A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age, marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods; the last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago. The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time with no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state. Within the Quaternary, there have been a number of interglacials; the last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary Ice Age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, which began about 110,000 years ago and ended about 15,000 years ago. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere and have different names, depending on their geographic distributions: Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Dali, Taibai Luojishan, Tianchi Qomolangma, Llanquihue; the glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached Northern Germany.
In the last 650,000 years, there were, on average, seven cycles of glacial retreat. Since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next glacial period, which otherwise would begin in around 1,000 years, more glacial cycles
The Sandia Mountains are a mountain range located in Bernalillo and Sandoval counties to the east of the city of Albuquerque in New Mexico in the southwestern United States. The range is within the Cibola National Forest, part of the range is protected as the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, its highest point is 10,678 feet. Sandía means watermelon in Spanish, is popularly believed to be a reference to the reddish color of the mountains at sunset; when viewed from the west, the profile of the mountains is a long ridge, with a thin zone of green conifers near the top, suggesting the "rind" of the watermelon. However, as Robert Julyan notes, "the most explanation is the one believed by the Sandia Indians: the Spaniards, when they encountered the Pueblo in 1540, called it Sandia, because they thought the squash gourds growing there were watermelons, the name Sandia soon was transferred to the mountains east of the pueblo." In Southern Tiwa, Posu gai hoo-oo means. The author notes that the Sandia Pueblo Indians, who are Tiwa speakers, sometimes call the mountain Bien Mur, "big mountain".
The Sandias are a small range, a part of the Basin and Range Province, but built by a different phenomenon, consisting of a single north-south ridge, which rises to two major summits: Sandia Crest and South Sandia Peak, 9,702 ft. The range measures 17 miles north-south, the width in the east-west direction varies from 4 to 8 miles; the west side of the range is steep and rugged, with a number of sheer rock walls and towers near Sandia Crest. The east side has a gentler slope; the Sandias are part of the Sandia -- Manzano Mountains. The other part consists of the Manzano Mountains; the two ranges are separated by Tijeras Canyon, which leads to a important pass. S. Route 66; the Sandias are the highest range in the immediate vicinity, are well-separated from the higher Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This gives Sandia Crest a high topographic prominence of 4,098 ft. Lying to the east and northeast of the Sandias are two smaller ranges, the Ortiz Mountains and the San Pedro Mountains; the Sandia Mountains are home to the world's second longest tramway, Sandia Peak Tramway, 2.7 miles long.
Over this distance the tram cars ascend over 4,000 feet. The average speed of the tram car is 12 mph, the length of the ride is 15 minutes; the current longest tramway as of 2010 is in Armenia. The Sandia Mountains are a fault block range, on the eastern edge of the Rio Grande Rift Valley; the Sandias were uplifted in the last ten million years as part of the formation of the Rio Grande Rift. They form the eastern boundary of the Albuquerque Basin; the core of the range consists of Sandia granite 1.5 billion years old. This is topped by a thin layer of sedimentary rock of Pennsylvanian age; the limestone contains marine fossils including crinoids, gastropods, horn corals, bryozoans. However, most of the fossils are too small for the human eye to detect. Potassium-feldspar crystals embedded within the Sandia granite give the mountains their distinct pink color; the Sandias encompass four different named life zones due to the large elevation change, the resulting changes in temperature and amount of precipitation, from the base to the top.
The desert grassland and savanna at the western base of the mountain is part of the Upper Sonoran Zone. From 5,500 to 7,200 ft, the Upper Sonoran Zone is found, but notable differences occur: one first finds a zone of juniper a mixed Piñon-Juniper-evergreen Oak zone, while a thin cover of black grama grass shifts in its dominance to a less thin cover of blue grama grass. From 7,200 to 7,800 ft, in the Transition Zone, Ponderosa Pine dominates, evergreen oaks change to more cold-tolerant deciduous oaks. From 7,800 to 9,800 ft, a mixture of conifers occurs in the Canadian Zone. From 9,800 ft to the Sandia Crest at 10,678 ft on the eastern side and fir dominate the Hudsonian Zone. There are two easy ways; the Sandia Peak Tramway ascends from the west side to a point on the crestline about 1.5 miles south of Sandia Crest, at the top of the Sandia Peak Ski Area, located on the east side of the mountains. A road from the east provides access to the bottom of the ski area and to the Sandia Crest itself, where there is a gift shop, scenic overlook, a large electronic communication site with numerous towers and antennas.
