The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America. It spans nearly all of Nevada, much of Oregon and Utah, portions of California and Wyoming, it is noted for both its arid climate and the basin and range topography that varies from the North American low point at Badwater Basin to the highest point of the contiguous United States, less than 100 miles away at the summit of Mount Whitney. The region spans several physiographic divisions, biomes and deserts; the term "Great Basin" is applied to hydrographic, floristic, physiographic and ethnographic geographic areas. The name was coined by John C. Fremont, based on information gleaned from Joseph R. Walker as well as his own travels, recognized the hydrographic nature of the landform as "having no connection to the ocean"; the hydrographic definition is the most used, is the only one with a definitive border. The other definitions yield not only different geographical boundaries of "Great Basin" regions, but regional borders that vary from source to source.
The Great Basin Desert is defined by plant and animal communities, according to the National Park Service, its boundaries approximate the hydrographic Great Basin, but exclude the southern "panhandle". The Great Basin Floristic Province was defined by botanist Armen Takhtajan to extend well beyond the boundaries of the hydrographically defined Great Basin: it includes the Snake River Plain, the Colorado Plateau, the Uinta Basin, parts of Arizona north of the Mogollon Rim; the Great Basin physiographic section is a geographic division of the Basin and Range Province defined by Nevin Fenneman in 1931. The United States Geological Survey adapted Fenneman's scheme in their Physiographic division of the United States; the "section" is somewhat larger than the hydrographic definition. The Great Basin Culture Area or indigenous peoples of the Great Basin is a cultural classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas and a cultural region located between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.
The culture area covers 400,000 sq mi, or just less than twice the area of the hydrographic Great Basin. The hydrographic Great Basin is a 209,162-square-mile area. All precipitation in the region sinks underground or flows into lakes; as observed by Fremont, streams, or rivers find no outlet to either the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific Ocean. The region is bounded by the Wasatch Mountains to the east, the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges to the west, the Snake River Basin to the north; the south rim is less distinct. The Great Basin includes most of Nevada, half of Utah, substantial portions of Oregon and California and small areas of Idaho and Mexico; the term "Great Basin" is misleading. The Great Salt Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Humboldt Sink are a few of the "drains" in the Great Basin; the Salton Sink is another closed basin within the Great Basin. The Great Basin Divide separates the Great Basin from the watersheds draining to the Pacific Ocean; the southernmost portion of the Great Basin is the watershed area of the Laguna Salada.
The Great Basin's longest and largest river is the Bear River of 350 mi, the largest single watershed is the Humboldt River drainage of 17,000 sq mi. Most Great Basin precipitation is snow, the precipitation that neither evaporates nor is extracted for human use will sink into groundwater aquifers, while evaporation of collected water occurs from geographic sinks. Lake Tahoe, North America's largest alpine lake, is part of the Great Basin's central Lahontan subregion; the hydrographic Great Basin contains multiple deserts and ecoregions, each with its own distinctive set of flora and fauna. The ecological boundaries and divisions in the Great Basin are unclear; the Great Basin overlaps four different deserts: portions of the hot Mojave and Colorado Deserts to the south, the cold Great Basin and Oregon High Deserts in the north. The deserts can be distinguished by their plants: the Joshua tree and creosote bush occur in the hot deserts, while the cold deserts have neither; the cold deserts are higher than the hot, have their precipitation spread throughout the year.
The climate and flora of the Great Basin is dependent on elevation: as the elevation increases, the precipitation increases and temperature decreases. Because of this, forests occur at higher elevations. Utah juniper/single-leaf pinyon and mountain mahogany form open pinyon-juniper woodland on the slopes of most ranges. Stands of limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine can be found in some of the higher ranges. In riparian areas with dependable water cottonwoods and quaking aspen groves exist; because the forest ecosystem is distinct from a typical desert, some authorities, such as the World Wildlife Fund, separate the mountains of the Great Basin desert into their own ecoregion: the Great Basin montane forests. Many rare and endemic species occur in this ecoregion, because the individual mountain ranges are isolated from each other. During the last ice age, the Great Basin was wetter; as it dried during the Holocene, some species retreated to the higher isolated mountains and have high genetic diversity.
