The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
The Igala are an ethnic group of Nigeria. Their homeland, the former Igala Kingdom, is an triangular area of about 14,000 km2 in the angle formed by the Benue and Niger rivers; the area was the Igala Division of Kabba province, is now part of Kogi State. The capital is Idah. In addition to Kogi state, indigenous Igalas are found in Anambra, Benue, Cross River, Ebonyi, Enugu, Niger, River states. Igala colonisation of northern Igbo states; the Igala mega state attained the height of its fame during the mid-17th century. The rise of the Igala mega state disrupted and contributed to the shift of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade from the Bight of Benin to the Bight of Biafra and the decline of the Benin Empire between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the Idah-Benin war was a war of mutual independence. The Igala state reached its political and commercial supremacy afterwards, when it became a leading exporter of choral beads, medicine, skills and of course, slaves to the coastal region, its growing power changed the dynamics of the earlier complex relationships with several northern Igbo communities.
Joseph Hawkins in 1797 captured the relentless raiding of the extreme northern Igboland by the Igalas. In his "A History of a Voyage to the Coast of Africa" he noted the growing conflicts between the'Ebo Country' and'Galla'. By the late 17th century, the Igalas conquered and held socio-economic and religious control of the indigenous northern Igbo mini-states. From Opi, Nsugbe, several Igbo communities on the Anambra River, the lower Niger, through Okpanam to Asaba the Igala held sway. Trading out post with Onitsha and the Ijo middlemen were established; the mythical Omeppa, Inenyi Ogugu set up garrison at Opi and several Igala warlords played their part in the buildup of the Igala colonial take over of these northern Igbo states. But no other individual played a greater role in shaping Igala-Igbo colonisation during the 18th century than Onoja Oboni, the legendary Igala warrior and slave trader. Onoja Oboni's personality and heritage has been shrouded in mythical imagery over time. Ranging from being the Son of Eri, the grandson of Aganapoje to being a descendant of one of the Idah royal families.
The key areas of consensus are. Added to these were his diplomacy, expansionist traits and the acculturation of conquered territories, he built himself a walled city in Ogurugu and recent archaeological findings of the remnant of the ruins of his fort on the grounds of the University of Nigeria Nsukka confirm this. The Igala soldiers built forts and fortifications that stretched from Ete down to Opi and to Anambra. Oboni's rise to power affected the history of the North-western Nsukka and the Igbo communities on the Anambra River and the Lower Niger during the Igala commercial and socio-cultural ascendancy and domination; this was the reinforcing of the golden age of Igala imperial expansion. In this way, Igala mega state took allegiance were paid; until the decline of Igala power, the Ezes of Enugu-Ezike, Nkpologu, Ibagwa Ani and Opi continued to receive their titles from Idah. The Eze were only validated when they returned home with Igala choral beads'aka', staff of office believed to be imbued with protective charms to ensure longevity and security of the Eze as well as prestige animal to bolster up their ego.
There were periodic royal visits to the Attah Igala to pay tributes and as well intended to strengthen diplomatic ties and inter-group relations, renew allegiance, assured insurance from slave raids. In terms of indigenous technologies, the Igala soldiers built factories for manufacturing Dane-guns, carving, introduced arrowheads with tip-poison from sting ray. At this time Igala empire had become a cultural exchange hub for other emerging states. Till date many of the Igala-Nsukka borderland remain bilingual. On the religious level, the Igala installed their own priests – the Attama – as the custodian of the dangerous Alusi, took control as mediators between the spirit and the Igbo communities, presided over divinations and fashioned'Ikenga','Okwute' that combined both Igala and Igbo religious elements; the Attama thus became the major agents of Igala socio-cultural control. Several efforts to keep the Attama lineage Igala failed the priestly office has been igbonized though the nominal Igala identification is still predominant.