The Sandia Crest Scenic Byway is a popular path for motorcycle riders with its miles of winding road to the summit. The Sandia Mountains are the
A stratovolcano known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas; the lava flowing from stratovolcanoes cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows have travelled as far as 15 km. Stratovolcanoes are sometimes called "composite volcanoes" because of their composite stratified structure built up from sequential outpourings of erupted materials, they are in contrast to the less common shield volcanoes. Two famous examples of stratovolcanoes are Krakatoa, known for its catastrophic eruption in 1883 and Vesuvius, whose eruption in AD79 caused destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 AD.
Both eruptions claimed thousands of lives. In modern times, Mount St. Helens and Mount Pinatubo have erupted catastrophically, with lesser losses of lives; the possible existence of stratovolcanoes on other terrestrial bodies of the Solar System has not been conclusively demonstrated. The one feasible exception are the existence of some isolated massifs on Mars, for example the Zephyria Tholus. Stratovolcanoes are common at subduction zones, forming chains and clusters along plate tectonic boundaries where oceanic crust is drawn under continental crust or another oceanic plate; the magma forming stratovolcanoes rises when water trapped both in hydrated minerals and in the porous basalt rock of the upper oceanic crust is released into mantle rock of the asthenosphere above the sinking oceanic slab. The release of water from hydrated minerals is termed "dewatering", occurs at specific pressures and temperatures for each mineral, as the plate descends to greater depths; the water freed from the rock lowers the melting point of the overlying mantle rock, which undergoes partial melting and rises due to its lighter density relative to the surrounding mantle rock, pools temporarily at the base of the lithosphere.
The magma rises through the crust, incorporating silica-rich crustal rock, leading to a final intermediate composition. When the magma nears the top surface, it pools in a magma chamber within the crust below the stratovolcano. There, the low pressure allows water and other volatiles dissolved in the magma to escape from solution, as occurs when a bottle of carbonated water is opened, releasing CO2. Once a critical volume of magma and gas accumulates, the plug of the volcanic vent is broken, leading to a sudden explosive eruption. In recorded history, explosive eruptions at subduction zone volcanoes have posed the greatest hazard to civilizations. Subduction-zone stratovolcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens, Mount Etna and Mount Pinatubo erupt with explosive force: the magma is too stiff to allow easy escape of volcanic gases; as a consequence, the tremendous internal pressures of the trapped volcanic gases remain and intermingle in the pasty magma. Following the breaching of the vent and the opening of the crater, the magma degasses explosively.
The magma and gases blast out with full force. Since 1600 CE, nearly 300,000 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions. Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows and lahars, deadly hazards that accompany explosive eruptions of subduction-zone stratovolcanoes. Pyroclastic flows are swift, avalanche-like, ground-sweeping, incandescent mixtures of hot volcanic debris, fine ash, fragmented lava and superheated gases that can travel at speeds in excess of 160 km/h. Around 30,000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows during the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean. In March to April 1982, three explosive eruptions of El Chichón in the State of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico, caused the worst volcanic disaster in that country's history. Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people. Two Decade Volcanoes that erupted in 1991 provide examples of stratovolcano hazards. On June 15, Mount Pinatubo spewed an ash cloud 40 km into the air and produced huge pyroclastic surges and lahar floods that devastated a large area around the volcano.
