Siena College is an independent Roman Catholic liberal arts college in Loudonville, Albany County, New York, United States. Siena is a four-year, independent college in the Franciscan tradition, founded by the Order of Friars Minor, in 1937, it has 3,000 full-time students and offers undergraduate degrees in business, liberal arts, sciences. The college was named after Bernardino of Siena, a 15th-century Italian Franciscan friar and preacher. St. Bernardine of Siena Friary is located on campus; the current president of the college is Edward Coughlin. In the late 1930s, Thomas Plassmann, President of St. Bonaventure University in Western New York, sent seven Franciscan friars to New York's Capital Region to found another college. Like most colleges, Siena College has renovated some of its facilities recently. A new rugby pitch was opened in fall 2016 and a new bookstore opened in fall 2014; the Siena College Grotto opened in October 2014. Siena College students attend three schools within the college: School of Business School of Liberal Arts School of Science AACSB International Accredited Accounting and Business Law Economics Finance M.
S. in Accounting Management Marketing Quantitative Business Analysis Biology Chemistry and Biochemistry Computer Science Environmental Studies and Sciences Mathematics Nursing Physics and Astronomy The college is a suburban campus taking up 174 acres at the northern edge of Loudonville. The campus includes: Siena HallThe main college building, housing classrooms and administrator and faculty offices; the cupola at the top is used as the symbol of the college, appearing on the college logo and most printed and web material. J. Spencer and Patricia Standish LibraryBuilt in 1999, it has space for 400,000 volumes, seating for 700 readers, networking for 500 computer connections, 100 computer work stations, an audio-visual center, an archive and special collections suite, 11 group study rooms, 16 faculty carrels, training laboratory and demonstration classrooms. Roger Bacon HallHouses the School of Science offices and classrooms as well as the Computer Science, Psychology and Physics Departments.
Morrell Science CenterAttached to Roger Bacon Hall and built in 2001, it houses the chemistry and biology departments. Kiernan HallClassrooms and faculty offices. Notable for the design: the first floor consist of two sections separated by an outdoor walkway, with the second floor bridging the two sections. Foy Hall Home to the creative arts department, campus theatre and studio of Siena College Television. Marcelle Athletic ComplexAthletic offices and facilities. Sarazen Student UnionHouses the post office, campus radio station, Student Affairs office, student government offices, campus hangout Casey'sThere are eight residential living areas on campus: Cushing Village, Hennepin Hall, Hines Hall, MacClosky Square, Padua Hall, Plassmann Hall, Ryan Hall, Snyder Hall, just built in 2010; the residence halls tend to be concentrated in the middle of campus and at the southern end while the townhouse residences are concentrated along the northern edge of campus off Fiddlers Lane and were at first controversial with the Newtonville community.
When the first townhouses were proposed the Newtonville Homeowners Association unsuccessfully sued to block construction. Subsequent construction has not been controversial thanks to the town board including the Newtonville Homeowners Association in the decision making process. A Friary provides housing for the Franciscan friars. Students are involved in a number of wide, academic related, leadership building, diverse organizations and clubs or campus. There are 85 organizations on campus, each with their own campus, local, or national impact; each organization has Executive Board positions which allows students to lead and set a plan of direction for their impact. The Siena College Student Senate serves as a liaison between faculty and students, it works to present and to interpret students’ attitudes and rights to the teaching faculty and administration. The Senate is charged with the oversight of clubs and the distribution of the student activities fees. While Senate does not directly control college academic or social policies, it continues to work with a group of cooperative administrators to shape them in ways that will benefit the community.
Both the Senate and the administration keep. The Student Senate has an Executive Board including President, Vice President and Treasurer; the rest of the Senate is Representatives and Town House Representatives, Commuter Representatives. Student Senate is the governing body for all organizations on campus; the Student Events Board sponsors traditional types of entertainment in the form of bands and speakers, but presents other non-traditional events designed for Siena such as coffeehouse acts, open mic nights, Winter Weekend, Siblings Weekend, Charity Week, big concerts, as well as SienaFest. SEB oversees and regulates the sale and distribution of goods and services of campus clubs and organizations; the Board encourages the development of new areas of entertainment based upon student interest. The mission of the Residence Hall Association is to act as a governing student body.
