Yuba County, California
Yuba County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 72,155; the county seat is Marysville. Yuba County is included in the Yuba City, California Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Sacramento–Roseville, California Combined Statistical Area; the county is located in the state's Central Valley region along the Feather River. Yuba County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county's territory were given to Placer County in 1851, to Nevada County in 1851 and to Sierra County in 1852; the county was named after the Yuba River by Captain John Sutter for the Maidu village Yubu, Yupu or Juba near the confluence of the Yuba and Feather rivers. General Mariano Vallejo stated that the river was named Uba by an exploring expedition in 1824 because of the quantities of wild grapes which they found growing on its banks. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 644 square miles, of which 632 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water.
It is the fifth-smallest county in California by total area. The county lies along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the steep slopes making it prime territory for the siting of hydroelectric power plants. A portion of the county, where Marysville and most of the population lives, is west of the mountains on the valley floor. There is a great deal of agriculture business in this part of the county fruit orchards, rice fields, cattle grazing. Studies by the “Biota of North America Program” suggest Yuba is the most biodiverse single county in the contiguous United States, with 1,968 native vascular plant species per 10,000 square kilometres, a figure which shades the most species-rich parts of Florida; the county exhibits a considerable diversity of flowering plant species, among, the yellow mariposa lily, Calochortus luteus. National protected areas within Yuba County include portions of the Plumas National Forest and the Tahoe National Forest. In addition to these identified protected areas the county has extensive natural areas consisting of forestation, riparian area and other habitats.
Butte County - north Sierra County - northeast Nevada County - east Placer County - southeast Sutter County - southwest The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Yuba is a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections; the last Democratic presidential candidate to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. In the United States House of Representatives, Yuba County is in California's 3rd congressional district, represented by Democrat John Garamendi. In the California State Legislature, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen, the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. State Route 20 State Route 49 State Route 65 State Route 70 Yuba Sutter Transit operates local bus service, as well as commuter runs to Downtown Sacramento. Greyhound buses stop in Marysville. Yuba County Airport is located three miles south of Marysville, it is a general aviation airport.
Brownsville Aero Pines Airport is located off La Porte Rd in Brownsville. The 2010 United States Census reported that Yuba County had a population of 72,155; the racial makeup of Yuba County was 49,332 White, 2,361 African American, 1,675 Native American, 4,862 Asian, 293 Pacific Islander, 8,545 from other races, 5,087 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18,051 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 60,219 people, 20,535 households, 14,805 families residing in the county. The population density was 96 people per square mile. There were 22,636 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.6% White, 3.2% Black or African American, 2.6% Native American, 7.5% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 10.0% from other races, 5.9% from two or more races. 17.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.2% were of German, 10.4% American, 7.6% Irish and 7.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 78.8 % spoke 13.2 % Spanish and 4.7 % Hmong as their first language.
There were 20,535 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.34. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.4 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,460, the median income for a family was $34,103. Males had a median income of $27,845 versus $21,301 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,124. About 16.3% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
Higher education is available at Yuba Community College. The county has a Yuba County Library system with one branch in Marysville. Yuba County schools have a 16% suspension rate with 2257 students receiving suspensions out of 14027 students enrol
Plumas National Forest
Plumas National Forest is a 1,146,000-acre United States National Forest located at the northern terminus of the Sierra Nevada, in northern California. The Forest was named after its primary watershed, the Rio de las Plumas, anglicized to "Feather River". About 85% of Plumas National Forest lies in Plumas County, but smaller portions are found in eastern Butte, northern Sierra, southern Lassen, northeastern Yuba counties; the Plumas National Forest Supervisor's office is located in California. There are local ranger district offices in Blairsden and Quincy. Plumas was established as the Plumas Forest Reserve by the General Land Office on March 27, 1905. In 1906 the forest was transferred to the U. S. Forest Service, on March 4, 1907 it became a National Forest. On July 1, 1908 a portion of Diamond Mountain National Forest was added; the Bucks Lake Wilderness was designated in 1984 as a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. A 2002 study by the Forest Service identified 127,000 acres of the forest as old growth, using an economic type definition.
The most common old-growth forest types are mixed conifer forests of: Coast Douglas-fir Pacific and Columbia Ponderosa Pine in the west, transitioning to in the far eastern section Sierra White Fir Jeffrey Pine Red Fir Sierra Lodgepole Pine Incense Cedar Sugar pine Virtually no virgin timberland exists, as the area has been a logging epicenter starting with the gold rush continuing into the modern era. List of plants of the Sierra Nevada Index: Fauna of the Sierra Nevada Butterfly Valley Botanical Area Feather Falls Lake Davis Frenchman Lake Moonlight Fire Camp Fire Disappearance of Gary Mathias, the only one of a group of five men who otherwise perished in a mysterious incident in winter 1978 whose body has not been found Official Plumas National Forest website Plumas National Forest - Map
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed. A drift mine is an underground mine in which the entry or access is above water level and on the slope of a hill, driven horizontally into the ore seam. Random House dictionary says the origin of the term "drift mine" is an Americanism, circa 1885–1890. Drift is a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed or vein of ore. A drift may not intersect the ground surface. A drift follows the vein, as distinguished from a crosscut that intersects it, or a level or gallery, which may do either. All horizontal or subhorizontal development openings made in a mine have the generic name of drift; these are tunnels made in the rock, with a size and shape depending on their use—for example, ventilation, or exploration. This section provides a abbreviated snapshot of the drift mining information available.