Pinatubo, located in Central Luzon just 90 km west-northwest from Manila, had been dormant for 6 centuries before the 1991 eruption, which ranks as one of the largest eruptions in the 20th century. In 1991, Japan's Unzen Volcano, located on the island of Kyushu about 40 km east of Nagasaki, awakened from its 200-year slumber to produce a new lava dome at its summit. Beginning in June, repeated collapse of this erupting dome generated ash flows that swept down the mountain's slopes at speeds as high as 200 km/h. Unzen is one of more than 75 active volcanoes in Japan; the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 smothered the nearby ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum with thick deposits of pyroclastic surges and lava flows. Although death toll is estimated between 13,000 and 26,000 remains, the exact number still remains unknown. Vesuvius is recognized as one of the most dangerous volcanoes, due to its
Mescalero or Mescalero Apache is an Apache tribe of Southern Athabaskan Native Americans. The tribe is federally recognized as the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, located in south central New Mexico. In the nineteenth century, the Mescalero opened their reservation to other Apache bands, such as the Mimbreno and the Chiricahua, many of whom had been imprisoned in Florida; the Lipan Apache joined the reservation. Their descendants are enrolled in the Mescalero Apache Tribe. Established on May 27, 1873, by Executive Order of President Ulysses S. Grant, the reservation was first located near Fort Stanton; the present reservation was established in 1883. It has a land area of 1,862.463 km² entirely in Otero County. The 463,000-acre reservation lies on the eastern flank of the Sacramento Mountains and borders the Lincoln National Forest. A small unpopulated section is in Lincoln County just southwest of Ruidoso. U. S. Route 70 is the major highway through the reservation; the tribe has an economy based on ranching and tourism.
The mountains and foothills are forested with pines. The Mescalero Apache developed a cultural center near the tribal headquarters on U. S. Route 70 in the reservation's largest community of Mescalero. On display are tribal artifacts and important historical information; the tribe operates another, larger museum on the western flank of the Sacramento Mountains in Dog Canyon, south of Alamogordo. The tribe developed and owns the Inn of the Mountain Gods Resort and Casino within Lincoln National Forest; as part of the IMG operation, the tribe owns and manages Ski Apache under contract as a concession with the US Forest Service. It is the southernmost major ski area in North America. In January 2012, Ski Apache celebrated its 50th anniversary; the ski area is situated adjacent to the massive peak of Sierra Blanca a 12,003-foot mountain. It is the southernmost alpine peak in the Continental United States and is part of the Sacramento Mountains. Using the EPA's Level III Ecoregion System, derived from Omernik, this mountain is included in the "Arizona/New Mexico Mountains,", south of the "Southern Rocky Mountains" of northern New Mexico.
Sierra Blanca peak, located on the reservation, is sacred ground for the Mescalero Apache Tribe. They do not allow access without a permit; the Mescalero Apache Tribe holds elections for the office of president every two years. The eight Tribal Council members are elected for two years. Election for the Council is held every year; the reservation had a population of 3,156 according to the 2000 census. In 1959, the tribe elected Virginia Klinekole as its first woman president, she was elected to the Tribal Council, serving on it until 1986. The tribe re-elected Wendell Chino as president. Soon after Chino's death, the late Sara Misquez was elected as president. Chino's son, Mark Chino has been elected and served as president. New officers have served in the 21st century. On January 11, 2008 Carleton Naiche-Palmer was sworn in as the new president of the Mescalero Apache tribe. From 2014 to 2018, Danny Breuninger was President of the Mescalero Apache Tribe. Serving in the Office of President is Arthur "Butch" Blazer.
Gabe Aguilar has been Vice President of the Mescalero Apache Tribe since 2014. The Mescalero language is a Southern Athabaskan language, a subfamily of the Athabaskan and Dené–Yeniseian families. Mescalero is part of the southwestern branch of this subfamily; these are considered the three dialects of Apachean. Although Navajo is a related Southern Athabaskan language, its language and culture are considered distinct from those of the Apache; the Mescalero Apache were a nomadic mountain people. They traveled east on the arid plains to hunt the buffalo and south into the desert for gathering Mescal Agave. Spanish colonists named them Mescalero Apache; the Mescalero Apache, along with the other Apache groups, lived by traditional hunting and gathering. If conditions were poor, they raided other tribes, Spanish and American settlers to survive; the Mescalero's autonym, or name for themselves, is Shis-Inday or Mashgalénde / Mashgalé-neí / Mashgalé-õde. The Navajo, another Athabascan-speaking tribe, call the Mescalero Naashgalí Dineʼé.