Park51 is a development, envisioned as a 13-story Islamic community center and mosque in Lower Manhattan. The developers hoped to promote an interfaith dialogue within the greater community. Due to its proposed location two blocks from the World Trade Center site, it was and controversially referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque"; the project would replace an existing 1850s building of Italianate style, damaged in the September 11 attacks. The original design was by Michel Abboud, principal of SOMA Architects, who wrestled for months with the challenge of making the building fit into its lower Manhattan surroundings: on the one hand, it should have a contemporary design, and, at the same time, it should look Islamic, his design included a 500-seat auditorium, performing arts center, fitness center, swimming pool, basketball court, childcare area, culinary school, art studio, food court, memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks. It included a prayer space for the Muslim community, which would accommodate 1,000–2,000 people.
In late September 2011, a temporary 4,000-square-foot Islamic center opened in renovated space at the Park51 location. In summer 2014, it was announced that there would instead be a 3-story museum with a prayer space, as well as condos, at 49-51 Park Place; the plans were changed again in September 2015, when the owner announced a 667-foot, 70-story luxury condominium building at the site. In May 2016, financing was secured for a 43-story condominium building with room for an Islamic cultural museum. Plans to build then-named Cordoba House were reported in The New York Times in December 2009, at a location, in use for Muslim worship. Early response to the project was not pronounced, one libertarian commentator provided positive coverage; the plans were reviewed by the local community board in May 2010, at which time they attracted some national media attention. Protests were sparked by a campaign launched by conservative bloggers Pamela Geller and Robert Spencer, founders of the group Stop Islamization of America, who dubbed the project the "Ground Zero mosque", a national controversy ensued.
Some opponents have said. Supporters have said that arguments against the building are based on the notion that Islam, rather than Islamic radicals, is responsible for the terrorist attack; the New York Times reported that Muslim religious facilities existed at the World Trade Center itself before the attacks. Opponents have argued that the project should not be built because polls have shown that most Americans, including most residents of New York State and New York City, oppose it. Most Americans do, believe the Park51 developers have a legal right to proceed with the project; the project's organizers state. It will strive to promote inter-community peace and understanding locally in New York City, nationally in America, globally," and have stated that it is modeled on the noted Manhattan Jewish Community Center, the 92nd Street Y; the proposal triggered an intense nationwide controversy, with opponents of the project objecting to its proximity to the site of the September 11 attacks, its scale, sources of funding, or expressing concern that the project's name was intended as a reference to the Islamic conquest of the Christian city of Córdoba.
Supporters have appealed to the First Amendment as well as the opportunity for Muslims to demonstrate peaceful Islamic values and for Americans to reassert their commitment to tolerance and diversity. The project was called Cordoba House renamed Park51, in reference to the street address on Park Place; the Imam leading the project introduced some ambiguity by again referring to the project as "Cordoba House". The Park51 website clarified that Park51 is the community center, while Cordoba House is the "interfaith and religious component of the center". Cordoba Initiative said the name "Cordoba House" was meant to invoke 8th–11th century Córdoba, which they called a model of peaceful coexistence among Muslims and Jews. According to The Economist, the name was chosen because Muslims and Christians created a center of learning in Córdoba together; the name was criticized. Raymond Ibrahim, a former associate director of the Middle East Forum, said the project and name were not "a gesture of peace and interfaith dialogue" but were "allusive of Islamic conquest and consolidation" and that Americans should realize that mosques are not "Muslim counterparts to Christian churches" but rather, "are symbols of domination and centers of radicalization".
