1824 Constitution of Mexico
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, was defined as a representative federal republic, with Catholicism as the official and unique religion, it was replaced by the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857. The Mexican War of Independence severed control that Spain had exercised on its North American territories, the new country of Mexico was formed from much of the individual territory that had comprised New Spain; the victorious rebels issued the Plan de Iguala. This plan reaffirmed many of the ideals of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and granted equal citizenship rights to all races. In the early days of the country, there was much disagreement over whether Mexico should be a federal republic or a constitutional monarchy. One of the leaders of the revolution became the first monarch, Agustin I.
Discontent with Agustin's national government grew, Brigadier Antonio López de Santa Anna initiated an insurrection. Generals issued the Plan of Casa Mata on 1 February 1823; the plan won the support of the provinces because it included a provision granting local authority to the provincial deputations. The election of a new legislature constituted the plan’s principal demand, because provincial leaders considered the composition of the first congress to be flawed. Following the precedent of the Hispanic Cortes, Mexican political leaders considered the executive to be subservient to the legislature. Thus, a new congress, which did not possess the liabilities of the old, could restore confidence if the executive remained in place. Mexican politicians, of course, expected the new body to keep the emperor in check. Agustin abdicated in March 1823; the failure of Iturbide's short-lived empire ensured. The reconvened Mexican Cortes appointed a triumvirate called the Supreme Executive Power which would alternate the presidency among its members on a monthly basis.
But the question of how the nation was to be organized remained unresolved. The Mexican Cortes, following the Cádiz model, maintained that it was sovereign since it represented the nation; the provinces, believed that they possessed sovereignty, a portion of which they collectively ceded to form a national government. The Cortes insisted on writing the nation’s constitution, but the provinces maintained that it could only convene a new constituent congress based on the electoral regulations of the Constitution of Cádiz. Neither side was willing to cede. In the months that followed, the provinces assumed control of their governments through their provincial deputations. Four provinces, Yucatán, Zacatecas, converted themselves into states. To avoid civil war, the Cortes elected a new constituent congress. Elections for a second constituent assembly, based on a convocatoria issued 26 June 1821 by the Hispanic Cortes, were held throughout the nation in August and September; the executive branch was not restructured, because both the provinces and the new constituent congress considered it subservient to the legislature.
The new congress, which the provinces had insisted upon since March met on 7 November 1823. The second Constituent Congress was quite different from the first, it represented the provinces more equitably, some of its members possessed instructions to form only a federal republic. Oaxaca, Yucatán, Zacatecas, which had become states, elected state congresses, rather than provincial deputations, as the convocatoria required; the Mexico City-based national elite, struggling for power since 1808, which had taken control in 1821, lost it two years to the provincial elites. Although some members of the national elite were elected to the new constituent congress, they formed a distinct minority. Indeed, only thirty-five of the one hundred-forty-four deputies and alternates elected to the new legislature had served in the earlier Mexican Cortes; the constituent congress, which convened on 7 November 1823, faced different circumstances from its predecessor. Not only had the provinces declared their sovereignty, but they had restricted the authority of their delegates.
Valladolid, Michoacán, for example, declared: "This province in the federation does not wish to relinquish the major portion of its liberty and other rights. Mérida, Yucatán, decreed that "the elected deputies are granted only the power to constitute the nation in a government, republican and federal", that: "The federal constitution that they form and agree with the other deputies of the Constituent Congress will not have the force of law in the nation until the majority of the federated states ratify it." Zacatecas, was more explicit, asserting that "The deputies to the future congress cannot constitute the nation as they deem convenient, but only as a federal republic." Guadalajara insisted that the pueblos of Jalisco wanted only a popular and republican form of government. Other provinces made similar declarations; the new congress represented regional interests. Therefore, the debate in the legislature focused on the division of power between the national and the provincial governments, not on whether Mexico would be a federal or a central republic.