Argyle Lake State Park's website says the Argyle Hollow has been rich in coal and limestone resources. Individuals opened and dug their own "drift mines" to supplement their income. In Appalachia, small coal mining operations such as these were known as "country bank" or "farmer" coal mines, produced only small quantities for local use; the Lusk Mine, now in Turkey Run State Park, was in operation from the late 1800s through the late 1920s. Too small for commercial operation, the mine provided coal for the Lusk family and for the park. In 1820 the first commercial mine in Kentucky, known as the "McLean drift bank" opened near the Green River and Paradise in Muhlenberg County. In Drift, Beaver Coal & Mining Company was the most well known operator of mines, but there were other smaller mines as well. Dorsey Coal Company's Ashby coal mine, a small drift mine in the Upper Freeport coal. In the 1880s, State Inspector of Mines, Andrew Roy, issued a report on the Mines and Mining Resources of Ohio, which includes the following paragraphs: The capacity or output of the mines of the State varies greatly.
Thick coals are capable of a greater daily output than thin seams, as a general rule drift mines possess greater advantages for loading coal than shaft mining openings. In many of the mines of the great vein region of the Hocking valley the capacity is equal to 1,200 to 1,500 tons per day. In shaft mines 600 to 700 tons daily is regarded as a good output; the first ton of coal in a shaft mine 100 feet in depth and having a daily capacity of 600 tons costs the mining adventurer upwards of $20,000, cases are on record where owing to the extraordinary amount of water in sinking, $100,000 have been expended before coal was reached. Drift mines, as they require no machinery for pumping water and raising coal, cost less than half the amount required in shaft mining. Water is, however, an expensive item in drift mines opened on the dip slope of the coal, underground hauling under such conditions is unusually costly. Indiana County: Graff Drift Mines, near Blairsville. Commodore Mines, Nos. 1 & 3, No.
2, Green Twp. Empire "F" Mine, Shanktown. Empire "M" Mine, a drift mine, non-gaseous, mining a 38" thick seam of Lower Kittaning coal using compressed air machines. Rodkey Mine, a drift mine, Clymer. Ernest Mine No. 2, a drift mine, at Ernest, Rayne Twp. Indiana Co. PA; the Fork Mountain, TN, drift portal entered an 84-inch unnamed seam of coal. Most coal seams in Tennessee were not this thick. Many, many references to and photographs of WV drift mines in the Scrapbook of Appalachian Coal Towns, including Sprague, Nuttallburg, Layland, Casselman, etc. Drift mining methods were used extensively to mine placer deposits during the early years of the Nome mining district. During summer, surface deposits could be worked, but some placer deposits were buried too for surface placering. In addition, water to wash the gold from the placers was not available in the winter. Many miners tunneled into deep placer deposits, bringing out the high-grade gravels to be washed at the spring thaw. Most of the ground in Nome is permafrost.
By drift mining, miners were able to recover much of the gold buried under the permafrost. Gold at Nome was concentrated in three ancient beach lines, now inshore, above sea level, buried under fifty feet of permafrost overlain by two feet of tundra. Gold was found on top of "false bedrock," a layer of clay that occurred at the base of the beach or stream deposit. Miners sank shafts to prospect for the pay streaks by building a fire atop the permafrost as it melted, shoveling away the mud; the process would continue down to either bedrock. When gold was found drift mining began. Miners would tunnel horizontally from the bottom of their prospect shaft to follow the gold along the surface of the bedrock; the tunnels did not cave in. Miners discovered old underground river gravels rich with gold. Around 1900 the population of Nome was many of them drift miners. Nome's gold fields, appearing untouched from the surface, are honeycombed with tunnels left by the gold rush dr
The avoirdupois system is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units. It was first used in the 13th century and was updated in 1959. In 1959, by international agreement, the definitions of the pound and ounce became standardized in countries which use the pound as a unit of mass; the International Avoirdupois Pound was created. It is the everyday system of weights used in the United States, it is still used, in varying degrees, in everyday life in the United Kingdom and some other former British colonies, despite their official adoption of the metric system. The avoirdupois weight system's general attributes were developed for the international wool trade in the Late Middle Ages, when trade was in recovery, it was based on a physical standardized pound or "prototype weight" that could be divided into 16 ounces. There were a number of competing measures of mass, the fact that the avoirdupois pound had three numbers as divisors may have been a cause of much of its popularity, so that the system won out over systems with 12 or 10 or 15 subdivisions.