The opposition to Park51 believes that Islam builds mosques on "conquered territory" as symbols of "territory" and "conquest". Park51 is referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque". Since it is neither located directly on the former World Trade Center site, Ground Zero, nor a mosque, some news media have advised against the use of this term; the Associated Press suggested several alternate terms including "mosque 2 blocks from WTC site", "Muslim center near WTC site", "mosque near ground zero", "mosque near WTC site". Cordoba Initiative says the building is not a mosque. Anushay Hossain in The Huffington Post criticises the use of the name Ground Zero mosque, says it is "Not a mosque but a
Arizona SB 1070
The Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act is a 2010 legislative Act in the U. S. state of Arizona that at the time of passage in 2010 was the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure passed in the United States. It has spurred considerable controversy. U. S. Federal law requires aliens older than 18 to possess proper identification at all times; the Arizona act additionally made it a state misdemeanor crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying the required documents, required that state law enforcement officers attempt to determine an individual's immigration status during a "lawful stop, detention or arrest", when there is reasonable suspicion that the individual is an illegal immigrant. The law barred state or local officials or agencies from restricting enforcement of federal immigration laws, imposed penalties on those sheltering and transporting unregistered aliens; the paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an "attrition through enforcement" doctrine.
Critics of the legislation say it encourages racial profiling, while supporters say the law prohibits the use of race as the sole basis for investigating immigration status. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns. There have been protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U. S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona. The Act was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23, 2010, it was scheduled to go into effect on July 29, 2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session. Legal challenges over its constitutionality and compliance with civil rights law were filed, including one by the United States Department of Justice, that asked for an injunction against enforcement of the law; the day before the law was to take effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the law's most controversial provisions. In June 2012, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled on the case Arizona v. United States, upholding the provision requiring immigration status checks during law enforcement stops but striking down three other provisions as violations of the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution.
U. S. federal law requires aliens 14 years old or older who are in the country for longer than 30 days to register with the U. S. government and have registration documents in their possession at all times. The Act makes it a state misdemeanor crime for an illegal alien to be in Arizona without carrying the required documents and obligates police to make an attempt, when practicable during a "lawful stop, detention or arrest", to determine a person's immigration status if there is reasonable suspicion that the person is an illegal alien. Any person arrested cannot be released without confirmation of the person's legal immigration status by the federal government pursuant to § 1373 of Title 8 of the United States Code. A first offense carries a fine of up to $100, plus court costs, up to 20 days in jail. A person is "presumed to not be an immigrant, unlawfully present in the United States" if he or she presents any of the following four forms of identification: a valid Arizona driver license.
The Act prohibits state and local officials from limiting or restricting "the enforcement of federal immigration laws to less than the full extent permitted by federal law" and provides that any legal Arizona resident can sue the agencies or officials in question to compel such full enforcement. If the person who brings suit prevails, that person may be entitled to reimbursement of court costs and reasonable attorney fees. In addition, the Act makes it a crime for anyone, regardless of citizenship or immigration status, to hire or to be hired from a vehicle which "blocks or impedes the normal movement of traffic." Vehicles used in such manner are subject to mandatory impoundment. Moreover, for a person in violation of a criminal law, it is an additional offense to transport an illegal alien "in furtherance" of the illegal alien's unauthorized presence in the U. S. to "conceal, harbor or shield" an illegal alien, or to encourage or induce an illegal alien to immigrate to the state, if the person "knows or recklessly disregards the fact" that the alien is in the U.
S. without authorization or that immigration would be illegal. Violation is a class 1 misdemeanor if fewer than ten illegal aliens are involved, a class 6 felony if ten or more are involved; the offender is subject to a fine of at least $1,000 for each illegal alien involved. The transportation provision includes exceptions for child protective services workers, ambulance attendants and emergency medical technicians. On April 30, 2010, the Arizona legislature passed and Governor Brewer signed, House Bill 2162, which modified the Act, signed a week earlier, with the amended text stating that "prosecutors would not investigate complaints based on race, color or national origin." The new text states that police may only investigate immigration status incident to a "lawful stop, detention, or arrest", lowers the original fine from a minimum of $500
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.