Other authorities divide the Great Basin depending on their own criteria. Armen Takhtajan defined the "Great Basin floristic province"; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency divides the Great Basin into three ecoregions according to latitude: the Northern B
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, Baja California Sur. It is the hottest desert in Mexico, it has an area of 260,000 square kilometers. The western portion of the United States–Mexico border passes through the Sonoran Desert. In phytogeography, the Sonoran Desert is within the Sonoran Floristic Province of the Madrean Region in southwestern North America, part of the Holarctic Kingdom of the northern Western Hemisphere; the desert contains a variety of unique and endemic plants and animals, such as the saguaro and organ pipe cactus. The Sonoran desert wraps around the northern end of the Gulf of California, from Baja California Sur, north through much of Baja California, excluding the central northwest mountains and Pacific west coast, through southeastern California and southwestern and southern Arizona to western and central parts of Sonora.
It is bounded on the west by the Peninsular Ranges, which separate it from the California chaparral and woodlands and Baja California Desert ecoregions of the Pacific slope. To the north in California and northwest Arizona, the Sonoran Desert transitions to the colder-winter, higher-elevation Mojave, Great Basin, Colorado Plateau deserts. To the east and southeast, the deserts transition to the coniferous Arizona Mountains forests and Sierra Madre and Sierra Madre Occidental pine–oak forests at higher elevations. To the south the Sonoran–Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest is the transition zone from the Sonoran Desert to the tropical dry forests of the Mexican state of Sinaloa; the desert's sub-regions include the Colorado Desert of southeastern California. In the 1957 publication Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert, Forrest Shreve divided the Sonoran Desert into seven regions according to characteristic vegetation: Lower Colorado Valley, Arizona Upland, Plains of Sonora, Foothills of Sonora, Central Gulf Coast, Vizcaíno Region, Magdalena Region.
Many ecologists now consider Shreve's Vizcaíno and Magdalena regions, which lie on the western side of the Baja California Peninsula, to be a separate ecoregion, the Baja California Desert. Within the southern Sonoran Desert in Mexico is found the Gran Desierto de Altar, with the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar, extending 2,000 square kilometers of desert and mountainous regions; the Pinacate National Park includes the only active erg dune region in North America. The nearest city to the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar is Puerto Peñasco in the state of Sonora, Mexico. Sub-regionsSonoran Desert sub-regions include: Colorado Desert Gran Desierto de Altar Lechuguilla Desert Tonopah Desert Yuha Desert Yuma Desert The Sonoran Desert includes 60 mammal species, 350 bird species, 20 amphibian species, over 100 reptile species, 30 native fish species, over 1000 native bee species, more than 2,000 native plant species; the Sonoran Desert area southeast of Tucson and near the Mexican border is vital habitat for the only population of jaguars living within the United States.
The Colorado River Delta was once an ecological hotspot within the Sonoran desert, fueled by the flow of fresh water through the Colorado river in this otherwise dry area, but the delta has been reduced in extent due to the damming and use of the river upstream. Many plants not only thrive in the harsh conditions of the Sonoran Desert. Many have evolved to have specialized adaptations to the desert climate; the Sonoran Desert's biseasonal rainfall pattern results in more plant species than any other desert in the world. The Sonoran Desert includes plant genera and species from the agave family, palm family, cactus family, legume family, numerous others; the Sonoran is the only place in the world. Cholla, hedgehog, prickly pear, nightblooming cereus, organ pipe are other taxa of cacti found here. Cactus provides food and homes to many desert mammals and birds, with showy flowers in reds, pinks and whites, blooming most from late March through June, depending on the species and seasonal temperatures.
Creosote bush and bur sage dominate valley floors. Indigo bush and Mormon tea are other shrubs. Wildflowers of the Sonoran Desert include desert sand verbena, desert sunflower, evening primroses. Ascending from the valley up bajadas, various subtrees such as velvet mesquite, palo verde, desert ironwood, desert willow, crucifixion thorn are common, as well as multi-stemmed ocotillo. Shrubs found at higher elevations include whitethorn acacia, fairy duster, jojoba. In the desert subdivisions found on Baja California, cardon cactus, elephant tree, boojum tree occur; the California fan palm is found in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert, the only native palm in California, among many other introduced Arecac
A triple divide or triple watershed is a point on the Earth's surface where three drainage basins meet. A triple divide results from the intersection of two drainage divides. Triple divides range from prominent mountain peaks to minor side peaks, down to simple slope changes on a ridge which are otherwise unremarkable; the elevation of a triple divide can be thousands of meters to above sea level. Triple divides are a common hydrographic feature of any terrain that has rivers, streams and/or lakes. Topographic triple divides do not respect the underground path of water. Thus, depending on the infiltration and the different geological layers, the hydrologic triple divide is offset from the topographic triple divide; the term hydrological apex refers to a triple divide considered the dominant one of a whole continent, because its waters flow into three different oceans. Triple Divide Peak in Montana is considered the triple divide "hydrological apex" of North America, though Snow Dome on the Alberta-British Columbia border has a claim depending on how the Arctic and Atlantic oceans are defined.
