The Magdalena Mountains are a regionally high, mountain range in Socorro County, in west-central New Mexico in the southwestern United States. The highest point in the range is South Baldy, at 10,783 ft, the tallest peak in Socorro County; the range runs north-south and is about 18 miles long. The range lies just south of the village of Magdalena, about 18 miles west of Socorro; the Magdalena Mountains are an east-tilted fault-block range, superimposed on Cenozoic calderas. The complex geologic history of the range has resulted in spectacular scenery, with unusual and eye-catching rock formations, they form part of the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift Valley. The mountains remain isolated and natural due to the absence of any significant human development within or near the range; the range takes its name from a volcanic peak on the west side, named Magdalena Peak, after Mary Magdalene. A talus formation and shrub growth on the east slope of Magdalena Peak is said to resemble a woman's face.
According to Julyan's Place Names of New Mexico, one legend about the mountain purports that "a group of Mexicans were besieged by Apaches on the mountain, when the face of Mary Magdalene miraculously appeared, frightening the Indians away." Most of the Magdalena Mountains are within the Magdalena Ranger District of the Cibola National Forest, parts are administered by the Bureau of Land Management. While there are no designated Wilderness areas in the range, the Ryan Hill Inventoried Roadless Area is sizeable. In 1980, Public Law 96-550 established Langmuir Research Site in the Magdalena Mountains. Congress found the mountains uniquely suited for atmospheric and astronomical research, conducted at Langmuir Laboratory near South Baldy since the mid-1960s; the Act designated a 31,000 acre portion of the mountain as roadless, but not wilderness. There is overlap between the Ryan Hill IRA and the congressionally designated Langmuir Research Site management area. Directly adjacent to the southern boundary of the Ryan Hill IRA lies the Devil's Reach Wilderness Study Area.
The Devil's Reach WSA and its neighboring Devil's Backbone WSA are both managed by the BLM. The Ryan Hill IRA, Devil's Reach WSA, Devil's Backbone WSA combine to form a 44,050-acre contiguous roadless area on the southern end of the range. A well-established network of trails exists in the Magdalena Mountains, providing abundant hiking, hunting, horseback-riding, stargazing opportunities; the Forest Service notes. Over half of the trails are in the Ryan Hill Inventoried Roadless Area; the Water Canyon Campground is a developed campsite located at 6,800 ft elevation in the Magdalenas. Significant summits include: At the southern end of the main range crest, just south of South Baldy, lies the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; the Langmuir's location in the Magdalena Mountains was chosen "because thunderstorms are initiated by the mountains and the storms are isolated and small" and occur with high frequency. Visiting scientists at Langmuir study bats, hummingbirds and plant life in the area.
The same area hosts the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer operated by New Mexico Tech, along with other institutions. The history of the Magdalena Mountains is intimately linked with the rich history of the surrounding area. Basham noted in his report documenting the archeological history of the Cibola's Magdalena Ranger District that "he heritage resources on the district are diverse and representative of nearly every prominent human evolutionary event known to anthropology. Evidence for human use of district lands date back 14,000 years to the Paleoindian period providing glimpses into the peopling of the New World and megafaunal extinction." Much of the now Magdalena Ranger District was a province of the Apache. Bands of Apache controlled the Magdalena-Datil region from the seventeenth century until they were defeated in the Apache Wars in the late nineteenth century. A mining rush followed the Apache wars – gold and copper were found in the mountains. While miners combed the mountains for mineral riches during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, stockmen drove tens of thousands of sheep and cattle to stockyards at the village of Magdalena linked by rail with Socorro.
In fact, the last used cattle trail in the United States stretched 125 miles westward from Magdalena. The route was known as the Magdalena Livestock Driveway, but more popularly known to cowboys and cattlemen as the Beefsteak Trail; the trail began use in 1865 and its peak was in 1919. The trail was used continually until trailing gave way to trucking and the trail closed in 1971; the Magdalena Mountains contain a wide variety of vegetation types, including scrubland, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, spruce-fir forest and riparian areas. At lower elevations, grasses include black and sideoats grama, poverty threeawn, fluffgrass and galleta grass. Higher up, grass species include blue and hairy grama, little blue stem, Arizona fescue. Shrubs that are mixed in the grasslands include sotol, yucca, Apache plume, mountain mahogany, shrub live-oak, gambel oak, alligator juniper; the range of habitat areas available is reflected by the variety of wildlife in the area. The mountains are home to mountain lions, black bears, mule deer, coyotes and grey foxes and golden eagles, prairie falcons and Mearn's quail.