First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive. The term is used to describe a woman seen to be at the top of her profession or art; the term is used to a non-monarchical heads of state or chief executives who don't have that kind of style in their own country. Some countries have a title, official or unofficial, or can be translated as first lady; the title is not used for the wife of a head of government, not head of state. First Gentleman is the male equivalent of the title in countries where the head of state's spouse has been a man, such as the Philippines or Malta. While there has never been a male spouse of a U. S. President, "First Gentleman" is used in the United States for the husband of a governor. First Spouse, a rare version of the title, can be used in either case where the spouse of a head of state is male or female; this term is used to promote gender gender neutrality. In the United States, the President of the United States and his spouse are known as the First Couple and, if they have children, they are referred to as the First Family.
The designation First Lady seems to have originated in the United States, where one of the earliest uses in print, in 1838, was in reference to Martha Washington. Other sources indicate that, in 1849, President Zachary Taylor called Dolley Madison "first lady" at her state funeral, while reciting a eulogy written by himself; the wife of the current President of Armenia is referred to as "Հայաստանի Առաջին տիկին", which translates as "First Lady of Armenia". The wife of the current President of Azerbaijan uses the term "Birinci xanım"; the wife of the current Prime Minister of Australia has been referred to as the country's "unofficial first lady". The wife of the President of Brazil is called "Primeira-Dama"; the wife of the President of Bulgaria is called "Първа дама". The term "Lok Chumteav" is used; the term "Primera Dama" is used. The terms Supruga Predsjednika Republike or Suprug Predsjednice Republike are most used in Croatia, while the terms Prva dama and Prvi gospodin are used, except by foreign sources.
The current husband of the President of Croatia is Jakov Kitarović. The wife of the Prime Minister has in exceptionally rare cases been referred to as the First Lady of Croatia, however as the spouses of Prime Ministers have maintained a low profile and have never been public figures, the title Supruga Predsjednika Vlade has been used in cases when such a reference is needed; the current wife of the Prime Minister is Ana Maslać Plenković. The term První dáma is used for wife of the President of the Czech Republic; the current first lady is Ivana Zemanová. Following a petition against a proposed change in her status that gathered more than 275,000 signatures, the French government announced that Brigitte Macron will not be holding the official title of "First Lady", will not be allocated an official budget for her activities. In an interview with French magazine Elle, she stated that a soon-to-be published transparency charter would clarify her "role and accompanying resources", including the composition and size of her staff.
The Prime Minister of Greece is the country's leading political figure and the active chief executive of its government. As such, the term "Proti Kyria" is unofficially used by the Press to refer to the wife of the country's Prime Minister; the term "First Lady" is less used in India. The term might be used at times to refer to the wife of the President of India in newspapers; the term "First Lady" is not used to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister. The term "Ibu Negara" is used for wife of the President of Indonesia. In the Republic of Ireland, the term "First Lady" is not used in official contexts, but is used in the media to refer to the wife of the President and, less to refer to the wife of the Taoiseach. During the first half of Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach, he was separated from his wife Miriam and the role of First Lady was filled by his domestic partner, Celia Larkin; the term "First Gentleman" has been used to describe the husband of a female President. Leo Varadkar was elected Taoiseach in the first homosexual person to hold either post.
However, he has said that he does not plan for his domestic partner, Dr Matthew "Matt" Barrett, to fulfil First Gentleman roles. During the administration of President Kamuzu Banda, Malawi had an "Official Hostess" who served in the same capacity as "First Lady" because the President was unmarried. Banda was never married and therefore Cecilia Kadzamira served in this capacity for the nation; the title First Lady of Maldives is used by the office of the president, governmental offices, by visiting dignitaries. The term "first lady" is not used in New Zealand, but is sometimes used in the press and colloquially to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister; the term first lady has been used intermittently for the wife of the President of Nigeria. The spouse of the President has no official title, but receives the same style as the president, Excellency. A former president Shehu Shagari was a polygamist, none of his wives were referred to as the first lady. In Pakistan, the term خاتون اول is used for the wife of Moha