North America is the only continent, excluding the Antarctica ice fields, that has a triple point dividing basins draining into three different oceans. North America has 3 triple divides in the United States which are intersections of continental divides, a fourth one in British Columbia. Waters at these triple divides flow into three different seas or gulfs. Triple Divide Peak, Montana: is the intersection of the Continental Divide of the Americas and the Laurentian Divide an unnamed peak in north central Potter County, Pennsylvania: is the intersection of the Eastern Continental Divide and Saint Lawrence River Divide Hill of Three Waters, approx. 2 miles north of Hibbing, Minnesota: is the Intersection of the Saint Lawrence River Divide and Laurentian Divide Snow Dome, British Columbia: is the intersection of the Continental Divide and Arctic DivideThe Eastern Continental Divide terminates in the south in a triple divide: Eastern divide/Kissimmee watershed, Florida: is the intersection of the divide and the endorheic basin of Lake OkeechobeeWhere the Continental Divide splits and joins to form the boundary of the Great Divide Basin, it forms two triple points: Great Divide Basin: To the west of the basin is the Green River watershed, draining to the Gulf of California/Pacific Ocean.
Great Divide Basin:Where the Continental Divide splits in New Mexico and joins in Chihuahua, Mexico to form the Boundary of Guzman basin, are two triple points: Reeds Point, New Mexico: Chihuahua rim, Mexico:If the Gulf of California is considered distinct from the Pacific Coastal watershed, the divide between the Colorado River basin and Pacific basin forms two triple points: Three Waters Mountain, Wyoming: Commissary Ridge triple divide, Wyoming: Other points are considered to be triple divides because they separate basins of continental rivers. Headwaters Hill in Saguache County, Colorado near Chester:; this point has only a weak claim to being a continental triple divide because both the Rio Grande and Arkansas Rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico. The highest elevation significant triple divide in the lower 48 states of the United States, located in Kings Canyon National Park in Fresno/Inyo counties, California, is a sub-peak of Mount Wallace of the central Sierra Nevadas: Crumbly Spire or Mount Wallace South Peak, Fresno/Inyo counties, California: Numerous other triple divide points result from intersection of river basin divides: Young Lick Knob, Georgia: Witenwasserenstock: Lunghin Pass/Piz Lunghin: Continental divide Joseph A. DiPietro.
Landscape Evolution in the United States: An Introduction to the Geography and Natural History. Newnes
Sky islands are isolated mountains surrounded by radically different lowland environments. The term referred to those found near the southern borders of Arizona and New Mexico, has extended to isolated high-altitude forests; the isolation has significant implications for these natural habitats. The American Southwest region began warming up between ∼20,000–10,000 years BP and atmospheric temperatures increased resulting in the formation of vast deserts that isolated the Sky Islands. Endemism, altitudinal migration, relict populations are some of the natural phenomena to be found on sky islands; the complex dynamics of species richness on sky islands draws attention from the discipline of biogeography, the biodiversity is of concern to conservation biology. One of the key elements of a sky island is separation by physical distance from the other mountain ranges, resulting in a habitat island, such as a forest surrounded by desert; some sky islands serve as refugia for boreal species stranded by warming climates since the last glacial period.
In other cases, localized populations of plants and animals tend towards speciation, similar to oceanic islands such as the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. The sky island concept originated in 1943 when Natt N. Dodge, in an article in Arizona Highways magazine, referred to the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona as a "mountain island in a desert sea". In about the same era, the term was used to refer to high alpine, ancient topographic landform surfaces on the crest of the Sierra Nevada, California; the term was popularized by a resident of southeastern Arizona. In his 1967 book, Sky Island, he demonstrated the concept by describing a drive from the town of Rodeo, New Mexico, in the western Chihuahuan desert, to a peak in the Chiricahua Mountains, 56 kilometres away and 1,700 metres higher in elevation. Ascending from the hot, arid desert, to grasslands to oak-pine woodland, pine forest, to spruce-fir-aspen forest, his book mentions the concept of biome, but prefers the terminology of life zones, makes reference to the work of Clinton Hart Merriam.