Like other Apache peoples they identify as Inday / Indee / Ndé / Nndé-í / Nndé-ne / Nndé-õne. Neighboring Apache bands called the Mescalero Nadahéndé, because the mescal agave was a staple food source for them. In times of need and hunger, they depended on stored mescal for survival. Since 1550 Spanish colonists referred to them as the Mescalero. Mescalero Apache bands were referred to by European colonists and settlers by different names, some related to their geographic territory, they were recorded in documents by a wide number of names: Apaches de Cuartelejo, Apaches del Río Grande, Faraones, Natage, Querechos, T
The Tularosa Basin is a graben basin in the Basin and Range Province and within the Chihuahuan Desert, east of the Rio Grande in southern New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. The Tularosa Basin is located in Otero County, it covers about 6,500 sq mi. It lies between the Sacramento Mountains to the east, the San Andres and Oscura Mountains to the west; the basin stretches about 150 mi north–south, at its widest is about 60 mi east-west. It is geologically considered part of the Rio Grande Rift zone, which widens there due to the slight clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau tectonic plate. Notable features of the basin include White Sands National Monument, Oliver Lee Memorial State Park, the Carrizozo Malpais lava flow, Holloman Air Force Base, the White Sands Missile Range with the historic Trinity nuclear test Site. Tularosa Creek flows westward into the Tularosa Basin just north of the village of Tularosa; the distinct northwestern New Mexico Tularosa River is located in Catron County.
Hydrologically, the Tularosa Basin is an endorheic basin. The basin is closed to the north by Chupadera Mesa and to the south by the broad flat 4000-foot-elevation plain between the Franklin and Hueco Mountains, with the conventional boundary taken to be the New Mexico–Texas border. Surface water that does not evaporate or soak into the ground accumulates at playas, the largest of, Lake Lucero, at 3888 feet elevation, at the southwest end of the White Sands dunes; the White Sands are a 710-km2 field of white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. To the north of Lake Lucero are extensive alkali flats, which produce additional gypsum for wind deposition on the dunes. Apache, U. S.'Old West'When the Spanish arrived in the Tularosa Basin, they found springs and small streams coming from the Sacramento Mountains that fed a lush grassland on the eastern side of the basin. While some sheep ranching was tried by the Spanish, some mining, the area remained under Apache control until the 1850s, when the United States established its military presence at Fort Stanton, Torreon Fort, Camp Comfort at White Sands.
Under US military protection, the first permanent settlement was established in 1862, when about 50 Hispanic farmers from the Rio Grande Valley moved to Tularosa. Efforts to control the Apache waned somewhat during the American Civil War and serious Anglo settlement did not begin until the late 1870s, when settlers and cattlemen from Texas began moving into the basin. Grasslands and grazingThe native grasslands in the Tularosa Basin were able to support large herds in the wet years of the 1880s; when the Anglos first started running cattle, in some places, the native perennial bunchgrasses grew'as high as a horse’s shoulder' - 1.0–2.5 m depending on species. One cowboy estimated in 1889 that 85,000 head were mustered within the basin, but said, “far too heavy a burden for the range” - or beyond its carrying capacity; the following years were ones of severe drought, the grassland pastures never recovered from the overgrazing which continued in many instances for 75 years or more, consequent top-soil erosion and desertification.
Within the White Sands Missile Range, where cattle grazing was eliminated in 1945, the effects from the 1890 -1945 period of overgrazing can still be seen nearly everywhere in the range. Many areas that were known to be rich perennial grasslands are now xeric desert shrublands, with creosote bush— predominating. Groundwater salinizationSince surface water was unable to sustain the cattle herds, the ranchers turned to groundwater, the reachable aquifer of'sweet water' was pumped out and depleted from under the basin, leaving only brackish water. Applying the groundwater to the surface resulted in additional salts being dissolved and transported back down by groundwater recharge into the aquifer, increasing its salinity. By 2000, salts in the aquifer were recognized to be needed to be reduced if existing levels of water use were to continue. Therefore, in 2004, the Tularosa Basin National Desalination Research Facility was established in the basin at Alamogordo, as a joint project of the Federal Bureau of Reclamation and Sandia National Laboratories.
It is a national center for researching procedures to reduce brackish water creation and to develop new technologies for its desalination, as it is found in present-day inland basin aquifers with agricultural irrigation and potable water withdrawal demands. The Tularosa Basin is in the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion, with the former Great Plains grassland habitat ecotones; because of the closed nature of the basin, a number of unique ecological niches have developed. A significant number of endemic species are only found in the Tularosa Basin; these include the Oscura Mountains chipmunk. While the Tularosa Basin lies in New Mexican Otero County, it extends into Doña Ana, Sierra and Socorro Counties in New Mexico, El Paso County in southwest Texas. Alamogordo 32.90°N 105.96°W / 32.90.
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List