The delegates were divided into a confederalist, two federalist, one centralist faction. The confederalists, extreme defenders of local rights like Juan de Dios
National Supreme Court of Justice
The National Supreme Court of Justice (Spanish: Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación is the Mexican institution serving as the country's federal high court and the spearhead organisation for the judiciary of the Mexican Federal Government. It consists of eleven magistrates, known as ministers of the court, one of whom is designated the court's president. Judges of the SCJN are appointed for 15 years, they are ratified through affirmation by the Senate from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. The ministers chosen will select from among themselves who shall be the President of the Court to serve a four-year period. Be a natural born citizen of Mexico. Be no less than 35 years of age nor over 65 years of age at the time of one's appointment Have held a Law degree for at least 10 years. To have a good reputation and have not have been convicted of theft, forgery, breach of trust, or any other offense which could imply a punishment of more than one year in prison. Not have been Director for Domestic Affairs, Chief of an Administrative Department, Attorney General of the Republic or Federal District Attorney, Member of Parliament, Governor of any State, or Chief Executive of the Federal District during the year prior to his or her appointment.
The Constitution requires that the appointment of ministers of the court should fall to those persons who have served ably and honorably in the administration of justice, or to those who have distinguished themselves by their honor and professional background in the exercise of their duties. Ministers may take leave of their posts for three reasons: The end of their terms Relinquishment, only allowed in serious cases, all of which must be affirmed by the President and accepted or discarded by the Senate. Voluntary retirement: Proceeds when the interested party requests their retirement, as long as they meet the conditions of age and seniority; the court itself is located just off the main plaza of Mexico City on the corners of Pino Suarez and Carranza Streets. It was built between 1941 by Antonio Muñoz Garcia. Prior to the Conquest, this site was reserved for the ritual known as "Dance of the Flyers", still practiced today in Papantla. Hernán Cortés claimed the property after the Conquest and its ownership was in dispute during much of the colonial period with Cortes' heirs, the city government, the Royal and Pontifical University all claiming rights.
It was the site of a large market known as El Volador. Within the building, there are four flanks painted in 1941 by José Clemente Orozco, two of which are named The Social Labor Movement and Commonwealth. There is a mural done by American artist George Biddle entitled "War and Peace" at the entrance to the law library; the building contains a mural by Rafael Cauduro, which "graphically illustrates the Gran Guignol of Mexican torture", includes a depiction of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre as well as "a cut-away of a prison the infamous Lecumberri Black Palace where student leaders who escaped death were jailed." While this building is still the chief seat for the Supreme Court, an alternative site at Avenida Revolución was opened in 2002. The following persons were once Presidents of the Supreme Court under the 1917 Constitution: 1917–1919: Enrique M. del Río 1919–1920: Ernesto Garza Pérez 1920–1922: Enrique Moreno Pérez 1922–1923: Gustavo A. Vicencio 1923–1924: Francisco Modesto Ramírez 1924–1925: Gustavo A. Vicencio 1925–1927: Manuel Padilla 1927–1928: Francisco Díaz Lombardo 1928–1929: Jesús Guzmán Vaca 1929–1933: Julio García 1934: Francisco H. Ruiz 1934–1940: Daniel V. Valencia 1941–1951: Salvador Urbina 1952: Roque Estrada Reynoso 1953: Hilario Medina 1954: José María Ortiz Tirado 1955–1956: Vicente Santos Guajardo 1957: Hilario Medina 1958: Agapito Pozo Balbás 1959–1964: Alfonso Guzmán Neyra 1965–1968: Agapito Pozo Balbás 1969–1973: Alfonso Guzmán Neyra 1974–1975: Euquerio Guerrero López 1976: Mario G. Rebolledo Fernández 1977–1981: Agustín Téllez Cruces 1982: Mario G. Rebolledo Fernández 1982–1985: Jorge Iñárritu y Ramírez de Aguilar 1986–1990: Carlos del Río Rodríguez 1991–1994: Ulises Schmill Ordóñez 1995–1999: José Vicente Aguinaco Alemán 1999–2002: Genaro David Góngora Pimentel 2002–2006: Mariano Azuela Güitrón 2007–2010: Guillermo Ortiz Mayagoitia 2011–2014: Juan N. Silva Meza 2015–2018: Luis María Aguilar Morales 2019–incumbent: Arturo Zaldívar Lelo de Larrea Official site
First Mexican Republic
For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The First Mexican Republic, known as the First Federal Republic, was a federated republic and nation-state designated the United Mexican States. "Independence transformed Mexico from Spain's largest and most prosperous colony to a sovereign nation suffering economic decline and political strife." The First Mexican Republic lasted from 1824 to 1835, when conservatives under Antonio López de Santa Anna transformed it into a centralized state, the Centralist Republic of Mexico. The republic was proclaimed on November 1, 1823 by the Constituent Congress, months after the fall of the Mexican Empire ruled emperor Agustin I, a former royalist military officer-turned-insurgent for independence; the federation was formally and established on October 4, 1824 when the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States came into force. It was bordered on the north by the United States and Oregon Country; the Federal Republic lasted twelve years with constant struggles between the main political parties: the Conservatives and former monarchists, favoring a strong central government and a confessional state.