The book describes the wildlife and living conditions of the Chiricahuas. Around the same time, the idea of mountains as islands of habitat took hold with scientists and has been used by such popular writers as David Quammen and John McPhee; this concept falls within the study of island biogeography. It is not limited to mountains in southwestern North America but can be applied to mountains and massifs around the world; the Madrean sky islands are the most studied sky islands in the world. Found in the U. S. states of New Mexico and Arizona and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, these numerous mountains form links in a chain connecting the northern end of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the southern Colorado Plateau. Sky Islands of the central and northern mountains in the United States are called island ranges by populations within view of such islands of mountains surrounded by plains such as those found within the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma; some more northerly examples are the Crazy Mountains, Castle Mountains, Bears Paw Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Little Rocky Mountains, all in the US state of Montana.
Each of these ranges is forested and has tundra and snowpack above treeline, but is not connected to any other range by forested ridges. Other well-known sky islands of North America are the Great Basin montane forests, such as the White Mountains in California, the Spring Mountains near Las Vegas, Nevada. One of the unique aspects of the sky islands of the U. S.-Mexico border region is the mix of floristic affinities, that is, the trees and plants of higher elevations are more characteristic of northern latitudes, while the flora of the lower elevations has ties to the desert and the mountains further south. Some unique plants and animals are found in these sky islands, such as the mountain yucca, Mount Graham red squirrel, Huachuca springsnail, Jemez Mountains salamander; some montane species evolved within their current range, adapting to their local environment, such as the Mount Lyell shrew. However, it has been noted that some isolated mountain ecosystems have a tendency to lose species over time because small, insularized populations are vulnerable to the forces of extinction, the isolation of the habitat reduces the possibility of colonization by new species.
Furthermore, some species, such as the grizzly bear, require a range of habitats. These bears made use of the forests and meadows found in the Madrean sky islands, as well as lower-elevation habitats such as riparian zones. Seasonal movements between highland and lowland habitats can be a kind of migration, such as that undertaken by the mountain quail of the Great Basin mountains; these birds live in high elevations when free of snow, instead of migrating south for the winter, they migrate down. Confusing the matter somewhat is the potential for an archipelago of sky islands or the valleys between them to act not only as a barrier to biological dispersal, but as a path for migration. Examples of birds and mammals making use of the Madrean archipelago to extend their ranges northward are the elegant trogon and white-nosed coati. Cal Madow Cameroonian Highlands forests Ethiopian Highlands Highlands of southern Africa Green Mountain of Ascension Island Guinea Highlands Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Gorongosa Rwenzori Mountains Mount Wilhelm Fansipan Jade Mountain Mount Ki
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Pinus lambertiana is the tallest and most massive pine tree, has the longest cones of any conifer. The species name lambertiana was given by the British botanist David Douglas, who named the tree in honour of the English botanist, Aylmer Bourke Lambert, it is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine is the tallest and largest Pinus species growing to 40–60 meters tall, exceptionally to 82 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 1.5–2.5 m, exceptionally 3.5 m. The tallest recorded specimen is 83.45 metres tall, is located in Yosemite National Park, was discovered in 2015. The second tallest recorded was "Yosemite Giant", an 82.05 m tall specimen in Yosemite National Park, which died from a bark beetle attack in 2007. The tallest, living specimens today grow in southern Oregon and Yosemite National Park: one in Umpqua National Forest is 77.7 m tall and another in Siskiyou National Forest is 77.2 m tall. Yosemite National Park has the third tallest, measured to 80.5 m tall as of June 2013.
Pinus lambertiana is a member of the white pine group and, like all members of that group, the leaves grow in fascicles of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 5–11 cm long. Sugar pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer 25–50 cm long, exceptionally to 66 cm long, although the cones of the Coulter pine are more massive; the seeds are 1 -- 2 cm long, with a 2 -- 3-centimeter long wing. According to David Douglas, the seeds were eaten by Native Americans; the sugar pine occurs in the mountains of Oregon and California in the western United States, Baja California in northwestern Mexico. The sugar pine has been affected by the white pine blister rust, a fungus, accidentally introduced from Europe in 1909. A high proportion of sugar pines has been killed by the blister rust in the northern part of the species' range that has experienced the rust for a longer period of time; the rust has destroyed much of the Western white pine and whitebark pine throughout their ranges. The U.
S. Forest Service has a program for developing western white pine. Seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild; the Sugar Pine Foundation in the Lake Tahoe Basin has been successful in finding resistant sugar pine seed trees and has demonstrated that it is important for the public to assist the U. S. Forest Service in restoring this species. However, blister rust is much less common in California, sugar, Western white and whitebark pines still survive in great numbers there. Naturalist John Muir considered sugar pine to be the "king of the conifers"; the common name comes from the sweet resin. John Muir found, it is known as the great sugar pine. The scientific name was assigned by David Douglas in honor of Aylmer Bourke Lambert. In the Achomawi creation myth, the creator, makes one of the'First People' by intentionally dropping a sugar pine seed in a place where it can grow. One of the descendants in this ancestry is Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a handsome son named Ahsoballache. After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of To'kis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child.
