Protestantism and became the first major city to publish the writings of Luther. In Magdeburg, Matthias Flacius and his companions wrote their anti-Catholic pamphlets and the Magdeburg Centuries, in which they argued that the Roman Catholic Church had become the kingdom of the Antichrist. In 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, imperial troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, stormed the city and massacred the inhabitants, killing about 20,000 and burning the town.
The city had withstood a first siege in 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Protestant convert to Catholicism. After the war, a population of only 4,000 remained. Under the Peace of Westphalia, Magdeburg was to be assigned to Brandenburg-Prussia after the death of the administrator August of Saxe-Weissenfels, as the semi-autonomous Duchy of Magdeburg; this occurred in 1680. In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress surrendered to French troops in 1806; the city was annexed to the French-controlled Kingdom of Westphalia in the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit. King Jérôme appointed Count Heinrich von Blumenthal as mayor. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Magdeburg was made the capital of the new Prussian Province of Saxony. In 1912, the old fortress was dismantled, in 1908, the municipality Rothensee became part of Magdeburg. Magdeburg was bombed by British and American air forces during the Second World War; the RAF bombing raid on the night of 16 January 1945, destroyed much of the city. The death toll is estimated at 2,000–2,500.
Near the end of World War II, the city of about 340,000 became capital of the Province of Magdeburg. Brabag's Magdeburg/Rothensee plant that produced synthetic oil from lignit
Köthen is a city in Germany. It is the capital of the district of about 30 km north of Halle. Köthen is the location of the main campus and the administrative centre of the regional university, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences/Hochschule Anhalt, strong in information technology; the city is conveniently located at the hub of the Magdeburg–Leipzig, Dessau–Köthen and Köthen–Aschersleben railways. Köthen is situated in a fertile area with rich black soil suitable to the cultivation of sugar-beets. Industry includes high-tech engineering, manufacture of cranes, as well as chemicals and foodstuffs. In English, the German place-name is spelled anachronistically as Cöthen, a practice that has become standard in literature relating to the life and work of Johann Sebastian Bach, who resided and worked there from 1717 to 1723. Owing to the fertile soil of the region, the area of Köthen is unusually rich in archaeological discoveries; the earliest signs of human habitation date from the early Stone Age about 250,000 years ago, evidence of every succeeding historical period may be found in the collections of the local Prehistorical Museum.
The first documentary mention of "Cothene" dates to 1115. Köthen was chartered in 1200. For over two centuries it was the capital of the independent principality of Anhalt-Köthen; the town has long been known to classical music enthusiasts as the place of origin of Johann Sebastian Bach's best-known secular works, including the Brandenburg concertos and the Well-Tempered Clavier. Bach worked in Köthen from 1717 to 1723 as Kapellmeister for Prince Leopold von Anhalt-Köthen, it is the birthplace of the composer Carl Friedrich Abel who, together with Johann Christian Bach, founded the popular "Bach-Abel Concerts" in London, the first subscription concerts in England. Schloss Köthen has been restored except for a small side wing bombed in 1944, its Hall of Mirrors where Bach's music is now performed is a popular attraction. It can be seen on DVD in the Freiburg Baroque Orchestra's recording of the Brandenburg concertos. Since 1967 a bi-annual Bach Festival has been held at Köthen, in the various halls of the palace as well as the local churches.
Another concert hall was opened in 2008 in the palace complex. Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, practised in Köthen from 1821 to 1834, during this period he published many of his best-known works. In 1855 his disciple Arthur Lutze opened a palatial homeopathic clinic. Hahnemann's home is now open to tourists, includes an actual working homeopathic practice; the city has become the national center of homeopathy, location of congresses, the seat of the new European Homeopathic Library. In 2013, the international homeopathic medical society, Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis, relocated its main operations to Köthen, so the city now is kind of a "world's capital of homeopathy"; the pioneering ornithologue Johann Friedrich Naumann was born near Köthen and was employed at the ducal court for more than two decades. His well-renowned collection of 1300 specimen and drawings of European birds is now the main part of an ornithological museum, situated in the palace. Köthen located to north of Halle, west of Dessau and east of Bernburg.
In the north of the Anhalt-Bitterfeld district begins the Middle Elbe Biosphere Reserve. The Ziethe flows through the north part of the town. Administrative subdivisions of the municipality are: the town of Köthen with its subdivisions Porst and Elsdorf and Merzien and Hohsdorf With the administrative restructuring in 2004, the following villages were incorporated: Baasdorf with its subdivisions Arensdorf and Gahrendorf Dohndorf Löbnitz an der Linde Wülknitz St. Jakob Church, with baptismal font designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen. St. Agnus Church, where Johann Sebastian Bach worshipped. "Last Supper" by Lucas Cranach the Younger. Naumann Museum of ornithology and Prehistorical Museum, both are situated in different wings of the palace. Zoo and city parks Historical Museum for district. City hall, the main part of, built in the early 20th century remnants of the medieval city wall with two prominent towers at the former gates to Halle and Magdeburg, respectively. Bach House, now a senior residence Homes of Eichendorff and Hahnemann Monuments to prince Ludwig I, J.
