The Andean orogeny is an ongoing process of orogeny that began in the Early Jurassic and is responsible for the rise of the Andes mountains. The orogeny is driven by a reactivation of a long-lived subduction system along the western margin of South America. On a continental scale the Cretaceous and Oligocene were periods of re-arrangements in the orogeny. Locally the details of the nature of the orogeny varies depending on the segment and the geological period considered. Subduction orogeny has been occurring in what is now western South America since the break-up of the supercontinent Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic; the Paleozoic Pampean and Gondwanan orogenies are the immediate precursors to the Andean orogeny. The first phases of Andean orogeny in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous were characterized by extensional tectonics, the development of back-arc basins and the emplacement of large batholiths; this development is presumed to have been linked to the subduction of cold oceanic lithosphere.
During the mid to Late Cretaceous the Andean orogeny changed in character. Warmer and younger oceanic lithosphere is believed to have started to be subducted beneath South America around this time; such kind of subduction is held responsible not only for the intense contractional deformation that different lithologies were subject to, but the uplift and erosion known to have occurred from the Late Cretaceous onward. Plate tectonic reorganization since the mid-Cretaceous might have been linked to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Another change related to mid-Cretaceous plate tectonic changes was the change of subduction direction of the oceanic lithosphere that went from having south-east motion to having a north-east motion at about 90 million years ago. While subduction direction changed it remained oblique to the coast of South America, the direction change affected several subduction zone-parallel faults including Atacama and Liquiñe-Ofqui..]] Low angle subduction or flat-slab subduction has been common during the Andean orogeny leading to crustal shortening and deformation and the suppression of arc volcanism.
Flat-slab subduction has occurred at different times in various part of the Andes, with northern Colombia, northern Peru and north-central Chile and Argentina experiencing these conditions at present. The tectonic growth of the Andes and the regional climate have evolved and have influenced each other; the topographic barrier formed by the Andes stopped the income of humid air into the present Atacama desert. This aridity, in turn, changed the normal superficial redistribution of mass via erosion and river transport, modifying the tectonic deformation. In the Oligocene the Farallon Plate broke up, forming the modern Cocos and Nazca plates ushering a series of changes in the Andean orogeny; the new Nazca Plate was directed into an orthogonal subduction with South America causing ever-since uplift in the Andes, but causing most impact in the Miocene. While the various segments of the Andes have their own uplift histories, as a whole the Andes have risen in last 30 millions years. Tectonic blocks of continental crust that had separated from northwestern South America in the Jurassic re-joined the continent in the Late Cretaceous by colliding obliquely with it.
This episode of accretion occurred in a complex sequence. The accretion of the island arcs against northwestern South America in the Early Cretaceous led to the development of a magmatic arc caused by subduction; the Romeral Fault in Colombia forms the suture between the accreted terranes the rest of South America. Around the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary the oceanic plateau of the Caribbean large igneous province collided with South America; the subduction of the lithosphere as the oceanic plateau approached South America led to the formation of a magmatic arc now preserved in the Cordillera Real of Ecuador and the Cordillera Central of Colombia. In the Miocene an island arc and terrane collided against northwestern South America; this terrane forms parts of what is now Chocó Department and Western Panamá. The Caribbean Plate collided with South America in the Early Cenozoic but shifted its movement eastward. Dextral fault movement between the South American and Caribbean plate started 17–15 million years ago.
This movement was canalized along a series of strike-slip faults, but these faults alone do not account for all deformation. The northern part of the Dolores-Guayaquil Megashear forms part of the dextral fault systems while in the south the megashear runs along the suture between the accreted tectonic blocks and the rest of South America. Long before the Andean orogeny the northern half of Peru was subject of the accretion of terranes in the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. Andean orogenic deformation in northern Peru can be traced to the Albian; this first phase of deformation —the Mochica Phase— is evidenced in the folding of Casma Group sediments near the coast. Sedimentary basins in western Peru changed from marine to continental conditions in the Late Cretaceous as a consequence of a generalized vertical uplift; the uplift in northern Peru is thought to be associated with the contemporary accretion of the Piñón terrane in Ecuador. This stage of orogeny is called the Peruvian Phase. Besides coastal Peru the Peruvian Phase affected or caused crustal shortening along the Cordillera Oriental and the tectonic inversion of Santiago Basin in the Sub-Andean zone.