To this end, the grandfather breaks open a scale from a sugar pine cone, secretly instructs Ahsoballache to immerse the scale's contents in spring water hide them inside a covered basket. Ahsoballache performs the tasks that night; the Washo language has a word for sugar pine, simt'á:gɨm, a word for "sugar pine sugar", nanómba. Chase, J. Smeaton. Cone-bearing Trees of the California Mountains. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. p. 99. LCCN 11004975. OCLC 3477527. LCC QK495. C75 C4, with illustrations by Carl Eytel - Kurut, Gary F. "Carl Eytel: Southern California Desert Artist", California State Library Foundation, Bulletin No. 95, pp. 17-20 retrieved November 13, 2011 Muir, J.. My First Summer in the Sierra. Kinloch Jr. Bohun B.. "Pinus lambertiana". In Burns, Russell M.. Silvics of North America. Washington, D. C.: United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 1 – via Southern Research Station. Habeck, R. J.. "Pinus lambertiana". Fire Effects Information System. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
U. C. Jepson Manual treatment for Pinus lambertiana US Forest Service—Dorena Genetic Resource Center — The Sugar Pine Foundation — The Sugar Pine and Western White Pine Restoration Program Pinus lambertiana in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley Conifer Specialist Group. "Pinus lambertiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 May 2006. Arboretum de Villardebelle: photo of a cone
The municipality of Ensenada, with a land area of 52,482.40 km2, takes up the majority of the state of Baja California. It is the largest municipality in the Americas by area, it contains all of Baja California apart from a strip at the north and, at the northeast extremity of the state, the municipality of Mexicali. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west, the Gulf of California on the east, by all of the other municipalities in Baja California on the North, its municipal seat is Ensenada, which lies near the northwest corner of the municipality, although all of the municipality's territory lies far to its southeast. Its current municipal president is Enrique Pelayo Torres. A major port is planned to be built in Punta Colonet, a uninhabited area 80 km south of the city of Ensenada. Located offshore, Guadalupe Island is part of the municipality, making Ensenada the westernmost municipality of Latin America. In 2010 the municipality had a population of 466,814 inhabitants; the 2005 census recorded 413,481 inhabitants.
Territorially massive Ensenada municipality is administratively subdivided into 23 boroughs, of which Ensenada form the city of Ensenada, the municipal seat: La Mision - Borough seat: La Misión El Porvenir Francisco Zarco Real del Castillo El Sauzal Ensenada San Antonio de las Minas Maneadero Santo Tomás Erendira - Borough seat: Eréndira San Vicente Valle de la Trinidad Punta Colonet - Borough seat: Punta Colonet Camalu - Borough seat: Camalú Vicente Guerrero San Quintin - Borough seat: San Quintín El Rosario - Borough seat: El Rosario Puertecitos - Borough seat: Puertecitos El Marmol Punta Prieta - Borough seat: Punta Prieta Bahía de los Ángeles Calmallí Isla de Cedros As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 466,814. As of 2010, the city of Ensenada had a population of 279,765. Other than the city of Ensenada, the municipality had 3,245 localities, the largest of which were: Classified as urban: Rodolfo Sánchez Taboada Lázaro Cárdenas Vicente Guerrero El Sauzal de Rodríguez Camalú Benito García Emiliano Zapata San Quintín San Vicente Colonia Lomas de San Ramón Real del Castillo Nuevo Ejido Papalote Lázaro Cárdenas Ejido México Colonia Nueva Era Rancho Verde Francisco Zarco Santa Fe Classified as rural: Luis Rodríguez Colonia Benito Juárez Ejido Profesor Graciano Sánchez El Rosario de Arriba Salvador Rosas Magallón Ejido Eréndira Poblado Chulavista El Porvenir Licenciado Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Colonia Gómez Morín Isla de Cedros Poblado Héroes de Chapultepec Santa María La Providencia Ejido General Leandro Valle Ejido Francisco Villa Las Brisas Fraccionamiento del Valle Pueblo Benito García Additional Information Punta Colonet, Baja California Maneadero Ensenada: Its background and early development http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/84winter/ensenada.htm Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática Los Municipios con Mayor y Menor Extensión Territorial Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal Subdivisions Ayuntamiento de Ensenada Official government website.
Property frenzy in Baja California, Diane Lindquist, San Diego Union-Tribune, April 24, 2006. Article on planned port construction at Punta Colonet