Many of the northern Igbo state settlements have lineages with Igala names, cultural practices with marked Igala modification and adaptations. The use of Igala circular basket in contrast to the Igbo rectangular types persists till this day. By the turn of the 19th century, the Igala empire was too large for any reliable and robust central control. Internal decay and implosion set in; the Fulani jihadists started contracting the Igala imperial power, conquered territories in the north switched tributes, forced or/and seceded from the Igala empire. The Bassa war added more pressure to the war-weary empire; the abolition of slave trade brought in untold economic recession. In 1914 the British burnt down Obukpa as a punitive measure. By the 1920s, I
A hockey puck is a disk made of vulcanized rubber that serves the same functions in various games as a ball does in ball games. The best-known use of pucks is in a major international sport. Ice hockey and its various precursor games utilized balls until the late 19th century. By the 1870s, flat pucks were made of wood as well as rubber. At first, pucks were square; the first recorded organized game of ice hockey used a wooden puck, to prevent it from leaving the rink of play. Rubber pucks were first made by slicing a rubber ball trimming the disc square; the Victoria Hockey Club of Montreal is credited with making and using the first round pucks, in the 1880s. Many indigenous persons throughout North America played a version of field hockey which involved some type of "puck" or ball, curved wooden sticks, it was first observed by Europeans being played by Mi'kmaqs in Nova Scotia in the late 17th century. It was called "ricket" by the Mi'kmaqs, they began to carve pucks from cherrywood, the puck of preference until late in the century when rubber imported by Euro-Americans replaced the wood.
The origin of the word puck is obscure. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests the name is related to the verb to puck used in the game of hurling for striking or pushing the ball, from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc, meaning "to poke, punch or deliver a blow":It is possible that settlers of Halifax, Nova Scotia, many of whom were Irish and played hurling, may have introduced the word to Canada; the first known printed reference was in Montreal, in 1876, just a year after the first indoor game was played there. A hockey puck is referred to colloquially as a "biscuit". To put the "biscuit in the basket" is to score a goal. Ice hockey requires a hard disk of vulcanized rubber. A standard ice hockey puck is black, 1 inch thick, 3 inches in diameter, weighs between 5.5 and 6 ounces. Pucks are marked with silkscreened team or league logos on one or both faces. Pucks are frozen before the game to reduce bouncing during play. There are several variations on the standard 6-ounce hockey puck. One of the most common is a blue, 4-ounce puck, used for training younger players who are not yet able to use a standard puck.
Heavier 10-ounce training pucks reddish pink or reddish orange in colour, are available for players looking to develop the strength of their shots or improve their stick handling skills. Players looking to increase wrist strength practice with steel pucks that weigh 2 pounds. White pucks are used for goaltender practice; these are weight, but made from white rubber. A hollow, light-weight fluorescent orange puck is available for floor hockey. Other variants, some with plastic ball-bearings or glides, are available for use for road or roller hockey. Two major developments have been devised to create better puck visibility on television broadcasts, but both were short-lived: The use of a "Firepuck" in the early 1990s was the first attempt to improve the visibility of hockey pucks as seen on television; this invention incorporated coloured retro reflective materials of either embedded lens elements or prismatic reflectors laminated into recesses on the flat surfaces and the vertical edge of a standard hockey puck.
Yellow was the preferred reflected colour. A spotlight was required to be positioned on the TV camera and focused at the centre of the viewing area. A short demonstration tape of the Minnesota North Stars skating with the Firepuck was shown during the period break at the 1993 NHL All-Star Game in Montreal; the International Hockey League pursued testing the Firepuck with Donald Klassen. The next television viewing was the IHL All-Star Game in Fort Wayne, January 1994, where the Firepuck was used for the entire game; the IHL tested the Firepuck in two more games, the East Coast Hockey League used it January 17, 1997, for their all-star game. The use of the Firepuck was discontinued because of these reasons: The slight structural change increased the tendency for the puck to bounce on the ice; this resulted in increased scoring. The skaters objected to the use of camera spotlights; the television viewing contrast of the Firepuck was not noticeably enhanced when the camera view was of the entire rink, this being the most common camera shot.
The Firepuck name has since been discontinued. The FoxTrax "smart puck" was developed by the Fox television network when it held National Hockey League broadcasting rights for the United States; the puck had integrated electronics to track its position on screen. The streak would turn red if the puck was shot hard; this was an experiment in broadcasting intended to help viewers unfamiliar with hockey to better follow the game by making the puck more visible. It was ill-received by many traditional hockey fans, but appreciated by many of the more casual viewers; the system debuted with much publicity in the NHL All-Star game at the Boston Fleet Center on January 20, 1996, but the system was shelved when Fox Sports lost the NHL broadcast rights three years later. During a game, pucks can reach speeds of 100 miles per more when struck. Zdeno Chára, whose slapshot clocked 108.8 miles per hour in the 2013 NHL All-Star Game SuperSkills competition, broke his own earlier record. The current world re
Bank of Sierra Leone
The Bank of Sierra Leone is the central bank of Sierra Leone. It issues the country's currency, known as the Leone; the bank implements monetary policy, including foreign exchange. The current governor of the Bank of Sierra Leone is Dr. Patrick Saidu Conteh, appointed by president Ernest Bai Koroma, took office in 2017 after he was approved by Parliament, he succeeded Dr. Kelfala Marah; the Bank Headquarters is at Siaka Stevens Street in the Central business district in Downtown Freetown. The Bank is engaged in policies to promote financial inclusion and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. On 20 December 2012, the member institution announced specific commitments toward AFI's Maya Declaration to move further toward the eradication of financial exclusion in Sierra Leone. In order to create an independent economy for the new country, the government drafted legislation to create a central bank and a new currency; the enabling legislation was passed on 27 March 1963 and the bank began operations on 4 August 1964.
