Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals, its members have been known as the Teutonic Knights, having a small voluntary and mercenary military membership, serving as a crusading military order for protection of Christians in the Holy Land and the Baltics during the Middle Ages. Purely religious since 1929, the Teutonic Order still confers limited honorary knighthoods; the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order, a Protestant chivalric order, is descended from the same medieval military order and continues to award knighthoods and perform charitable work. The full name of the Order in German is Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem or in Latin Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, thus the term "Teutonic" echoes the German origins of the order in its Latin name.
It is known in German as the Deutscher Orden also as Deutscher Ritterorden, Deutschherrenorden, Deutschritterorden, Die Herren im weißen Mantel, etc. The Teutonic Knights have been known as Zakon Krzyżacki in Polish and as Kryžiuočių Ordinas in Lithuanian, Vācu Ordenis in Latvian, Saksa Ordu or Ordu in Estonian, as well as various names in other languages. Knighthood was associated to service; the knight was always required to help the sick and wounded after a battle and was regarded to be brave and determined. Formed in the year 1192 in Acre, in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer, controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Cumans; the Knights were expelled by force of arms by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1225, after attempting to place themselves under papal instead of the original Hungarian sovereignty and thus to become independent.
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians. The Knights had taken steps against their Polish hosts and with the Holy Roman Emperor's support, had changed the status of Chełmno Land, where they were invited by the Polish prince, into their own property. Starting from there, the Order created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, adding continuously the conquered Prussians' territory, subsequently conquered Livonia. Over time, the kings of Poland denounced the Order for expropriating their lands Chełmno Land and the Polish lands of Pomerelia and Dobrzyń Land; the Order theoretically lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianization of Lithuania. However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Novgorod Republic; the Teutonic Knights had a strong economic base which enabled them to hire mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, they became a naval power in the Baltic Sea.
In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald. However, the capital of the Teutonic Knights was defended in the following Siege of Marienburg and the Order was saved from collapse. In 1515, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I made a marriage alliance with Sigismund I of Poland-Lithuania. Thereafter, the empire did not support the Order against Poland. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism, becoming Duke of Prussia as a vassal of Poland. Soon after, the Order lost its holdings in the Protestant areas of Germany; the Order did keep its considerable holdings in Catholic areas of Germany until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings. However, the Order continued to exist as a ceremonial body, it was outlawed by Adolf Hitler in 1938, but re-established in 1945. Today it operates with charitable aims in Central Europe; the Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross.
A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms. The motto of the Order was: "Helfen, Heilen". 1198 Formation 1218 Siege of Damietta 1228–1229 The Sixth Crusade 1237 absorption of The Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1242 The Battle on the Ice 1242–1249 First Prussian Uprising 1249 Treaty of Christburg with the pagan Prussians signed on February 9 1249 Battle of Krücken 1260 Battle of Durbe 1260–1274 Great Prussian Uprising 1262 Siege of Königsberg 1263 Battle of Löbau 1264 Siege of Bartenstein 1270 Battle of Karuse 1271 Battle of Pagastin 1279 Battle of Aizkraukle 1291 Siege of Acre (1291
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or the Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by the papal bull Omne datum optimum. The order was founded in 1119 and was active until 1312 when it was perpetually suppressed by Pope Clement V by the bull Vox in excelso; the Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom and grew in membership and power. They were prominent in Christian finance. Templar knights, in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. Non-combatant members of the order, who formed as much as 90% of the order's members, managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom, developing innovative financial techniques that were an early form of banking, building its own network of nearly 1,000 commanderies and fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land, arguably forming the world's first multinational corporation.
The Templars were tied to the Crusades. Rumours about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created distrust, King Philip IV of France – in debt to the order – took advantage of this distrust to destroy them and erase his debt. In 1307, he had many of the order's members in France arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, burned at the stake. Pope Clement V disbanded the order in 1312 under pressure from King Philip; the abrupt reduction in power of a significant group in European society gave rise to speculation and legacy through the ages. After Europeans in the First Crusade captured Jerusalem in 1099, many Christians made pilgrimages to various sacred sites in the Holy Land. Although the city of Jerusalem was secure under Christian control, the rest of Outremer was not. Bandits and marauding highwaymen preyed upon pilgrims, who were slaughtered, sometimes by the hundreds, as they attempted to make the journey from the coastline at Jaffa through to the interior of the Holy Land.