The use of this unofficial system stabilized and evolved, with only slight changes in the reference standard or in the prototype's actual mass. Over time, the desire not to use too many different systems of measurement allowed the establishment of "value relationships", with other commodities metered and sold by weight measurements such as bulk goods and smelted metals. In England, Henry VII authorized its use as a standard, Queen Elizabeth I acted three times to enforce a common standard, thus establishing what became the Imperial system of weights and measures. Late in the 19th century various governments acted to redefine their base standards on a scientific basis and establish ratio-metric equations to SI metric system standards, they did not always pick the same equivalencies, though the pound remained similar. An alternative system of mass, the troy system, is used for precious materials; the modern definition of the avoirdupois pound is 0.45359237 kilograms. The word avoirdupois is from Anglo-Norman French aveir de peis "goods of weight".
This term referred to a class of merchandise: aveir de peis, "goods of weight", things that were sold in bulk and were weighed on large steelyards or balances. Only did the term become identified with a particular system of units used to weigh such merchandise; the warfare-impacted orthography of the day has left many variants of the term, such as haberty-poie and haber de peyse. The rise in use of the measurement system corresponds to the regrowth of trade during the High Middle Ages after the early crusades, when Europe experienced a growth in towns, turned from the chaos of warlordism to long distance trade, began annual fairs and commerce, by land and sea. There are two major hypotheses regarding the origins of the avoirdupois system; the older hypothesis is. A newer hypothesis is; the avoirdupois weight system is thought to have come into use in England circa 1300. It was used for weighing wool. In the early 14th century several other specialized weight systems were used, including the weight system of the Hanseatic League with a 16-ounce pound of 7200 grains and an 8-ounce mark.
However, the main weight system, used for coinage and for everyday use, was based on the 12-ounce tower pound of 5400 grains. From the 14th century until the late 16th century, the systems basis, the avoirdupois pound, the prototype for today's international pound was known as the wool pound or the avoirdupois wool pound; the earliest known version of the avoirdupois weight system had the following units: a pound of 6992 grains, a stone of 14 pounds, a woolsack of 26 stone, an ounce of 1⁄16 pound, the ounce was divided into 16 "parts". The earliest known occurrence of the word "avoirdupois" in England is from a document entitled Tractatus de Ponderibus et Mensuris; this document is listed in early statute books under the heading 31 Edward I dated 2 February 1303. More recent statute books list it among statutes of uncertain date. Scholars nowadays believe that it was written between 1266 and 1303. A royal memorandum, it took on the force of law and was recognized as a statute by King Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I.
It was repealed by the Weights and Measures Act 1824. In the Tractatus, the word "avoirdupois" refers not to a weight system, but to a class of goods heavy goods sold by weight, as opposed to goods sold by volume, count, or some other method. Since it is written in Anglo-Norman French, this document is not the first occurrence of the word in the English language. Three major developments occurred during the reign of Edward III. First, a statute known as 14o Edward III. St. 1. Cap. 12 "Bushels and Weights shall be made and sent into every County." & acorde qe deſore en auant vn meſure & vn pois ſoit parmy toute Engleterre & qe le Treſorer face faire certaines eſtandardz de buſſel
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies in Nevada; the Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, is 70 miles across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include the largest alpine lake in North America; the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks; the character of the range is shaped by its ecology. More than one hundred million years ago during the Nevadan orogeny, granite formed deep underground; the range started to uplift four million years ago, erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range.
The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by tectonic forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra; the Sierra Nevada has a significant history. The California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855. Due to inaccessibility, the range was not explored until 1912; the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a small but important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevada's elevation increases from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to heights of about 14,000 feet at its crest 50–75 miles to the east; the east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment. Unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift; the Sierra Nevada's irregular northern boundary stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass to the North Fork Feather River.
It represents where the granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada dives below the southern extent of Cenozoic igneous surface rock from the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the west by California's Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province; the southern boundary is at Tehachapi Pass. Physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the California Geological Survey states that "the northern Sierra boundary is marked where bedrock disappears under the Cenozoic volcanic cover of the Cascade Range." The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco. The northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River; the southern third of the range is drained by the Kings, Kaweah and Kern rivers, which flow into the endorheic basin of Tulare Lake, which overflows into the San Joaquin during wet years.
The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower. From north to south, the Susan River flows into intermittent Honey Lake, the Truckee River flows from Lake Tahoe into Pyramid Lake, the Carson River runs into Carson Sink, the Walker River into Walker Lake. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California; the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the peaks range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet; the crest near Lake Tahoe is 9,000 feet high, with several peaks approaching the height of Freel Peak. Farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell; the Sierra rises to 14,000 feet with Mount Humphreys near Bishop, California. Near Lone Pine, Mount Whitney is at 14,505 feet, the highest point in the contiguous United States. South of Mount Whitney, the elevation of the range dwindles.
The crest elevation is 10,000 feet near Lake Isabella, but south of the lake, the peaks reach to only a modest 8,000 feet. There are several notable geographical features in the Sierra Nevada: Lake Tahoe is a large, clear freshwater lake in the northern Sierra Nevada, with an elevation of 6,225 ft and an area of 191 sq mi. Lake Tahoe lies between a spur of the Sierra. Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon, Kern Canyon are examples of many glacially-scoured canyons on the west side of the Sierra. Yosemite National Park is filled with notable features such as waterfalls, granite domes, high mountains and meadows. Groves of Giant Sequoia
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a