Additionally, several thousand acr
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
U.S. Route 87
U. S. Highway 87 is a north–south United States highway that runs for 1,998 miles from northern Montana to southern Texas. Most of the portion from Billings, Montana, to Raton, New Mexico, is co-signed along Interstates 90 and 25, it is co-signed along the majority of Interstate 27 in Texas. As of 2004, the highway's northern terminus is Havre, Montana, at U. S. Highway 2, its southern terminus is Texas. In Texas, US 87 is a north–south highway that begins near the Gulf Coast in Port Lavaca and heads north through San Antonio, Lubbock and Dalhart to the New Mexico border near Texline. US 87 continues in a northwesterly direction in New Mexico, is signed by NMDOT as an east–west route, it merges with US 64 in Clayton, shortly after entering New Mexico. It continues to the northwest until Des Moines. In Raton, it separates from US 64 and merges with Interstate 25 and US-85, with which it remains concurrent through Raton Pass and into Colorado, though it is unsigned on much of the concurrency. US 87 remains concurrent with Interstate 25 throughout the states of Colorado and Wyoming, of, a rare occurrence for a US highway to have a concurrency with an Interstate in its entirety within state boundaries.
For more on this section of US 87, see Interstate 25 in Colorado. US 87 remains concurrent with Interstate 25 northward until its terminus with Interstate 90, it follows I-90 west to exit 44 where it runs up to Sheridan. A portion of US-87 has been washed out for several years along this stretch and "temporary" detour signs are posted directing US-87 traffic along Wyoming Highway 193 through Story. In Sheridan US-87 rejoins Interstate 90 into Montana. US 87 remains concurrent with Interstate 90 westward until Billings, where it breaks off and heads north. Between Crow Agency and Billings, US 87 and I-90 are merged with US 212, it intersects with US 12 in Roundup and continues north with a slight bend to the northwest until, at Grass Range it takes a sharp turn to the west at an intersection with Montana State Highway 200. US 87 remains concurrent with Montana State Highway 200 until Great Falls. In Lewistown, it merges with US 191 and remains heading west; some ten miles out of Lewistown, it breaks with US 191 and merges with Montana State Highway 3, heading northwest and merging with US 89 before breaking with all three in Great Falls.
US 87 heads northeast east to Fort Benton and generally northeast to its terminus with US 2 about two miles west of Havre. A bypass of US 87 exists on the northern edge of Great Falls; the route begins at US 87/89 west of Malmstrom Air Force Base along 57th Street South and runs south to north. Just south of the intersection with Second Avenue North the name of the road changes to 57th Street North. At 10th Avenue North, the street name changes to River Drive North curves towards the west as it crosses a bridge over a former Milwaukee Road railroad line; the route heads straight west until after the intersection of North Park Trail where it curves to the northwest. After a railroad crossing and the entrance to Giant Springs State Park and the Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center, the road curves to the southwest following the south bank of the Missouri River. US 87 Bypass ends at US 87 south of the 15th Street Bridge, but River Drive North continues along the Missouri River through Riverside Park.
US Route 87 ran northwest out of Great Falls, Montana towards the eastern border of Glacier National Park. US 87 ran to the Canadian Border at the Piegan Border Crossing; this was changed in 1934, when US Route 89 was changed to run over US 87's former routing towards Glacier Park. US 87 ended in Great Falls until around 1945 when it was extended to run to its current northern terminus in Havre, MontanaU. S. Route 185 was formed in 1926, extended from US 85 in Cheyenne north to Orin, it became part of a southern extension and realignment of US 87 in 1936. Texas SH 238 in Port Lavaca Future I‑69 / US 59 in Victoria US 77 in Victoria US 183 in Cuero; the highways travel concurrently to southwest of Cuero. I‑410 in San Antonio I‑10 / US 90 in San Antonio. I-10/US 87 travels concurrently to Comfort. US 87/US 90 travels concurrently through San Antonio. I‑37 / US 281 in San Antonio I‑35 / US 90 in San Antonio. I-35/US 87 travels concurrently through San Antonio. I‑410 on the Balcones Heights–San Antonio city line US 290 in Fredericksburg.