The bulk of the Sub-Andean zone was however unaffected by the Peruvian Phase. After a period without much tectonic activity in the Early Eoc
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, sheep and pigs were being raised on farms. Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat and wool. A wide range of other species such as horse, water buffalo, llama and guinea pig are used as livestock in some parts of the world. Insect farming, as well as aquaculture of fish and crustaceans, is widespread.
Modern animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available. Subsistence farming is being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are kept in high density feedlots, thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries. On poorer soil such as in uplands, animals are kept more extensively, may be allowed to roam foraging for themselves. Most livestock are herbivores, except for chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are adapted to feed on grass. Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, require cereals and other high-energy foods; the domestication of livestock was driven by the need to have food on hand when hunting was unproductive. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to man, should be able to thrive in his company, should breed and be easy to tend. Domestication was not a single event. Sheep and goats were the animals that accompanied the nomads in the Middle East, while cattle and pigs were associated with more settled communities.
The first wild animal to be domesticated was the dog. Half-wild dogs starting with young individuals, may have been tolerated as scavengers and killers of vermin, being pack hunters, were predisposed to become part of the human pack and join in the hunt. Prey animals, goats and cattle, were progressively domesticated early in the history of agriculture. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 13,000 BC, sheep followed, some time between 11,000 and 9,000 BC. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan around 8,500 BC. A cow was a great advantage to a villager as she produced more milk than her calf needed, her strength could be put to use as a working animal, pulling a plough to increase production of crops, drawing a sledge, a cart, to bring the produce home from the field. Draught animals were first used about 4,000 BC in the Middle East, increasing agricultural production immeasurably. In southern Asia, the elephant was domesticated by 6,000 BC.
Fossilised chicken bones dated to 5040 BC have been found in northeastern China, far from where their wild ancestors lived in the jungles of tropical Asia, but archaeologists believe that the original purpose of domestication was for the sport of cockfighting. Meanwhile, in South America, the llama and the alpaca had been domesticated before 3,000 BC, as beasts of burden and for their wool. Neither was strong enough to pull a plough which limited the development of agriculture in the New World. Horses occur on the steppes of Central Asia, their domestication, around 3,000 BC in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region, was as a source of meat. Around the same time, the wild ass was being tamed in Egypt. Camels were domesticated soon after this, with the Bactrian camel in Mongolia and the Arabian camel becoming beasts of burden. By 1000 BC, caravans of Arabian camels were linking India with the Mediterranean. In ancient Egypt, cattle were the most important livestock, sheep and pigs were kept; the Nile provided a plentiful source of fish.
Honey bees were domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, providing both wax. In ancient Rome, all the livestock known in ancient Egypt were available. In addition, rabbits were domesticated for food by the first century BC. To help flush them out from their underground burrows, the polecat was domesticated as the ferret, its use described by Pliny the Elder. In northern Europe, agriculture including animal husbandry went into decline when the Roman empire collapsed; some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive; the Domesday Book recorded every parcel of land and every animal in Britain: "there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, moreover... not an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, not set down in writ." For example, the royal manor of Earley in Berkshire, one of thousands of villages recorded in the book, had in 1086 "2 fisheries worth 7s and 6d and 20 acres of meadow.
Woodland for 70 pigs." Exploration and colonisat
Sediment is a occurring material, broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea bed deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may become sandstone and siltstone. Sediments are most transported by water, but wind and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian deposition. Glacial moraine deposits and till are ice-transported sediments. Sediment can be classified based on its grain composition. Sediment size is measured on a log base 2 scale, called the "Phi" scale, which classifies particles by size from "colloid" to "boulder". Composition of sediment can be measured in terms of: parent rock lithology mineral composition chemical make-up.