The conflict caused severe political violence. The republic was ruled by nine presidents. Guadalupe Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in this period and in 30 years of independent Mexico. On October 23, 1835, after the repeal of the Constitution of 1824, the Federal Republic was changed to a Centralist Republic; the unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. The Spanish overseas possession of the Viceroyalty of New Spain lasted for 300 years, from 1521 with the fall of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan and the foundation of Mexico City until the collapse of the viceroyalty in following years of civil war and military stalemate. An insurgency for independence from Spain lasted from the initial 1810 mass revolt, led by secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo and continued under another secular cleric, José María Morelos, carried on the hot country of Mexico's south by Vicente Guerrero. Augustin Iturbide, a royalist military officer born in New Spain of Spanish parents, made a strategic alliance with Guerrero under the Plan of Iguala, in which the former foes fought in tandem to oust Spanish rule.
The plan proclaimed Mexico a nation-state. On September 27, 1821, Mexico obtained its sovereignty under the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized New Spain as an independent empire, which took the name the Mexican Empire. Elite American-born Spaniards in New Spain had no real experience with exercising political power other than on their city councils, so that monarchy was the familiar form of rule. No European of royal blood stepped in to assume the royal title in Mexico. A minority of the Constituent Congress in search of stability chose as monarch the general Agustín de Iturbide, who had led the war effort against Spain, he was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico on May 18, 1822. Political turmoil ensued, with Iturbide dissolving the Constituent Congress in October 1822 and jailing the legislators. Several members were jailed for expressing their disagreement with Iturbide; when Iturbide eliminated the elected Congress, he established an appointed National Board in its place. The dismissal of the Congress, the dictatorial style of government adopted by the Emperor, the absence of solutions to the serious problems that the country was going through increased the conspiracies to change the imperial system.
The military men sent to crush the opposition instead proclaimed against Iturbide and issued the Plan of Casa Mata, which sought to create a new constituent assembly. Generals Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria drafted the Plan of Casa Mata in December 1822, proclaimed on 1 February 1823, it appealed to the political subdivisions of Mexico who sought home rule. Several insurrections occurred in the Mexican provinces beginning in December, but they were all put down by the Imperial Army, except for Santa Anna's forces in Veracruz. Santa Anna had made a secret agreement with General Echávarri, the commander of the Imperial forces. By this agreement, the Plan of Casa Mata was to be proclaimed throughout Mexico on February 1, 1823, Echávarri was to switch sides to join the insurgents; this plan did not recognize the First Mexican Empire and called for the convening of a new Constituent Congress. The insurrectionists sent their proposal to the provincial delegations and requested their adherence to the plan.
In the course of just six weeks, the Plan of Casa Mata traveled to such remote places as Texas, all the provinces supported the plan. Antonio López de Santa Anna proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata, joined by Vicente Guerrero and Nicolás Bravo. Iturbide was forced to reinstate the Congress, in a vain attempt to save the order and keep the situation favorable to his supporters, he abdicated on March 19, 1823. However, the restored Congress declared the appointment of Iturbide void ab initio, thus refused recognition of the abdication. On 8 April, the Congress declared the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba void
Congress of the Union
The Congress of the Union, formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States, is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress of the Union meets in Mexico City and consists of 628 members: 500 deputies and 128 senators; the Congress is a bicameral body, consisting of two chambers: Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, Articles 50 to 79 of the 1917 Constitution; the upper chamber is the Senate, "Cámara de Senadores" or "Senado". It comprises 128 seats, 96 members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms; the lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, or "Cámara de Diputados". It has 500 seats; the Congress of the Union has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies has 500 members, each elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies.
The 200 PR-seats are distributed without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions to that rule. A party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. A party cannot get more than 300 seats overall; the Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up; the "Comisión Permanente del Congreso de la Unión", translated variously as the Permanent Committee or Standing Committee, is a body of 19 deputies and 18 senators, responsible for tasks relating to the Congress when it is in recess. It is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the "LXIV Legislature"; the I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution.
Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I. Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección. In keeping with that long-held principle, until 2014, the 1917 Constitution stated that "Deputies and Senators could not be reelected for the next immediate term". On February 10, 2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the general election of 2018, Deputies and Senators are allowed to run for reelection. Members of the Chamber of Deputies may serve up to four terms of three years each while members of the Senate may serve two terms of six years each. A Of the 53 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 40 were taken by MORENA, 8 by the PES, 5 by the PT b Of the 25 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 16 were taken by the PAN, 6 by the PRD, 3 by the MC c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 7 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, 1 by the PNA a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, 56 by the PES b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, 9 by the PRD c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, 2 by the PNA Chamber of Deputies Senate Politics of Mexico List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies Senate
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and for Mexican independence. He influenced early Mexican politics and government, was an adept soldier and cunning politician, who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny", who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but fought in support of it. Though not the first caudillo of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history," and among the earliest. Conservative historian and politician Lucas Alamán wrote that "The history of Mexico since 1822 might be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions.... His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."An enigmatic and controversial figure, Santa Anna had great power in Mexico.
In the periods of time when he was not serving as president, he continued to pursue his military career. A wealthy landowner, he built a firm political base in the major port city of Veracruz, he was perceived as a hero by his troops. He rebuilt his reputation after major losses. Historians and many Mexicans rank him as the principal inhabitant today of Mexico's pantheon of "those who failed the nation." His centralist rhetoric and military failures resulted in Mexico losing just over half its territory, beginning with the Texas Revolution of 1836, culminating with the Mexican Cession of 1848 following its defeat by the United States in the Mexican–American War. His political positions changed in his lifetime, he was overthrown for the final time by the liberal Revolution of Ayutla in 1854 and lived most of his years in exile. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón was born in Xalapa, Nueva España, on 21 February 1794, he was from a respected Spanish colonial family.
His father was a royal army officer perpetually in debt, served for a time as a sub-delegate for the Gulf Coast Spanish province of Veracruz. However, his parents were wealthy enough to send him to school. In June 1810, the 16-year-old Santa Anna joined the Fijo de Veracruz infantry regiment as a cadet against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career in commerce. In September 1810, secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rebelled against Spanish rule, sparking a spontaneous mass movement in Mexico's rich agricultural area, the Bajío; the Mexican War of Independence was to last until 1821, Santa Anna, like most creole military men, fought for the crown against the mixed-raced insurgents for independence. Santa Anna's commanding officer was José Joaquín de Arredondo, who taught him much about dealing with Mexican rebels. In 1811, Santa Anna was wounded in the left hand by an arrow during the campaign under Col. Arredondo in the town of Amoladeras, in the state of San Luis Potosí.
In 1813, Santa Anna served in Texas against the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition, at the Battle of Medina, in which he was cited for bravery. He was promoted quickly. In the aftermath of the rebellion, the young officer witnessed Arredondo's fierce counter-insurgency policy of mass executions. During the next few years, in which the war for independence reached a stalemate, Santa Anna erected villages for displaced citizens near the city of Veracruz, he pursued gambling, a habit that would follow him all through his life. In 1816, Santa Anna was promoted to captain, he conducted occasional campaigns to suppress Native Americans or to restore order after a tumult had begun. When royalist officer Agustín de Iturbide changed sides in 1821 and allied with insurgent Vicente Guerrero, fighting for independence under the Plan of Iguala, Santa Anna joined the fight for independence; the changed circumstances in Spain, where liberals had ousted Ferdinand VII and began implementing the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, made many elites in Mexico reconsider their options.
The clergy in New Spain would have lost power under the Spanish liberal regime and new Mexican clerics saw independence as a way to maintain their position in an autonomous Mexico. Santa Anna rose to prominence fighting for independence by driving Spanish forces out of the vital port city of Veracruz and Iturbide rewarded him with the rank of general. Iturbide rewarded Santa Anna with command of the vital port of Veracruz, the gateway from the Gulf of Mexico to the rest of the nation and site of the customs house. However, Iturbide subsequently removed Santa Anna from the post, prompting Santa Anna to rise in rebellion in December 1822 against Iturbide. Santa Anna had significant power in his home region of Veracruz, "he was well along the path to becoming the regional caudillo." Santa Anna claimed in his Plan of Veracruz that he rebelled because Iturbide had diss