The highways travel concurrently through Fredericksburg. US 377 northwest of Mason; the highways travel concurrently to Brady. US 190 in Brady; the highways travel concurrently to Brady. US 283 northwest of Brady US 83 in Eden US 277 in San Angelo; the highways travel concurrently through San Angelo. US 67 / US 277 in San Angelo I‑20 in Big Spring US 180 south of Los Ybanez; the highways travel concurrently to Lamesa. US 380 in Tahoka I‑27 in Lubbock; the highways travel concurrently to south of Kress. US 84 in Lubbock US 62 in Lubbock US 82 in Lubbock US 70 in Plainview I‑27 north-northwest of Tulia; the highways travel concurrently to south-southeast of Happy. US 60 in Canyon; the highways travel concurrently to Amarillo. I‑27 north of Canyon; the highways travel concurrently to Amarillo. I‑27 / I‑40 / US 287 in Amarillo. US 87/US 287 travels concurrently through Amarillo. US 60 in Amarillo US 287 in Amarillo; the highways travel concurrently to Dumas. US 385 in Hartley; the highways travel concurrently to Dalhart.
US 54 in Dalhart New Mexico US 56 / US 64 / US 412 in Clayton. US 64/US 87 travels concurrently to Raton. I‑25 / US 64 / US 85 in Raton. I-25/US
U.S. Route 64
U. S. Route 64 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 2,326 miles from Nags Head in eastern North Carolina to just southwest of the Four Corners in northeast Arizona; the western terminus is at U. S. Route 160 in Arizona; the highway's eastern terminus is at NC 12 and U. S. Route 158 at North Carolina. US 64's western terminus is Teec Nos Pos, Arizona, at US 160, it enters New Mexico. US 64 runs through Farmington, Angel Fire, Eagle Nest and Raton; as it runs through Raton, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 87, it continues through to Clayton, where US 87 is replaced by U. S. Routes 56 and 412; the three routes run concurrently into Oklahoma. Twenty-eight miles northeast of Cimarron is Raton Municipal Airport, it is one of the roads on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. At Angel Fire, US 64 runs past the Vietnam Veterans Memorial State Park. Although US 64 does not technically cross into Texas, the New Mexico-Texas border does reach the shoulder of US 64 outside of Clayton at 36.500352°N 103.041922°W / 36.500352.
Heading into the Oklahoma Panhandle, the three conjoined routes pick up a fourth two miles southwest of Boise City, as US-385 merges from the south. In Boise City, US-385 departs to the north along with U. S. 287, which replaces US-385 in the four-way concurrency on the way out of town to the east, before departing itself to the southeast two miles outside of town. Shortly thereafter, US-56 departs the route, heading northeast into Kansas, while US-64 and US-412 continue their journey due east toward Guymon. Near Guymon, the route turns due south to approach the town. US-412 heads due east, while US-64 veers from due south to northeast, joining up with US-54; these two routes remain together for about 20 miles, splitting at Hooker, with US-54 continuing northeast into Kansas while US-64 again veers due east. At Turpin, US-64 turns left, running north with US-83. Twenty miles to the east, US-270 departs to the south, US-64 runs solo for a significant stretch save for short concurrencies with US-283 near Rosston, US-183 through Buffalo, US-281 in Alva.
Near Pond Creek, US-64 turns south, joined by US-60 and US-81. US-64 splits off just north of Enid, jogging through the city before rejoining US-412 on the east side of town; the two routes remain together until they meet Interstate 35, which US-64 joins southbound while US-412 continues east, becoming the Cimarron Turnpike. US-64 departs I-35 at Perry. On either side of Morrison the route intersects US-177 and US-412 before passing through Pawnee and Cleveland, it veers southeast, rejoining US-412 yet again to head into Tulsa. In downtown Tulsa, the route diverges from US-412 for the final time, it is concurrent with Interstate 244 and US-75 before bearing southeast through the city, intersecting Interstate 44 before joining the southernmost five miles of US-169 running southbound on the eastern edge of the city. It proceeds south, crossing the Creek Turnpike crosses the Arkansas River in Bixby before turning to the southeast. After passing through Haskell, US-64 and US-62 meet head-on, north–south.
The routes disengage at the intersection with US-69, with US-64 bearing south out of the center of town. At Warner, the route turns eastward again, where it will run parallel to Interstate 40 for the remainder of its path through Oklahoma, it passes through Webbers Falls, Vian, Sallisaw and Roland before leaving the state. The route crosses the Arkansas River; the route continues following Interstate 40 through Clarksville and Conway, where I-40 turns south and US 64 continues east. US 64 runs with US 167 near Searcy before passing through rural Eastern Arkansas fields. US 64 runs east to Marion and West Memphis, where it meets I-40 and Interstate 55 to continue east over the Mississippi River on the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge to Memphis, Tennessee. A segment of US 64 in Crittenden County is known as Military Road and is the oldest road in the state, it was surveyed for the removal of Native Tribes known of as the Trail of Tears. A historical marker in Marion notes this information. US-64 enters Tennessee on the Memphis-Arkansas Bridge at Memphis.