In 1119, the French knight Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, proposed creating a monastic order for the protection of these pilgrims. King Baldwin and Patriarch Warmund agreed to the request at the Council of Nablus in January 1120, the king granted the Templars a headquarters in a wing of the royal palace on the Temple Mount in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque; the Temple Mount had a mystique because it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon. The Crusaders therefore referred to the Al-Aqsa Mosque as Solomon's Temple, from this location the new order took the name of Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or "Templar" knights; the order, with about nine knights including Godfrey de Saint-Omer and André de Montbard, had few financial resources and relied on donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse; the impoverished status of the Templars did not last long. They had a powerful advocate in Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, a leading Church figure, the French abbot responsible for the founding of the Cistercian Order of monks and a nephew of André de Montbard, one of the founding knights.
Bernard put his weight behind them and wrote persuasively on their behalf in the letter'In Praise of the New Knighthood', in 1129, at the Council of Troyes, he led a group of leading churchmen to approve and endorse the order on behalf of the church. With this formal blessing, the Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, receiving money, land and noble-born sons from families who were eager to help with the fight in the Holy Land. Another major benefit came in 1139, when Pope Innocent II's papal bull Omne Datum Optimum exempted the order from obedience to local laws; this ruling meant that the Templars could pass through all borders, were not required to pay any taxes, were exempt from all authority except that of the pope. With its clear mission and ample resources, the order grew rapidly. Templars were the advance shock troops in key battles of the Crusades, as the armoured knights on their warhorses would set out to charge at the enemy, ahead of the main army bodies, in an attempt to break opposition lines.
One of their most famous victories was in 1177 during the Battle of Montgisard, where some 500 Templar knights helped several thousand infantry to defeat Saladin's army of more than 26,000 soldiers. Although the primary mission of the order was militaristic few members were combatants; the others acted in support positions to assist the knights and to manage the financial infrastructure. The Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations. A nobleman, interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away. Accumulating wealth in this manner throughout Christendom and the Outremer, the order in 1150 began generating letters of credit for pilgrims journeying to the Holy Land: pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques. Based on this mi
Teutonic takeover of Danzig (Gdańsk)
The city of Danzig was captured by the State of the Teutonic Order on 13 November 1308, resulting in a massacre of its inhabitants and marking the beginning of tensions between Poland and the Teutonic Order. The knights moved into the fortress as an ally of Poland against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. However, after disputes over the control of the city between the Order and the King of Poland arose, the knights murdered a number of citizens within the city and took it as their own, thus the event is known as Gdańsk massacre or Gdańsk slaughter. Though in the past, a matter of debate among historians, a consensus has been established that many people were murdered and a considerable part of the town was destroyed in the context of the take-over. In the aftermath of the take-over, the order seized all of Pomerelia and bought up the supposed Brandenburgian claims to the region in the Treaty of Soldin; the conflict with Poland was temporarily settled in the Treaty of Kalisz. The town was returned to Poland in the Peace of Toruń in 1466.
In the 13th century, the Pomerelian duchy was ruled by members of the Samborides stewards for the Polish Piast kings and dukes. The stewards asserted their power from fortified strongholds; the major stronghold of the area was at the location of present-day Gdańsk's Old Town. The adjacent town developed from a market place of tradesmen and was granted Lübeck city rights by Duke Swietopelk II in 1224. Under Swietopelk II, Gdańsk became an important trading site on the lower Vistula; the Margraviate of Brandenburg entered the scene after Mestwin II, son of Swietopolk, concluded the Treaty of Arnswalde with them, in order to receive aid against his brother, Wartislaw. The margraves took over the town in 1270/1 from Wartislaw, but did not hand it over to Mestwin until the latter was able to force them out by concluding an alliance with Boleslaw Pobozny, duke of Greater Poland. Under the rule of Brandenburg, conflicts erupted between the Slavic and German populations, which cost many lives. In the 1282 Treaty of Kępno Mestwin II promised his Pomerelian duchy to his ally Przemysł II, duke and king of Poland, who succeeded to the duchy after Mestwin's death in 1294.