At the same time, the Leone was inaugurated. Banking in Sierra Leone Economy of Sierra LeoneGeneral: Central banks and currencies of Africa Official website Bank of Sierra Leone on the Sierra Leone Encyclopedia 2006
Kogi, is a state in the central region of Nigeria. It is popularly called the Confluence State because of the confluence of River Niger and River Benue at its capital, the first administrative capital of modern-day Nigeria. Agriculture is a main part of the state economy with fishing in the riverine areas like Lokoja, Baji,etc, the state has coal, petroleum and other mineral industries; the main ethnic groups are Igala and Okun. Federal Capital Territory – to the north Nasarawa State – to the north east Benue State – to the east Enugu State – to the south east Anambra State – to the south Edo State – to the south west Ondo State – to the west Ekiti State – to the west Kwara State – to the west Niger State – to the northKogi state is the only state in Nigeria which shares a boundary with ten other states; the state was created in 1991 from parts of Benue State. The state as presently constituted, comprises the people of the Kabba Province of Northern Nigeria. One of the first Qadi in the Kogi State was Faruk Imam.
There are three main ethnic groups and languages in Kogi: Igala and Okun with other such as Bassa-Nge, a people of Nupe extraction in Lokoja and Bassa Local Government Area, Bassa-Komo of Bassa Local Government Area, Kakanda, Oworo people, Magongo and the pure NUPE people of Eggan community under Lokoja Local Government. The name Nigeria, was coined in Lokoja by Flora Shaw, the future wife of Baron Lugard, a British colonial administrator, while gazing out at the river Niger. Kogi State consists of twenty-one local government areas. Which are: Adavi Ajaokuta Ankpa Bassa Dekina Ibaji Idah Igalamela-Odolu Ijumu Kabba/Bunu Koton Karfe Lokoja Mopa-Muro Ofu Ogori/Magongo Okehi Okene Olamaboro Omala Yagba East Yagba West Tourist attractions in Kogi State include the colonial relics, the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue and natural land features. Being a 2-hour drive from Abuja some tourists come for day trips. Kogi State connects the Federal Capital Territory with 22 Southern States. Being in close proximity to the federal capital territory, Abuja International Airport serves as the national and international gateway for air travelers from and to the state.
Good telecommunications services are available in the state. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. There are many Farm produce from the state notably coffee, palm oil, groundnuts, cassava, yam and melon. Mineral resources include coal, iron and tin; the state is home to the largest iron and steel industry in Nigeria known as Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited and one of the largest cement factories in Africa, the Obajana Cement Factory. Kogi state is home to the Federal University, Kogi State University Anyigba, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Polytechnic, Federal College of Education, College of Education, College of Agriculture Kabba, Kogi state college of education and the Private Salem University, Lokoja. There are a college of nursing and midwifery in Obangede, School of health tech in Idah and ECWA School of Nursing in Egbe. Kogi State has produced sprinters such as Sunday Bada and other sportsmen, who have contributed to the growth of sports worldwide. Kogi United and Babanawa F.
C. are football teams based in the state. Other sports, such as swimming and table tennis are promoted in the state; the Kogi state Sports Council had a track record of Directors and great personnel team Who at one time or the other had worked with the vision of putting the State on the world map. Among them are personalities like Mr. Francis Umoru, Mr. Mohammed Emeje, Mr. Benjamin O. Ameje, Mr. A. Ogido, Mr. Joel J. Abu and others. Among other sportsmen produce by the state is Shola Ameobi, an Ayetoro Gbede born Ijumu, English footballer playing for Bolton Wanderers as a striker, late Sunday Bada 400 Metres Olympic Champion from Ogidi in Ijumu Local Govt. of the state. Three Senators have always represented Kogi state since the return of democracy in 1999 at Senate with Kogi East, Kogi West and Kogi Central producing one each. Rt. Hon. Chief S A Ajayi OFRDarey- Darey Art Alade Joseph Benjamin Halima Abubakar Praiz Mercy Johnson Jummai Joseph Debie Rise Jaywon Website