Georg von Siemens
Georg von Siemens was a German banker and liberal politician. Georg von Siemens was on the board of directors of the Deutsche Bank from 1870 to 1900. One of his top priorities was the financing of international railway projects, including the Northern Pacific, the Baghdad Railway. From 1874 until his death, he was voted several times to both the Prussian House of Representatives and the German Reichstag; until 1880, he represented the National Liberal Party the Secession, from 1884 to 1893 the German Free-minded Party, for the last years the Free-minded Union. Georg von Siemens was born on 21 October 1839 to judicial officer Johann Siemens and Marie Siemens in Torgau. Siemens was a nephew of industrialists Werner von Siemens and Carl von Siemens, his father provided most of the funds of the Siemens AG. In 1857, Siemens began studying law in Heidelberg just before beginning his one-year military service in Berlin in 1858. After passing his state examination in 1860, Siemens worked as a clerk for the district courts in Jüterbog and Zossen.
After transferring to Aachen in 1866, Siemens began advising the company of Werner Siemens, his cousin, Halske & Co. before being drafted into the Rhenish Infantry Regiment for the German War. Siemens became the state examiner for Aachen that year. In 1867, Georg von Siemens established the Indo-European Telegraph Company in London on behalf of Werner Siemens. From 1868-1870, Siemens worked for the Indo-European Telegraph Company in Tehran, mediating between the British and Persian governments to secure Siemens, Halske & Co. the rights to income from the telegraph traffic. In 1870, Siemens participated in the founding of Deutsche Bank. In April of that year, Siemens became the director of Deutsche Bank before being commissioned as a lieutenant of the 4th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment for the Franco-German War. From 1872-1874, Siemens led the establishment of Deutsche Bank in London, New York City, Uruguay and Yokohama; the branches in Argentina, Uruguay and Yokohama were liquidated due to financial trouble.
Newspaper clippings about Georg von Siemens in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad. The principal divisions of the company are Industry, Energy and Infrastructure & Cities, which represent the main activities of the company; the company is a prominent maker of medical diagnostics equipment and its medical health-care division, which generates about 12 percent of the company's total sales, is its second-most profitable unit, after the industrial automation division. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Siemens and its subsidiaries employ 379,000 people worldwide and reported global revenue of around €83 billion in 2018 according to its earnings release. Siemens & Halske was founded by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske on 12 October 1847. Based on the telegraph, their invention used a needle to point to the sequence of letters, instead of using Morse code; the company called Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske, opened its first workshop on 12 October.
In 1848, the company built the first long-distance telegraph line in Europe. In 1850, the founder's younger brother, Carl Wilhelm Siemens Sir William Siemens, started to represent the company in London; the London agency became a branch office in 1858. In the 1850s, the company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russia. In 1855, a company branch headed by another brother, Carl Heinrich von Siemens, opened in St Petersburg, Russia. In 1867, Siemens completed the monumental Indo-European telegraph line stretching over 11,000 km from London to Calcutta. In 1867, Werner von Siemens described a dynamo without permanent magnets. A similar system was independently invented by Charles Wheatstone, but Siemens became the first company to build such devices. In 1881, a Siemens AC Alternator driven by a watermill was used to power the world's first electric street lighting in the town of Godalming, United Kingdom; the company diversified into electric trains and light bulbs. In 1887, it opened its first office in Japan.
In 1890, the founder retired and left running the company to his brother Carl and sons Arnold and Wilhelm. Siemens & Halske was incorporated in 1897, merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert. In 1907, Siemens had 34,324 employees and was the seventh-largest company in the German empire by number of employees. In 1919, S & H and two other companies jointly formed the Osram lightbulb company. During the 1920s and 1930s, S & H started to manufacture radios, television sets, electron microscopes. In 1932, Gebbert & Schall, Phönix AG and Siemens-Reiniger-Veifa mbH merged to form the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG, the third of the so-called parent companies that merged in 1966 to form the present-day Siemens AG. In the 1920s, Siemens constructed the Ardnacrusha Hydro Power station on the River Shannon in the Irish Free State, it was a world first for its design; the company is remembered for its desire to raise the wages of its under-paid workers only to be overruled by the Cumann na nGaedheal government.