S. Bach, Naumann, Angelika Hartmann, Fritz Weineck, Yuri Gagarin. Carl Friedrich Abel, composer Hans Hermann Behr and entomologist Hans-Ulrich Brand, former
Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst
Anhalt-Zerbst was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the House of Ascania, with its residence at Zerbst in present-day Saxony-Anhalt. It emerged as a subdivision of the Principality of Anhalt from 1252 until 1396, when it was divided into the principalities of Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen. Recreated in 1544, Anhalt-Zerbst was partitioned between Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Bernburg in 1796 upon the extinction of the line, it was created when the Anhalt territory was divided among the sons of Prince Henry I into the principalities of Anhalt-Aschersleben, Anhalt-Bernburg and Anhalt-Zerbst in 1252. In the course of the partition, Prince Siegfried I, the youngest son of Henry I, received the lands around Köthen and Zerbst, his son and successor Prince Albert I took his residence at Köthen Castle in 1295. In 1396, the surviving sons of Prince John II of Anhalt-Zerbst again divided their heritage: Sigismund I became Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and his younger brother Albert IV went on to rule as Prince of Anhalt-Köthen.
The principality was recreated, when in 1544 the heirs of Prince Ernest I of Anhalt-Dessau divided their territory and the eldest surviving son, Prince John V, took his residence at Zerbst Castle. The second incarnation, lost a lot of territory in 1603 when it was partitioned for a second time with some of its territory being given to Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Plötzkau and Anhalt-Köthen. By 1606, all Anhalt principalities had turned to the Reformed faith, Anhalt-Zerbst returned to Lutheranism in 1644. In 1667, Prince John VI inherited the remote Lordship of Jever in East Frisia. Upon his death in the same year, Anhalt-Zerbst lost more of its territory, with Anhalt-Mühlingen and Anhalt-Dornburg being created; the Jever lordship was administrated by Ascanian relatives, it was hit hard by the Christmas Flood of 1717. In 1742 princes John Louis II and Christian August of Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg inherited Anhalt-Zerbst. After Christian August's death in 1747, his widow Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp governed the country for her son Frederick Augustus until 1752.
She had the new castle at Dornburg built as her thirds from 1750, a lavish baroque palace prepared to host her brother, Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden, or her daughter Sophie Auguste Fredericka, who in 1745 had married the Russian crown prince Peter III, to become empress in 1762, better known as Catherine the Great. However, neither of them visited her, the dowager princess and her son were forced into exile when Prussian forces invaded Anhalt-Zerbst during the Seven Years' War in 1758. Frederick the Great, who had proposed the Russian marriage, accused the princess and her son to support Russia his war enemy. Johanna Elisabeth died in Paris in 1760 and her son, Frederick Augustus, never returned to Zerbst and continued to live in Basel and Luxemburg. Upon his death in 1793, the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst came to an end with its territory being divided among the Ascanian princes of Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Bernburg while Jever was inherited by his sister, Catherine the Great, remained under Russian rule until 1818.
Siegfried I 1252–1298 Albert I 1298–1316 Albert II 1316–1362 Albert III 1359 Waldemar I 1316–1368 Johann II 1362–1382 Waldemar II 1368–1371 Waldemar III 1382–1391 Sigismund I 1382–1396 Albert IV 1382–1396 Partitioned between Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen in 1396. Johann V 1544–1551 Karl I 1551–1561 Bernhard VII 1551–1570 Joachim Ernest 1551–1586. Rudolph 1603–1621 Johann VI 1621–1667 Augustus of Anhalt-Plötzkau regent 1621–1642 Karl William 1667–1718 Sophie Auguste of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp regent 1667–1674 Johann August 1718–1742 Johann Ludwig II 1742–1746 Christian Augustus 1742–1747 Friedrich August 1747–1793 Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp regent 1747–1752 Sophie Auguste Fredericke 1793–1796 To Anhalt-Dessau 1796. Anhalt-Zerbst Regnal chronology
Henry II, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben
Henry II, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Aschersleben. He was the eldest son of Henry I, Count of Anhalt, by his wife Irmgard, daughter of Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia. Henry was co-ruler of the principality of Anhalt with his father from 1244. After his father's death in 1252 the Anhalt state was divided between his brothers. Henry took over the old family areas of Aschersleben, Ermsleben and Wörbzig. Through his mother, Henry was related to the Landgraves of Thuringia, he was released shortly after. He soon renewed his war against Thuringia. In 1265 he was captured again and forced to renounce his claims to lands in Thuringia. In 1257, Henry supported King Alfonso X of Castile as German King and led military actions against the monasteries and archbishops of Magdeburg and bishops of Halberstadt as well as his brothers and cousins. In 1266 he raised Aschersleben to the rank of a city. In 1245 Henry married Matilda, daughter of Otto the Child, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Matilda of Brandenburg and great-granddaughter of Otto I of Brandenburg, older brother of Bernhard of Anhalt, Henry's grandfather.
They had two sons: Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben. Henry III, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben. On Henry's death his sons were still minors and his widow Matilda assumed the regency of the principality until 1270, when they reached adulthood. Shortly after, Matilda took the veil and became Abbess of Gernrode for twenty years, from 1275 to 1296
Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden
Ingeborg Eriksdotter was a Swedish princess and duchess, daughter of King Eric X of Sweden, eldest sibling of King Eric XI of Sweden, wife of Birger Jarl, mother of King Valdemar I of Sweden. Ingeborg was born the eldest daughter of his wife, Richeza of Denmark, she lived her youth in exile in Denmark, after her brother had been deposed by his guardian and regent in 1229. Ingeborg Eriksdotter's marital engagement took place in about 1234 in connection of her brother Eric XI resuming the Swedish throne from the'usurper' Canute II of Sweden, to have the mighty House of Bjellbo as their allies. Princess Ingeborg bore a vast number of children to her husband dux Birger Jarl. In 1250, her brother died without heirs and her eldest son Valdemar was chosen to succeed Eric on the throne. Ingeborg thereby became the King's Mother and first lady of the royal court. Ingeborg is recorded to have inherited her brother Eric's private property upon his death, as his only living sibling. In her forties, she continued to give birth to children, her death is believed to have occurred because of childbirth complications giving birth to twins.
The following children survived to adulthood: Rikissa Birgersdotter, born 1238, married first in 1251 Haakon Haakonsson the Young, co-king of Norway, second Henry I, Prince of Werle Valdemar Birgersson, born c 1238, King of Sweden 1250–1275, lord of parts of Gothenland until 1278 Christina Birgersdotter, married several times, one of her husbands was Lord Sigge Guttormsson Magnus Birgersson, born 1240, Duke King of Sweden 1275-90 probably: Catherine of Sweden, born 1245, married Siegfried, Count of Anhalt Eric Birgersson, born 1250, Duke probably: Ingeborg of Sweden, born circa 1254, died 30 June 1302, married John I of Saxony, Duke of Lauenburg in 1270 Benedict, Duke of Finland, born 1254, Bishop of Linköping Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476 Lars O. Lagerqvist. "Sverige och dess regenter under 1.000 år". Albert Bonniers Förlag AB. ISBN 91-0-075007-7
Valdemar, King of Sweden
Valdemar was King of Sweden from 1250–1275. Valdemar was the son of the Swedish princess Ingeborg Eriksdotter and Birger Jarl, from the House of Bjelbo. During the first sixteen years of his reign, it was Birger Jarl, the real ruler. Birger Jarl had in fact been the de facto ruler of Sweden from 1248, before the reign of Valdemar, under Eric XI. Valdemar's mother was a daughter of Eric Richeza of Denmark; when King Eric XI died in 1250, Valdemar was elected king. After the coming of age of Valdemar in 1257, Birger Jarl held a grip over the country. After Birger's death in 1266 Valdemar came into conflict with his younger brother Magnus Birgersson, Duke of Södermanland, who wanted the throne for himself. In 1260, Valdemar married Sophia, the eldest daughter of King Eric IV of Denmark and Jutta of Saxony. Valdemar had a relationship with his sister-in-law Jutta. In 1272, Jutta became Valdemar's mistress; the affair resulted in a child born in 1273. The following year, Jutta was placed in a convent and Valdemar was forced to make a pilgrimage to Rome to ask for the absolution of the Pope.
Valdemar was deposed by his younger brother, Magnus after the Battle of Hova in Tiveden June 14, 1275. Magnus was supported by his brother, Eric Birgersson, Duke of Småland, King Eric V of Denmark, who provided Danish soldiers. Magnus was elected King Magnus III of Sweden at the Stones of Mora. In 1277, Sophia returned to Denmark. In 1277, Valdemar managed to regain provinces in Gothenland in the southern part of the kingdom and was called the Duke of Götaland. However, Magnus regained them about 1278. In 1288 Valdemar was imprisoned by King Magnus in Nyköping Castle and lived with mistresses in his comfortable prison. Valdemar married Sofia of Denmark in 1260 and they separated in 1277, they had six children: Ingeborg Valdemarsdotter of Countess of Holstein. Erik Valdemarsson of Sweden Marina Valdemarsdotter of Sweden. Adolfsson, Mats När borgarna brann - svenska uppror Larsson, Mats G. Götarnas Riken: Upptäcktsfärder Till Sveriges Enande ISBN 978-91-7486-641-4 Kyhlberg, Ola Gånget ut min hand Schück, Herman Kyrka och rike - från folkungatid till vasatid