The Margraves of Brandenburg claimed the region and had Przemysł assassinated in early 1296. Władysław I the Elbow-high, Przemysł's successor, was only in loose control of Pomerelia and Gdańsk with the actual control of the area being in the hands of the local Swienca family who had come into power under Mestwin II. In 1301, one year after Wenceslaus II of Bohemia had been crowned king of Poland, the princes of Rügen, who claimed to be the heirs of Pomerelia, mounted an expedition. Wenceslaus, who with the Polish crown had acquired the claim to Pomerelia, called the Teutonic Order for help; the Teutonic knights occupied Gdańsk, repelled the princes of Rügen, left the town in 1302. While the Norwegian king Haakon backed Rügen's claims, his 1302 call to the Hanseatic cities for aid remained without answer. Wenceslaus II died in 1305 and was succeeded by Wenceslaus III, murdered in 1306. In a treaty of 8 August 1305, the margraves of Brandenburg promised to Wenceslaus III the Meissen territory in exchange for Pomerelia, but that treaty was never finalized.
The Teutonic Order had inherited Gniew from Sambor II, thus gaining a foothold on the left bank of the Vistula. Brandenburg occupied the west of the duchy after neutralizing another claimant to the area, the Cammin bishop, by burning down his see. Meanwhile, Władysław I the Elbow-high had reestablished his power in Poland, but was occupied in the south of his realm, he appointed Bogusza as his Pomerelian governor in Gdańsk. In the summer of 1308, a Pomerelian rebellion in the city unseated the forces loyal to Łokietek, who would become King of Poland, allied with Waldemar of Brandenburg; the rebellion was led by the Swienca family. The latter were welcomed by its burghers. Bogusza and his men had retreated to the castle next to the town, were besieged by the margraves. Bogusza, on the advice of the Dominican prior Wilhelm, appealed to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia for assistance; the Knights, under the leadership of Heinrich von Plotzke, agreed to aid Bogusza, a force of 100 knights and 200 supporters, led by Günther von Schwarzburg, arrived at the castle around August.
While historians agree that the castle as well as the adjacent town were in the hands of the Teutonic Knights by late November 1308 the number of casualties and the extent of destruction is debated. Peter Oliver Loew writes that for a long time German historians accepted the version of events given by Teutonic Knights, didn't accept a high number of people murdered, with the number given between 60 and 100 victims Błażej Śliwiński, based on several sources argues that the number of murdered was high if not 10,000. According to Peter Oliver Loew the exact numbers can never be established, however he agrees that all available data confirms that the city was destroyed during the conquest. According to Raphael Lemkin the population in the city at the time was Polish. According to Kazimierz Jaśinski, the Knights captured the town with the help from some of the German burghers, who constituted a small minority within the town at the time. James Minahan wrote. According to Peter Oliver Loew, there were German as well as Slavic inhabitants of the town.
According to Stefan Maria Kuczyński, the German population only achieved the majority after local Polish population was murdered and a new settlement was built by Teutonic Knights. According to Błażej Śliwiński at the time of events, G
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork is a 13th-century Teutonic castle and fortress located near the town of Malbork, Poland. It is the largest castle in the world measured by a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it was constructed by the Teutonic Knights, a German Catholic religious order of crusaders, in a form of an Ordensburg fortress. The Order named it Marienburg in honour of Mary, mother of Jesus. In 1466, during the division of Prussia into eastern and western parts, the castle and town became part of western Royal Prussia, it served as one of the several Polish royal residences, interrupted by several years of Swedish occupation, fulfilling this function until the First Partition of Poland in 1772. From on the castle came back to German rule for 200 years. Following Germany's defeat in World War II in 1945, the land was assigned to Poland by the Allies. Damaged, the castle was renovated under the auspices of modern-day Poland in the second half of the 20th century and most in 2016. Nowadays, the castle serves as a museum.
The castle is a classic example of a medieval fortress and, on its completion in 1406, was the world's largest brick castle. UNESCO designated the "Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork" and the Malbork Castle Museum a World Heritage Site in December 1997, it is one of two World Heritage Sites in the region, together with the "Medieval Town of Toruń", founded in 1231. Malbork Castle is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated on 16 September 1994, its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland. The castle was built by the Teutonic Order after the conquest of Old Prussia, its main purpose was to strengthen their own control of the area following the Order's 1274 suppression of the Great Prussian Uprising of the Baltic tribes. No contemporary documents survive relating to its construction, so instead the castle's phases have been worked out through the study of architecture and the Order's administrative records and histories; the work lasted under the auspices of Commander Heinrich von Wilnowe.
The castle is located on the southeastern bank of the river Nogat. It was named Marienburg after patron saint of the religious Order; the Order had been created in Acre. When this last stronghold of the Crusades fell to Muslim Arabs, the Order moved its headquarters to Venice before arriving in Prussia. Malbork became more and more important in the aftermath of the Teutonic Knights' conquest of Gdańsk and Pomerania in 1308; the Order's administrative centre was moved to Marienburg from Elbing. The Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Siegfried von Feuchtwangen, who arrived in Marienburg from Venice, undertook the next phase of the fortress' construction. In 1309, in the wake of the papal persecution of the Knights Templar and the Teutonic takeover of Danzig, Feuchtwangen relocated his headquarters to the Prussian part of the Order's monastic state, he chose the site of Marienburg conveniently located on the Nogat in the Vistula Delta. As with most cities of the time, the new centre was dependent on water for transportation.
The castle was expanded several times to house the growing number of Knights. Soon, it became the largest fortified Gothic building on a nearly 21-hectare site; the castle has numerous layers of defensive walls. It consists of three separate castles - the High and Lower Castles, separated by multiple dry moats and towers; the castle once housed 3,000 "brothers in arms". The outermost castle walls enclose four times the enclosed area of Windsor Castle; the developed part of the property designated as a World Heritage Site is 18.038 ha. The favourable position of the castle on the river Nogat allowed easy access by barges and trading ships arriving from the Vistula and the Baltic Sea. During their governance, the Teutonic Knights collected river tolls from passing ships, as did other castles along the rivers, they controlled a monopoly on the trade of amber. When the city became a member of the Hanseatic League, many Hanseatic meetings were held there. In the summer of 1410, the castle was besieged following the Order's defeat by the armies of Władysław II Jagiełło and Vytautas the Great at the Battle of Grunwald.
Heinrich von Plauen led the defence in the Siege of Marienburg, during which the city outside was razed. In 1456, during the Thirteen Years' War, the Order – facing opposition from its cities for raising taxes to pay ransoms for expenses associated with its wars against Kingdom of Poland – could no longer manage financially. Meanwhile, Polish General Stibor de Poniec of Ostoja raised funds from Danzig for a new campaign against them. Learning that the Order's Bohemian mercenaries had not been paid, Stibor convinced them to leave, he reimbursed them with money raised in Danzig. Following the departure of the mercenaries, King Casimir IV Jagiellon entered the castle in triumph in 1457, in May, granted Danzig several privileges in gratitude for the town's assistance and involvement in the Thirteen Years' War as well as for the funds collected for the mercenaries that left; the mayor of the town around the castle, Bartholomäus Blume, resisted the Polish forces for three more years, but the Poles captured and sentenced him to death in 1460.
A monument to Blume was erected in 1864. In 1466 both castle and town became part of Royal Prussia, a province of Peum_Zamkowe</ref> It served as one of the several Polish royal residences, fulfilling this function until the Partitions of Poland in 1772. During this period the Tall Cast
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Feuchtwangen is a city in Ansbach district in the administrative region of Middle Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. In the year 2019 Feuchtwangen celebrated its 1200th jubilee based on the first mention of its Benedictine monastery. Geographically and geologically the land around Feuchtwangen comprises the eastern part of the Swabian-Franconian Escarpment Land sometimes called the gypsum-keuper landscape. Characteristic of this landform is the quick change from deep hollows to wooded mountain ranges, which were formed as the result of keuper strata not being well able to withstand erosion; this meant that streams in the region could carve broad valleys. The city of Feuchtwangen lies in the Sulzach valley; the city's sprawling area takes in parts of the Wörnitz valley. Through Feuchtwangen flows the Sulzach, a tributary to the Wörnitz. Neighbouring Feuchtwangen are Schnelldorf, Wörnitz, Dombühl, Herrieden, Dentlein am Forst, Dürrwangen, Dinkelsbühl and Kreßberg. Feuchtwangen has 87 divisions within the city, determined by independent communities.
Among them are: Aichau: Aichau, Jakobsmühle, Löschenmühle, Oberahorn, Thürnhofen, Unterahorn Aichenzell: Aichenzell, Hammerschmiede, Herrnschallbach, Höfstetten, Kaltenbronn, Mögersbronn, Sommerau, Überschlagmühle, Walkmühle, Zehdorf Banzenweiler: Banzenweiler, Georgenhof, Krebshof, Leiperzell, Oberrothmühle, Unterransbach, Unterrothmühle, Weiler am See Breitenau: Breitenau, Ratzendorf, Ungetsheim, Zumhaus Dorfgütingen: Archshofen, Bonlanden, Bölhof, Bühl, Dorfgütingen, Krobshäuser Mühle, Neidlingen, Rödenweiler Heilbronn: Heilbronn, Herbstmühle, Metzlesberg, Rißmannschallbach, Wüstenweiler, Zumberg Krapfenau: Bernau, Hainmühle, Krapfenau, Krapfenau-Mühle, Oberlottermühle, Schönmühle, St. Ulrich, Unterlottermühle, Wehlmäusel, Weikersdorf Larrieden: Heiligenkreuz, Oberhinterhof, Unterhinterhof Mosbach: Bergnerzell, Kühnhardt a. Schlegel, Reichenbach, Tribur Vorderbreitenthann: Charhof, Charmühle, Hinterbreitenthann, Steinbach, Unterdallersbach, Voderbreitenthann, Wolfsmühle Feuchtwangen's origins can be traced back to the Benedictine monastery, mentioned in a document in 818 or 819 as being "fairly well off".
The state of affairs at the monastery was described in 16 letters by the learned monk Froumund and the abbot Wigo in the years 991 to 995. By no than 1197, Feuchtwangen had become a house of secular canons; the canons were not monks and lived in their own houses, but said their canonical prayers together at the monastery church. Besides the monastery, there was since the earliest times, a village. With the help of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa came the establishment of a town sometime between 1150 and 1178. In 1241, Feuchtwangen became an imperial free city. From that time forth, Feuchtwangen consisted of two independent communities: the free city south of the line along Untere Torstraße and Postgasse, the monastery lands to the north. Together with other imperial free cities like Rothenburg ob der Tauber or Dinkelsbühl, the town tried to assert its interests to the princes through the Swabian League. Feuchtwangen had become wealthy owing to its fortunate location on travel routes, was many times given in pledge by the kings.
In the end, in 1376, both the town and the monastery were pledged, or transferred, to the Burgravate of Nuremberg, which became the Margravate of Brandenburg-Ansbach. The townsfolk could no longer buy their town's freedom, thus leading to a early end to Feuchtwangen's status as an imperial free city. About 1400, after the city was destroyed in 1388 by the Swabian League, both parts of Feuchtwangen were surrounded by a common wall, which helped to meld the two separate communities into one; the margravate town, seat of a higher administrative office and place of many markets grew in importance and in the 15th and 16th centuries blossomed once again. The troubles in the German Peasants' War afforded an opportunity to introduce the Protestant Reformation, which happened throughout the margravate in 1533; the monastery was confiscated with its possessions going to the margrave. The Thirty Years' War brought woe and hardship to Feuchtwangen with the plundering of the city wrought by Tilly's unruly men.
In 1632 and 1634, Swedish and Imperial forces took away what was left, so it went on for decades before the town and its surrounding area recovered. Until 1791, Feuchtwangen remained an administrative town of Brandenburg-Ansbach; the last Margrave, childless, ceded his land to the Kingdom of Prussia. Only 14 years the French took over control of the city, losing it once more only a year in 1806, to the Kingdom of Bavaria. Feuchtwangen became the seat of a regional court set up by the local court. In the long era of peace in the 19th century, the city's face was changed; the lower gate tower, along with great parts of the city defences were demolished. The Spitaltor burnt down in 1811; the city was connected by a railway branchline to the Nuremberg-Stuttgart mainline. Development stagnated in the 19th and 20th centuries until the Second World War. Although some of the communities that were incorporated into Feuchtwangen were destroyed in the world wars, Feuchtwangen itself was left unscathed. A renewed upswing took root after the Second World War, spurred o