Siemens exploited the forced labour of deported people in extermination camps. The company owned a plant in Auschwitz concentration camp. During the final years of World War II, numerous plants and factories in Berlin and other major cities were destroyed by Allied air raids. To prevent further losses, manufacturing was therefore moved to alternative places and regions not affected by the air war; the goal was to secure continued production of important everyday goods. According to records, Siemens was operating 400 alternative or relocated manufacturing plants at the end of 1944 and in early 1945. In 1972, Siemens sued German satirist F. C. Delius for his satirical history of the company, Unsere Siemenswelt, it was determined much of the book contained false claims although the trial itself publicized Siemens' history in Nazi Germany; the company supplied electrical parts to Nazi concentration camps and death camps. The factories had poor working conditions, where death were common; the scholarship has shown that the camp factories were created and supplied by the SS, in conjunction with company officials, sometimes high-level officials.
Siemens businessman and Nazi Party member John Rabe is, credited with saving many Chinese lives during the infamous Nanking Massacre. He toured Germany lecturing on the atrocities committed by Japanese forces in Nanking. In the 1950s, from their new base in Bavaria, S&H started to manufacture computers, semiconductor devices, washing machines, pacemakers. In 1966, Siemens & Halske, Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke merged to form Siemens AG. In 1969, Siemens formed Kraftwerk Union with AEG by pooling their nuclear power businesses; the company's first digital telephone exchange was produced in 1980. In 1988, Siemens and GEC acquired the UK technology company Plessey. Plessey's holdings were split, Siemens took over the avionics and traffic control businesses—as Siemens Plessey. In 1985, Siemens bought Allis-Chalmers' interest in the partnership company Siemens-Allis which supplied electrical control equipment, it was incorporated into Siemens' Energy and Automation division. In 1987, Siemens reintegrated
Siemens is the name of a family of German technology and telecommunications industrialists, founders and to the present day largest shareholders of Siemens AG. The family have a wealth of over €8billion, making them the 5th richest family in Germany, according to Handelsblatt The Siemens family was first documented in 1384 with Henning Symons, a farmer of the Free imperial city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, Germany; the family tree begins with Ananias Siemens, a citizen and owner of an oil mill at Goslar, belonging to the Shoemaker's Guild, as his ancestors have been shoemakers. His grandson Hans, speaker of the Merchant's Guild and commander of the town's vigilance committee, built the Siemens House at Goslar in 1692, it is still owned by the family and houses their private archives and an exhibition on the family history. The Siemens family provided numerous members to the Goslar city council as well as four mayors, the last being Johann Georg; the most important branches of the Goslar family go back to the farmer Christian Ferdinand Siemens.
His sons Werner Siemens, Wilhelm Siemens, Hans Siemens, Friedrich Siemens and Carl von Siemens became engineers and entrepreneurs. Werner Siemens, a former artillery and engineering officer in the Prussian army, invented a telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter, instead of using Morse code. Based on this invention, he founded the company Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske on 1 October 1847, with the company taking occupation of its workshop on 12 October, his business partner Johann Georg Halske, a master mechanic, was involved in the construction and design of electrical equipment such as the press which enabled wires to be insulated with a seamless coat of gutta-percha, the pointer telegraph, the morse telegraph and measuring instruments. The company was internationalised soon after its founding. One brother of Werner represented him in England and another in St. Petersburg, each earning recognition. In 1867 Mr Halske withdrew from the company because his more conservative views on company policy diverged from those of the rather venturous Siemens brothers.
In 1848, the company built the first long-distance telegraph line in Europe. In the 1850s, the company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russia. In 1867, Siemens completed the monumental Indo-European telegraph line and in 1870 a transatlantic communications cable. In 1857, Werner von Siemens described the countercurrent exchange and in 1867 a dynamo without permanent magnets. A similar system was independently invented by Charles Wheatstone, but Siemens became the first company to build such devices. In 1881, a Siemens AC Alternator driven by a watermill was used to power the world's first electric street lighting in the town of Godalming, United Kingdom; the company diversified into electric trains and light bulbs. In 1887 it opened its first office in Japan. In 1890, the founder retired and left running the company to his brother Carl and sons Arnold and Wilhelm. In 1888, Werner Siemens received hereditary ennoblement as von Siemens by Frederick III, German Emperor.
His brother William had been knighted – becoming Sir William – by Queen Victoria a few months before his death in 1883. The brother Carl in St. Petersburg was ennobled by Tsar Nicholas II in 1895. Werner's cousin and father-in-law, Carl Georg Siemens, a professor of technology at the University of Hohenheim, received personal ennoblement by the King of Württemberg. Werner's nephew Georg, co-founder of Deutsche Bank, was ennobled by Wilhelm II, German Emperor, in 1899. Siemens & Halske was incorporated in 1897, merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert. In 1919, S & H and two other companies jointly formed the Osram lightbulb company. During the 1920s and 1930s, S & H started to manufacture radios, television sets, electron microscopes. In 1932, Gebbert & Schall, Phönix AG and Siemens-Reiniger-Veifa mbH merged to form the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG, a producer of medical technology and the third of the so-called parent companies that Ernst von Siemens decided in 1966 to merge to form the present-day Siemens AG, one of the largest electro-technological firms in the world.
