SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sigebert II

See Sigeberht II of Essex for the Saxon ruler by that name. Sigebert II or Sigisbert II, was the illegitimate son of Theuderic II, from whom he inherited the kingdoms of Burgundy and Austrasia in 613. However, he fell under the influence of Brunhilda. Warnachar, mayor of the palace of Austrasia had Sigebert brought before a national assembly, where he was proclaimed king by the nobles over both his father's kingdoms. However, when the kingdom was invaded by Clotaire II of Neustria and Rado, mayor of the palace of Burgundy, betrayed Sigebert and Brunhilda and joined with Clotaire, recognising Clotaire as rightful regent and guardian of Sigebert and ordering the army not to oppose the Neustrians. Brunhilda and Sigebert met Clotaire's army on the Aisne, but the Patrician Aletheus, Duke Rocco, Duke Sigvald deserted her host and Brunhilda and Sigebert were forced to flee, before being taken by Clotaire's men at Lake Neuchâtel. Brunhilda, little Sigebert and Sigebert's younger brother Corbo were executed by Clotaire's orders, Austrasia and Neustria were reunited under Clotaire's rule, who now ruled the entire kingdom of the Franks

Gran Hotel (film)

Gran Hotel is a 1944 Mexican film directed by Miguel M. Delgado, starring Cantinflas. Cantinflas is a tramp, evicted for not paying the rent. After wandering, he gets a job at the "Gran Hotel" through a friend, where he is confused with the Duke of Alfanje, incognito in the hotel, the theft of a jewel complicates the situation more. Cantinflas as Cantinflas / El Treece Jacqueline Dalya as Mrs. White Josefina Martínez as Carmelita Luis G. Barreiro as Sr. Garnier Fernando Soto as Compadre Vicente Padula as Conde Zapattini Conchita Gentil Arcos as Doña Estefania Rafael Icardo as Señor Polilla Luz María Núñez as Eloisa Ángel T. Sala as Agente secreto en hotel Carlos Villarías as Don Pepe Roberto Meyer as Agente de procuraduria Roberto Corell as Maître Estanislao Schillinsky as Recepcionista de hotel Carolina Barret as Vecina Roberto Cañedo as Cliente restaurante Fernando Curiel as Agente de policía Pedro Elviro as Botones Edmundo Espino as Vecino en posada Magdalena Estrada as Vecina en posada Isabel Herrera as Vecina en posada Raúl Lechuga as Duque de Alfanje / Empleado de hotel Ernesto Monato as Julio, cliente de hotel Rosa María Montes as Esposa de Julio José Pardavé as Vecino en posada José Pulido as Anunciador restaurante Joaquín Roche as Doctor Irma Torres as Vecina en posada Armando Velasco as Don Fulgencio Stavans, Ilan.

The Riddle of Cantinflas: Essays on Hispanic Popular Culture and Expanded Edition. UNM Press, 2012. Balderston, Daniel. Routledge, 2002. Gran Hotel on IMDb

GSG 9

GSG 9 der Bundespolizei is the elite tactical unit of the German Federal Police. GSG 9 counterparts on the state level are the Special Deployment Commandos. On September 5, 1972, the Palestinian terrorist movement Black September infiltrated the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, to kidnap 11 Israeli athletes, killing two in the Olympic Village in the initial assault on the athletes' rooms; the incident culminated when German police – who were not trained or equipped for counter-terrorism operations, had underestimated the number of terrorists involved – attempted to rescue the athletes. Police did not have a specialized tactical sniper team at that time; the army had snipers, but the German Constitution did not allow the use of German Armed Forces on German soil during peacetime. The police rescue failed, the operation led to the deaths of one policeman, five of the eight kidnappers and all of the remaining nine hostages; as a consequence of the mismanagement of the Olympic tragedy, the West German government created the GSG 9 under the leadership of Oberstleutnant Ulrich Wegener so that similar situations in the future could be responded to adequately and professionally.

Many German politicians opposed its formation, fearing GSG 9 would rekindle memories of the Nazi Party's Schutzstaffel. The decision was taken to form the unit from police forces, as opposed to from the military, like the equivalent forces in other countries, on the ground that German federal law expressly forbids the use of the military forces against the civilian population. Composing the special force from police personnel would avoid that; the unit was established on 26 September 1972 as a part of Germany's federal police agency, the Bundesgrenzschutz. The then-BGS did have something of a paramilitary nature, used military ranks, had combatant status, could draw conscripts. In 2017, the GSG9 announced; the unit operates by organization standards. It trains with the Israeli Yamam Special Police Unit who specialize in Anti Terror warfare; the name GSG 9 stood for Grenzschutzgruppe 9 and was chosen because the BGS had eight regular border guard groups at the time. After the 2005 renaming, the abbreviation "GSG 9" was kept because of the fame of the unit and is now the official way to refer to the unit.

Its formation was based on the expertise of the British SAS Counter Terrorist Units and Israeli Special Operations. GSG 9 is deployed in cases of hostage-taking, kidnapping and extortion; the group may be used to secure locations, neutralize targets, track down fugitives, sometimes conduct sniper operations. The unit is active in developing and testing methods and tactics for these missions; the group may provide advice to the different states of ministries or international allies. The group assists other federal and local agencies on request. From 1972 to 2003, they completed over 1,500 missions, discharging their weapons on only five occasions. At the SWAT World Challenge in 2005, GSG 9 won eight out of eight events. GSG 9 defended its championship the following year, placed fifth in 2007. Germany offered to render assistance to India in the wake of the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. GSG 9 helped train and upgrade the National Security Guards, the primary Indian counter-terrorism unit. Further help was provided to the Mumbai Police.

Its first mission, "Operation Feuerzauber" established the GSG 9's reputation as an elite unit. It was carried out in 1977 when Palestinian terrorists hijacked the Landshut, a Lufthansa plane on the way from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt, demanding that imprisoned members of the German Red Army Faction terrorist group be freed in exchange for the passengers and crew who would be held as hostages; the aircraft was flown to several destinations throughout the Middle East. During this time, the Lufthansa captain Jürgen Schumann was murdered by the leader of the hijackers in Aden. Following a four-day odyssey, the hijackers directed the Boeing 737 to Mogadishu, where they waited for the arrival of the Red Army Faction members after the German government had signalled they would be released. In the night between October 17 and October 18, Somali ranger units created a distraction, while members of the GSG 9 stormed the plane; the operation was successful with all of the hostages rescued. Three hijackers died, the fourth was injured.

Only one GSG 9 member and one flight attendant were injured. The international counter-terrorism community applauded the GSG 9 for the excellent and professional handling of the situation, as assaults on planes are considered to be one of the most difficult operations that a hostage rescue force is to attempt. To support the GSG 9 action, two accompanying British SAS advisers provided some newly developed flash bang grenades, but the flash bangs were never used due to the fire risk inside the aircraft cabin. October 17–18, 1977: Lufthansa Flight 181 was hijacked by four Palestinian terrorists demanding the release of Red Army Faction members. GSG 9 officers stormed the aircraft on the ground in Mogadishu and freed all 86 hostages, killing three terrorists and capturing the remaining one. 1982: Arrest of RAF terrorists Brig