The route shares the bridge with Interstate 55 and U. S. Routes 61, 70, 79; the route traverses several streets in Memphis before becoming a rural divided highway in eastern Shelby County. The highway runs directly to the east through the county seats of Tennessee's most southern counties. US 64 continues on past Lawrenceburg, the largest city on the State line between Memphis and Interstate 65, to Chattanooga. Then US 64 runs from Chattanooga to Cleveland, where it duplexes with US 74 to the North Carolina state line; the Tennessee Department of Transportation is working to expand the highway to four lanes across the state. The easternmost portion of the highway in Tennessee is the Ocoee Scenic Byway, a winding, two-lane road through the Ocoee River gorge in Polk County; the steep terrain around the highway is subject to landslides, such as the massive slide in November 2009 that closed the highway for several months. US 64 enters North Carolina in west of Murphy; the highway serves the cities of Hendersonville, Rutherfordton, Statesville
The Mogollon Mountains or Mogollon Range are a mountain range in Grant County and Catron County of southwestern New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. They are protected within the Gila National Forest; the Mogollon Mountains are located west of the Gila River and east of the San Francisco River, between the communities of Reserve and Silver City. They extend north-south for about 30 mi, form part of the divide between the San Francisco and Gila Rivers; the crest of the range lies about 15 mi east of U. S. Route 180; the Sierra Aguilada, a lower altitude smaller range, borders to the west of Route 180. Most of the Mogollon Mountains range is protected within the Gila Wilderness, in the Gila National Forest; the highest point in the range is Whitewater Baldy which, at 10,895 ft, is the highest point in southwestern New Mexico. The range contains five other peaks over 10,000 feet, most notably Mogollon Baldy 10,778 ft; the Mogollon Mountains were formed between forty and twenty-five million years ago as part of the Datil-Mogollon Volcanic Plateau.
Hot springs existing in the area are a remnant of that volcanic activity. The Mogollon Mountains are named for Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, governor of Spanish colonial Nuevo Leon from 1712 to 1715, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Early inhabitants of the range include the Mimbres Culture, from 300 BCE to 1300 CE. Peoples included the Chiricahua and Mimbres bands of the Apache. Geronimo is said to have been born in the area around 1829. Mining occurred in the area continuing for some decades; the Mogollon Mountains should not be confused with the Mogollon Rim, a large escarpment in Arizona, about 100 miles to the northwest
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Peloncillo Mountains (Cochise County)
The Peloncillo Mountains of Cochise County is a mountain range in northeast Cochise County, Arizona. A northern north-south stretch of the range extends to the southern region of Greenlee County on the northeast, a southeast region of Graham County on the northwest; the north stretch of the Peloncillo's forms the border between the two counties. It lies east and northeast of the Willcox Playa, the San Simon Valley; the range lies in a region of southeast Arizona and southwest New Mexico called the Madrean Sky Islands. The Peloncillo Mountains of Cochise County are a 35 mi long range; the north section is oriented north-south, is bordered on the north by the Gila River which flows west-northwesterly from western New Mexico. The Whitlock Valley and Whitlock Mountains border to the west; the southern section of the range is a northwest by southeast region, contains the Peloncillo Mountains Wilderness. The highest point of the range is Midway Peak, 5,551 ft, at 32.40313°N 109.14506°W / 32.40313. Midway Peak is just west of the northern part of the wilderness and is surrounded by it: center-north, northeast and southeast.
For the southern part of the wilderness, Gold Hill is just west with an access route through the canyon between. Other peaks in the southern region of the Peloncillo Mountains from north to south are, Mount Rayburne, 4,680 ft, Winchester Peak, 5,127 ft, San Simon Peak, 5,325 ft, Engine Mountain, Gold Hill, Roostercomb. List of Madrean Sky Island mountain ranges - Sonoran - Chihuahuan Deserts List of mountain ranges of Arizona Midway Peak, Peloncillo Mountains, The Chiricahua-Peloncillo Region Chiricahua-Peloncillo Region–2-Maps: Black Hills, Peloncillo Mountains, etc