The company, during all its stages from Siemens & Halske AG, Siemens-Schuckertwerke AG and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG until its merger to Siemens AG in 1966, has always been led by subsequent generations of the founder's family, at first by Werner's brother Carl by Werner's sons Arnold and Carl Friedrich by his grandsons Hermann and Ernst, until 1981 by his great-grandson Peter von Siemens. Today the descendants of Werner and Carl von Siemens have a minority ownership of 6.9%, thus still being the largest single shareholder. Based on a market cap of €112billion, the Siemens family holds €7,7 billion worth of common stock in the company and received €201million in dividends in 2016. Considerable parts of this share have been endowed to charitable trusts controlled by family members; the family keeps a seat in the Siemens Supervisory Board and is said to take influence in the background. Until 1981, the chairman of the Supervisory Board has always been a member of the family; the von Siemens are said to return to the chairmanship in the future should necessity require it or an eligible candidate be ready to ru
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons of Friesland. Through his writings, Simons formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders; the early teachings of the Mennonites were founded on the belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus, which the original Anabaptist followers held to with great conviction despite persecution by the various Roman Catholic and Protestant states. An early set of Mennonite beliefs was codified in the Dordrecht Confession of Faith in 1632, but the various groups do not hold to a common confession or creed. Rather than fight, the majority of these followers survived by fleeing to neighboring states where ruling families were tolerant of their belief in believer's baptism. Over the years, Mennonites have become known as one of the historic peace churches because of their commitment to pacifism. In contemporary 21st-century society, Mennonites either are described only as a religious denomination with members of different ethnic origins or as both an ethnic group and a religious denomination.
There is controversy among Mennonites about this issue, with some insisting that they are a religious group while others argue that they form a distinct ethnic group. Historians and sociologists have started to treat Mennonites as an ethno-religious group, while others have begun to challenge that perception. There is a discussion about the term "ethnic Mennonite". Conservative Mennonite groups, who speak Pennsylvania German, Plautdietsch, or Bernese German fit well into the definition of an ethnic group, while more liberal groups and converts in developing countries do not. There are about 2.1 million Anabaptists worldwide as of 2015. Mennonite congregations worldwide embody the full scope of Mennonite practice from "plain people" to those who are indistinguishable in dress and appearance from the general population. Mennonites can be found in communities in at least 87 countries on six continents; the largest populations of Mennonites are to be found in Canada, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and the United States.
There are Mennonite colonies in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico and Paraguay Plautdietsch-speaking, who originated in the Netherlands, formed as a distinct ethnic group in Prussia and Ukraine, are called, somewhat inaccurately, Russian Mennonites. Today, fewer than 500 Mennonites remain in Ukraine. A small Mennonite presence, known as the Algemene Doopsgezinde Societeit, still continues in the Netherlands, where Simons was born; the early history of the Mennonites starts with the Anabaptists in the German and Dutch-speaking parts of central Europe. The German term is "Täufer" or "Wiedertäufer"; these forerunners of modern Mennonites were part of the Protestant Reformation, a broad reaction against the practices and theology of the Roman Catholic Church. Its most distinguishing feature is the rejection of infant baptism, an act that had both religious and political meaning since every infant born in western Europe was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church. Other significant theological views of the Mennonites developed in opposition to Roman Catholic views or to the views of other Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli.
Some of the followers of Zwingli's Reformed church thought that requiring church membership beginning at birth was inconsistent with the New Testament example. They believed that the church should be removed from government, that individuals should join only when willing to publicly acknowledge belief in Jesus and the desire to live in accordance with his teachings. At a small meeting in Zurich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, along with twelve others, baptized each other; this meeting marks the beginning of the Anabaptist movement. In the spirit of the times, other groups came to be, preaching about reducing hierarchy, relations with the state and sexual license, running from utter abandon to extreme chastity; these movements are together referred to as the "Radical Reformation". Many government and religious leaders, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, considered voluntary church membership to be dangerous—the concern of some deepened by reports of the Münster Rebellion, led by a violent sect of Anabaptists.