This leads to an ambiguity in which clay can be used as a composition. Sediment is transported based on the strength of the flow that carries it and its own size, volume and shape. Stronger flows will increase the lift and drag on the particle, causing it to rise, while larger or denser particles will be more to fall through the flow. Rivers and streams carry sediment in their flows; this sediment can be in a variety of locations within the flow, depending on the balance between the upwards velocity on the particle, the settling velocity of the particle. These relationships are shown in the following table for the Rouse number, a ratio of sediment fall velocity to upwards velocity. Rouse = Settling velocity Upwards velocity from lift and drag = w s κ u ∗ where w s is the fall velocity κ is the von Kármán constant u ∗ is the shear velocity If the upwards velocity is equal to the settling velocity, sediment will be transported downstream as suspended load. If the upwards velocity is much less than the settling velocity, but still high enough for the sediment to move, it will move along the bed as bed load by rolling and saltating.
If the upwards velocity is higher than the settling velocity, the sediment will be transported high in the flow as wash load. As there are a range of different particle sizes in the flow, it is common for material of different sizes to move through all areas of the flow for given stream conditions. Sediment motion can create self-organized structures such as ripples, dunes, or antidunes on the river or stream bed; these bedforms are preserved in sedimentary rocks and can be used to estimate the direction and magnitude of the flow that deposited the sediment. Overland flow can transport them downslope; the erosion associated with overland flow may occur through different methods depending on meteorological and flow conditions. If the initial impact of rain droplets dislodges soil, the phenomenon is called rainsplash erosion. If overland flow is directly responsible for sediment entrainment but does not form gullies, it is called "sheet erosion". If the flow and the substrate permit channelization, gullies may form.
The major fluvial environments for deposition of sediments include: Deltas Point bars Alluvial fans Braided rivers Oxbow lakes Levees Waterfalls Wind results in the transportation of fine sediment and the formation of sand dune fields and soils from airborne dust. Glaciers carry a wide range of sediment sizes, deposit it in moraines; the overall balance between sediment in transport and sediment being deposited on the bed is given by the Exner equation. This expression states that the rate of increase in bed elevation due to deposition is proportional to the amount of sediment that falls out of the flow; this equation is important in that changes in the power of the flow change the ability of the flow to carry sediment, this is reflected in the patterns of erosion and deposition observed throughout a stream. This can be localized, due to small obstacles. Erosion and deposition can be regional. Deposition can occur due to dam emplacement that causes the river to pool and deposit its entire load, or due to base level rise.
Seas and lakes accumulate sediment over time. The sediment can consist of terrigenous material, which originates on land, but may be deposited in either terrestrial, marine, or lacustrine environments, or of sediments originating in the body of water. Terrigenous material is supplied by nearby rivers and streams or reworked marine sediment. In the mid-ocean, the exoskeletons of dead organisms are responsible for sediment accumulation. Deposited sediments are the source of sedimentary rocks, which can contain fossils of
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent. It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of the body, to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface. Magma from the mantle or lower crust rises through its crust towards the surface. If magma reaches the surface, its behavior depends on the viscosity of the molten constituent rock. Viscous magma produces volcanoes characterised by explosive eruptions, while non-viscous magma produce volcanoes characterised by effusive eruptions pouring large amounts of lava onto the surface. In some cases, rising magma can solidify without reaching the surface. Instead, the cooled and solidified igneous mass crystallises within the crust to form an igneous intrusion; as magma cools the chemicals in the crystals formed are removed from the main mix of the magma, so the chemical content of the remaining magma evolves as it solidifies slowly.
Fresh unevolved magma injections can remobilise more evolved magmas, allowing eruptions from more viscous magmas. Movement of molten rock in the mantle, caused by thermal convection currents, coupled with gravitational effects of changes on the earth's surface drive plate tectonic motion and volcanism. Volcanoes are places; the type of volcano depends on the consistency of the magma. These are formed where magma pushes between existing rock, intrusions can be in the form of batholiths, dikes and layered intrusions. Earthquakes are associated with plate tectonic activity, but some earthquakes are generated as a result of volcanic activity; these are formed. These include geysers, fumaroles and mudpots, they are used as a source of geothermal energy; the amount of gas and ash emitted by volcanic eruptions has a significant effect on the Earth's climate. Large eruptions correlate well with some significant climate change events; when magma cools it forms rocks. The type of rock formed depends on the chemical composition of the magma and how it cools.
Magma that reaches the surface to become lava cools resulting in rocks with small crystals such as basalt. Some of this magma may cool rapidly and will form volcanic glass such as obsidian. Magma trapped below ground in thin intrusions cools more than exposed magma and produces rocks with medium-sized crystals. Magma that remains trapped in large quantities below ground cools most resulting in rocks with larger crystals, such as granite and gabbro. Existing rocks that come into contact with magma may be assimilated into the magma. Other rocks adjacent to the magma may be altered by contact metamorphism or metasomatism as they are affected by the heat and escaping or externally-circulating hydrothermal fluids. Volcanism is not confined only to Earth, but is thought to be found on any body having a solid crust and fluid mantle. Evidence of volcanism should still be found on any body that has had volcanism at some point in its history. Volcanoes have indeed been observed on other bodies in the Solar System – on some, such as Mars, in the shape of mountains that are unmistakably old volcanoes, but on Io actual ongoing eruptions have been observed.
It can be surmised that volcanism exists on planets and moons of this type in other planetary systems as well. In 2014, scientists found 70 lava flows. Bimodal volcanism Continental drift Hotspot Volcanic arc "Glossary of Volcanic Terms". G. J. Hudak, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, 2001. Retrieved 2010-05-07. Crumpler, L. S. and Lucas, S. G.. "Volcanoes of New Mexico: An Abbreviated Guide For Non-Specialists". Volcanology in New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 18: 5–15. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2010-04-28. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere and undergo changes on the Earth's surface. It pertains to frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size and accumulate on surfaces metamorphose in place, melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles and rime; as snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering and freeze-thaw. Where the climate is cold enough for year-to-year accumulation, a glacier may form. Otherwise, snow melts seasonally, causing runoff into streams and rivers and recharging groundwater. Major snow-prone areas include the polar regions, the upper half of the Northern Hemisphere and mountainous regions worldwide with sufficient moisture and cold temperatures.
In the Southern Hemisphere, snow is confined to mountainous areas, apart from Antarctica. Snow affects such human activities as transportation: creating the need for keeping roadways and windows clear. Snow affects ecosystems, as well, by providing an insulating layer during winter under which plants and animals are able to survive the cold. Snow develops in clouds; the physics of snow crystal development in clouds results from a complex set of variables that include moisture content and temperatures. The resulting shapes of the falling and fallen crystals can be classified into a number of basic shapes and combinations, thereof; some plate-like and stellar-shaped snowflakes can form under clear sky with a cold temperature inversion present. Snow clouds occur in the context of larger weather systems, the most important of, the low pressure area, which incorporate warm and cold fronts as part of their circulation. Two additional and locally productive sources of snow are lake-effect storms and elevation effects in mountains.
Mid-latitude cyclones are low pressure areas which are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild snow storms to heavy blizzards. During a hemisphere's fall and spring, the atmosphere over continents can be cold enough through the depth of the troposphere to cause snowfall. In the Northern Hemisphere, the northern side of the low pressure area produces the most snow. For the southern mid-latitudes, the side of a cyclone that produces the most snow is the southern side. A cold front, the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, can produce frontal snowsqualls—an intense frontal convective line, when temperature is near freezing at the surface; the strong convection that develops has enough moisture to produce whiteout conditions at places which line passes over as the wind causes intense blowing snow. This type of snowsquall lasts less than 30 minutes at any point along its path but the motion of the line can cover large distances. Frontal squalls may form a short distance ahead of the surface cold front or behind the cold front where there may be a deepening low pressure system or a series of trough lines which act similar to a traditional cold frontal passage.
In situations where squalls develop post-frontally it is not unusual to have two or three linear squall bands pass in rapid succession only separated by 25 miles with each passing the same point in 30 minutes apart. In cases where there is a large amount of vertical growth and mixing the squall may develop embedded cumulonimbus clouds resulting in lightning and thunder, dubbed thundersnow. A warm front can produce snow for a period, as warm, moist air overrides below-freezing air and creates precipitation at the boundary. Snow transitions to rain in the warm sector behind the front. Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward shores; the same effect occurs over bodies of salt water, when it is termed ocean-effect or bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the moving air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores.
This uplifting can produce narrow but intense bands of precipitation, which deposit at a rate of many inches of snow each hour resulting in a large amount of total snowfall. The areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts; these include areas east of the Great Lakes, the west coasts of northern Japan, the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, areas near the Great Salt Lake, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Baltic Sea, parts of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Orographic or relief snowfall is caused when masses of air pushed by wind are forced up the side of elevated land formations, such as large mountains; the lifting of air up the side of a mountain or range results in adiabatic cooling, condensation and precipitation. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier, warmer air on the leeward side; the resulting enhanced productivity of snow fall and the decrease in temperature with elevation means that snow depth
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region. This land is sometimes called the Chaco Plain; the name Chaco comes from a word in Quechua, an indigenous language from the Andes and highlands of South America. The quechua word chaqu meaning "hunting land" comes from the rich variety of animal life present throughout the entire region; the Gran Chaco is about 647,500 km ² in size. It is located west of the Paraguay River and east of the Andes, is an alluvial sedimentary plain shared among Paraguay and Argentina, it stretches from about 17° to 33° South latitude and between 65° and 60° West longitude, though estimates differ. The Chaco has been divided in three main parts: the Chaco Austral or Southern Chaco, south of the Bermejo River and inside Argentinian territory, blending into the Pampa region in its southernmost end.
Locals sometimes divide it today by the political borders, giving rise to the terms Argentinian Chaco, Paraguayan Chaco and Bolivian Chaco. The Chaco Boreal may be divided in two: closer to the mountains in the west, the Alto Chaco, sometimes known as Chaco Seco, is dry and sparsely vegetated. To the east, less arid conditions combined with favorable soil characteristics permit a seasonally dry higher-growth thorn tree forest, further east still higher rainfall combined with improperly drained lowland soils result in a somewhat swampy plain called the Bajo Chaco, sometimes known as Chaco Húmedo, it has a more open savanna vegetation consisting of palm trees, quebracho trees and tropical high-grass areas, with a wealth of insects. The landscape is flat and slopes at a 0.004 degree gradient to the east. This area is one of the distinct physiographic provinces of the Parana-Paraguay Plain division; the areas more hospitable to development are along the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers. It is a great source of timber and tannin, derived from the native quebracho tree.
Special tannin factories have been constructed there. The wood of the palo santo from the Central Chaco is the source of oil of guaiac. Paraguay cultivates mate in the lower part of the Chaco. Large tracts of the central and northern Chaco have high soil fertility, sandy alluvial soils with elevated levels of phosphorus and a topography, favorable for agricultural development. Other aspects are challenging for farming: a semi-arid to semi-humid climate with a six-month dry season and sufficient fresh groundwater restricted to one third of the region, two thirds being without groundwater or with groundwater of high salinity. Soils are erosion prone once the forest has been cleared. In the central and northern Paraguay Chaco, occasional dust storms have caused major top soil loss; the Chaco was occupied by nomadic peoples, notably the various groups making up the Guaycuru who resisted Spanish control with success, of the Chaco from the 16th until the early 20th century. Prior to national independence of the nations that compose the Chaco, the entire area was a separate colonial region named by the Spaniards as Chiquitos.
The Gran Chaco had been a disputed territory since 1810. It was supposed to be part of Argentina and Paraguay, although a bigger land portion west of the Paraguay River had belonged to Paraguay since its independence. Argentina claimed territories south of the Bermejo River until Paraguay's defeat in the War of the Triple Alliance in 1870 established its current border with Argentina. Over the next few decades, Bolivia began to push the natives out and settle in the Gran Chaco, while Paraguay ignored it. Bolivia sought the Paraguay River for shipping oil out into the sea, Paraguay claimed ownership of the land; this became the backdrop to The Gran Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia over supposed oil in the Chaco Boreal. Argentine Foreign Minister Carlos Saavedra Lamas mediated a cease fire and subsequent treaty signed in 1938, which gave Paraguay three quarters of the Chaco Boreal and gave Bolivia a corridor to the Paraguay River with the ability to use the Puerto Casado and the right to construct their own port.
In the end, no oil was found in the region. Mennonites immigrated into the Paraguayan part of the region from Canada in the 1920s; these immigrants created some of the largest and most prosperous municipalities in the deep Gran Chaco. The region is home to over nine million people, divided about evenly among Argentina, Bolivia and including around 100,000 in Paraguay; the area remains underdeveloped, In the 1960s, the Paraguayan authorities constructed the Trans-Chaco Highway and the Argentine National Highway Directorate, National Routes 16 and 81, in an effort to encourage
Villa General Belgrano
Villa General Belgrano, a small mountain village of 6,260 inhabitants is named after the creator of the Argentine flag Manuel Belgrano and located in a lush green valley of Calamuchita in the hills in the Province of Córdoba in central Argentina. Villa General Belgrano was founded in 1930, by two German speculators attracted by its agricultural potential; the Alpine quality of the village attracted immigrants from Germany, Switzerland and Austria. In 1940, after the Battle of the River Plate, German seaman scuttled and sunk their battleship, the Admiral Graf Spee off the coast of the Montevideo harbour, 130 of its surviving sailors settled in the village along with the original settlers and landscaped the mountain ranges of Córdoba with red-roofed, wood-frame homes and pastry and chocolate shops which gave it that unique style that distinguishes it today. A well-known German resident was Kurt Tank, who became a leading member of the Argentine Aeronautic Institute; the village, characterized by its Bavarian style architecture, survives on a steady flow of tourists with an appetite for German delicacies like apple strudel, leberwurst and spätzle and beer if German cuisine recipes are not respected by local restaurants.
Oktoberfest here is hailed as the third-most important Oktoberfest site after Munich and Blumenau in Brazil. The village offers an above-average quality of accommodations to the visitors in hotels and cabins, including a local Howard Johnson's. Newsstands sell the German language weekly, Argentinisches Tageblatt among other German newspapers, the church offers Sunday services in German and Spanish. Like many isolated immigrant communities, Villa General Belgrano has respected traditions that fell out of favor in Germany long ago, however though the mother tongue can still be heard, it is being lost in time; the flora in this area has many arboreal autochthonous species as the chañar, molle, shade of bull and piquillín amongst other. As for the species implemented by the man in the zone important plantations of coniferous, paradise, are found; as for the fauna, gray foxes, vizcachas, shy iguanas, etc. are abundant. The commune is in the region named Bosque Serrano, located between 500 and 1400 metres above sea level.
The nearby town of Santa Rosa de Calamuchita, together with Villa General Belgrano are the principal tourist localities of the Valley. Nearby there are the small settlements of Los Reartes, Villa Ciudad Parque Los Reartes, Solar de los Molinos, Villa Berna, Villa Alpina, Capilla Vieja, Atos Pampa, La Cumbrecita which are singular tourist attractions; the area once had a German school, Colegio Aleman "Steck". La Cumbrecita Information about building regulations in Villa General Belgrano