They joined forces to fight the movement, using methods such as banishment, burning, drowning or beheading. Despite strong repressive efforts of the state churches, the movement spread around western Europe along the Rhine. Officials killed many of the earliest Anabaptist leaders in an attempt to purge Europe of the new sect. By 1530, most of the founding leaders had been killed for refusing to renounce their beliefs. Many believed that God did not condone killing or the use of force for any reason and were, unwilling to fight for their lives; the non-resistant branches survived by seeking refuge in neutral cities or nations, such as Strasbourg. Their safety was tenuous, as a shift in alliances or an invasion could mean resumed persecution. Other groups of Anabaptists, such as the Batenburgers, were destroyed by their willingness to fight; this played a large part in the evolution of Anabaptist theology. They believed that Jesus taught that any use of force to get back at anyone was wrong, taught to forgive.
In the early days of the Anabapt
Carl Heinrich von Siemens
Carl Heinrich von Siemens was a German entrepreneur, a child of a tenant farmer of the Siemens family, an old family of Goslar, documented since 1384. He is a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and William Siemens, sons of Christian Ferdinand Siemens and wife Eleonore Deichmann, they had two more brothers, Hans Siemens and Friedrich August Siemens and father to Friedrich Carl Siemens, married on May 22, 1920 in Berlin to Melanie Bertha Gräfin Yorck von Wartenburg (the parents of Heinrich Werner Andreas Siemens Annabel Siemens, Daniela Siemens and Peter Siemens. In 1853, Carl Siemens traveled to St. Petersburg where he established the branch office of his brothers company Siemens & Halske. Siemens had a contract for constructing the Russian telegraph network at the time. Carl went to England in 1869. In the 1880s, he returned to Russia before he became the senior chief executive of Siemens & Halske after the death of his brother Werner in 1892, he resigned in 1904. For his service to Russia, he was ennobled by Tsar Nicholas II in 1895.
His grave is preserved in the Friedhof III der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor. Wilfried Feldenkirchen / Eberhard Posner: The Siemens Entrepreneurs. Continuity and Change, 1847–2005, Ten Portraits, Munich 2005. Biography on the homepage of the Siemens Corporate Archives
Carl Friedrich von Siemens
Carl Friedrich von Siemens was a German Entrepreneur and politician. A member of the Siemens family, he became associated with Siemens & Halske AG in 1899, his family company, he was responsible for the resurrection of the Siemens Group after the First World War. Before his death in 1941, he oversaw state railways for the Reichstag. Carl Friedrich von Siemens was born 5 September 1872 in Berlin. Carl Friedrich is the youngest son of Werner von Siemens by his second wife and relative Antonie Siemens and nephew of Carl Siemens and William Siemens. In 1899, Carl Friedrich von Siemens joined the Siemens & Halske AG, founded by his father and was led by his elder brothers. From 1901 to 1908, Siemens was a director of the British filial Siemens Brothers & Co in London and Siemens Brothers Dynamo Works in Stafford. From 1908 to 1912 he established and led the so-called Übersee-Abteilung, responsible for the company’s activities abroad, he became CEO of the Siemens-Schuckertwerke in Berlin in 1912 and chairman of the supervisory board of both Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens & Halske AG in 1919.
In this position he was responsible for the resurrection of the Siemens Group after the First World War. Upon his death in 1941 he was succeeded in both chairmanships by his late brother Arnold von Siemens' eldest son Hermann von Siemens. Apart from his business activities, Carl Friedrich von Siemens was engaged in several organisations. From 1920 to 1924 he was member of the Reichstag for the Deutsche Demokratische Partei. From 1924 to 1934 Siemens was chairman of the administrative board of the German State Railways, he died 9 September 1941 in Heinendorf near Potsdam. Married, he was the father of: Ernst Albrecht von Siemens Ursula von Siemens, married on 19 August 1931 in Berlin to Hubert Nikolaus Ernst Gebhard Graf Blücher von Wahlstatt, the parents of: Nikolaus Gebhard 8.th Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt, married on 20 April 1955 in Reinscheid to Ursula Gromann, the parents of: Livia Irene Gräfin Blücher von Wahlstatt and without any issue Lukas Friedrich Gebhard Graf Blücher von Wahlstatt, married on 1 September 1996 in Saint Martin, Guernsey to Patricia Baronesse von Fircks the parents of Carl Philipp Johannes Gebhard Nikolaus Georg Alexandra Irene Gabriele Gräfin Blücher von Wahlstatt and without any issue Sibylle Magdalene Gräfin Blücher von Wahlstatt and without any issue List of people from Berlin Wilfried Feldenkirchen / Eberhard Posner, The Siemens Entrepreneurs and Change, 1847–2005, Ten Portraits, Munich, 2005.
Biography on the homepage of the Siemens Corporate Archives Newspaper clippings about Carl Friedrich von Siemens in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions