Northwestern University is a private research university based in Evanston, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida. C.. Along with its undergraduate programs, Northwestern is known for its Kellogg School of Management, Pritzker School of Law, Feinberg School of Medicine, Bienen School of Music, Medill School of Journalism, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science. Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program, attracting over $700 million in sponsored research each year. Northwestern has the ninth-largest university endowment in the United States, valued at $11.014 billion as of August 2018. The University's former and present faculty and alumni include 19 Nobel Prize laureates, 38 Pulitzer Prize winners, six MacArthur Genius Fellows, 16 Rhodes Scholars, 65 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and two Supreme Court Justices. Northwestern's School of Communication is a leading producer of Academy Award, Emmy Award and Tony Award–winning actors, playwrights and directors.
Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the city of Evanston is named, eight other lawyers and Methodist leaders. Its founding purpose was to serve the Old Northwest Territory, an area that includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855 and women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago; the university's law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism and marketing programs. The University is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference; the Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference.
The foundation of Northwestern University can be traced to a meeting on May 31, 1850, of nine prominent Chicago businessmen, Methodist leaders, attorneys who had formed the idea of establishing a university to serve what had been known from 1787 to 1803 as the Northwest Territory. On January 28, 1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois; the school's nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer and worship before launching their first organizational meeting. Although they affiliated the university with the Methodist Episcopal Church, they favored a non-sectarian admissions policy, believing that Northwestern should serve all people in the newly developing territory by bettering the economy in Evanston. John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois.
The first building, Old College, opened on November 5, 1855. To raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 "perpetual scholarships" entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition. Another building, University Hall, was built in 1869 of the same Joliet limestone as the Chicago Water Tower built in 1869, one of the few buildings in the heart of Chicago to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1873 the Evanston College for Ladies merged with Northwestern, Frances Willard, who gained fame as a suffragette and as one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, became the school's first dean of women. Northwestern admitted its first female students in 1869, the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882 becoming a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with existing schools of law and dentistry in Chicago. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago.
As the university increased in wealth and distinction, enrollments grew, these professional schools were integrated with the undergraduate college in Evanston. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917. Under Walter Dill Scott's presidency from 1920 to 1939, Northwestern began construction of an integrated campus in Chicago designed by James Gamble Rogers to house the professional schools. In 1933 a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago rejected. Northwestern became one of the first six universities in the United States to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s. Northwestern played host to the first-ever NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship game in 1939 in the original Patten Gymnasium, demolished and relocated farther north along with the Dearborn Observatory to make room for the Technological Institute. After the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern h
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in
A law school is an institution specializing in legal education involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction. To practice in Australia, one needs to graduate with a Bachelor of Laws, Juris Doctor, or Diploma-in-Law issued by the Legal Profession Admission Board, followed by an internship for 12 months or an extra course in practical legal training depending on the jurisdiction and university, be admitted as a lawyer of one of a state's Supreme Court. In Brazil the legal education begins between 1827/28 in Olinda/PE and São Paulo/SP where the first Schools of Law were established by the new Empire using as educational model the Coimbra Faculty of Law. Nowadays the legal education consists in a 5-year-long course in which, the scholar is granted a bachelor's degree. Therefore, it is considered part of the higher education, hence the educational system is regulated as: i) basic education - primary and high school; the practice of law is conditioned upon admission to the bar of a particular state or other territorial jurisdiction.
Public attorneys, public prossecutors and magistrates admission is made through an entrance examination and a constitutional mandatory three years of legal experience. Starting from the second degree courts it is mandatory a 1/5 of its composition to be fulfilled with members of the lawyers/attorneys/barristers association and from federal/state/labour processcutors regarding the court jurisdiction. After achieving the bachelor's degree of laws it is possible to follow an i) specialization or follow ii) academically, in either case it is called postgraduation: i) lato sensu; the postgraduation, stricto sensu, consists in a: a) master's degree, a two-year degree. The oldest civil law faculty in Canada offering law degrees was established in 1848 at McGill University in Montreal, the oldest common law faculty in Canada offering law degrees was established in 1883 at Dalhousie University in Halifax; the typical law degree required to practice law in Canada is now the Juris Doctor, which requires previous university coursework and is similar to the first law degree in the United States.
There is some scholarly content in the coursework. The programs consist of three years, have similar content in their mandatory first year courses. Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, Aboriginal law, etc; some schools, have not switched from LL. B. to the J. D. – one notable university that still awards the LL. B is McGill University. Given that the Canadian legal system includes both the French civil law and the Anglo-American common law, some law schools offer both an LL. B. or J. D. and a B. C. L. LL. L. or LL. B. degree, such as McGill University, University of Ottawa and the Université de Montréal. In particular, McGill University Faculty of Law offers a combined civil law and common law program, called "transsystemic." At other faculties, if a person completes a common law degree a civil law degree can be obtained with only an extra year of study.
This is true for civil law graduates who wish to complete a common law degree. Despite changes in designation, schools opting for the J. D. have not altered their curricula. Neither the J. D. or LL. B. alone is sufficient to qualify for a Canadian license, as each Province's law society requires an apprenticeship and successful completion of provincial skills and responsibilities training course, such as the British Columbia Law Society's Professional Legal Training Course, the Law Society of Upper Canada's Skills and Responsibilities Training Program. And the École du Barreau du Québec; the main reason for implementing the J. D. in Canada was to distinguish the degree from the European counterpart that requires no previous post-secondary education, However, in the eyes of the Canadian educational system, the J. D. awarded by Canadian universities has retained the characteristics of the LL. B. and is considered a second entry program, but not a graduate program. Disagreement persists regarding the status of the degrees, such as at the University of Toronto, where the J.
D. degree designation has been marketed by the Faculty of Law as superior to the LL. B. degree designation. Some universities have developed joint Canadian LL. B or J. D. and American J. D programs, such as York University and New York University, the University of Windsor and the University of Detroit Mercy, the University of Ottawa and Michigan State University program. Law school is entered to at the undergraduate level in a university. There is an intermediate bachelor's degree. Once university education is complete, the title of varatuomari is obtained with an one-year externship in a district court; this is the basic qualification to practice law. With further experience, the candidate may be admitted to the Finnish Bar Association and licensed with the protected title asianajaja, similar to barrister. In France, th
Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law shortened to Northwestern Pritzker School of Law, is one of the professional graduate schools of Northwestern University, located in Chicago, Illinois. Northwestern Law is a group of law schools that have national recognition. Founded in 1859, it was the first law school established in Chicago. Notable alumni include: Arthur Goldberg, United States Supreme Court Justice. S. House of Representatives. Founded in 1859, the school that would become known as the Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law was the first law school established in the city of Chicago; the school was the law department of the Old University of Chicago under the founding direction of Henry Booth and enrolled twenty-three students. The law school became Union College of Law when it jointly affiliated with Northwestern University in 1873. In 1891, the law school formally became Northwestern University School of Law when Northwestern assumed total control. Throughout the 20th century, programs such as the JD-MBA and JD-PhD were added to maintain the law school's position as one of America's top-ranked schools of law.
In October 2015, it was named, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law, after J. B. Pritzker and his wife, M. K. Pritzker, gave $100 million to the law school. Northwestern Law is located on Northwestern University's downtown campus in Chicago's Streeterville/Gold Coast neighborhood; the law school is on Lake Shore Drive and Chicago Avenue, adjacent to Lake Shore Park and Lake Michigan, a few blocks from the John Hancock Center, Magnificent Mile, Water Tower, Oak Street Beach, Navy Pier. The law school's location in the heart of downtown Chicago provides a wealth of part-time employment options for students while in school and a setting in which to study law; the proximity to courts and public interest activities enables students to experience the practice of law, as well as its theory. Admission to Northwestern Law is competitive. For the class entering in the fall of 2016, 821 out of 4,070 applicants were offered admission, with 213 matriculating; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2016 entering class were 163 and 170 with a median of 168.
The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.43 and 3.89 with a median of 3.81. The law school's practical philosophy is manifested in a strong preference for applicants with at least two years of work experience. 90% of the school's students enter with at least one year of full-time work experience. In this respect, Northwestern Law is similar to many business schools. According to U. S. News & World Report's 2017 Edition, 79% of the law school's 2016 graduates obtained prospective, full-time employment prior to graduation, with a median starting salary of $180,000. According to Northwestern's official 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 91% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term employment nine months after graduation. Northwestern's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 8.8%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation. Northwestern Law is well-established among BigLaw firms.
In Vault's 2016 survey, of over 15,000 BigLaw associates, Northwestern Law ranked #2 as a "feeder" school for BigLaw firms, after accounting for school size. According to Vault, Northwestern Law outperforms its expected BigLaw representation by 315%; the law school enrolls 985 students in its J. D. LL. M. S. J. D. and M. S. L. Programs; the school employs an interdisciplinary research faculty, has a low student-faculty ratio. According to Northwestern's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 93% of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term employment nine months after graduation; the total cost of attendance at Northwestern Law for the 2015-2016 academic year is $79,904. The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $292,586. Northwestern Law sponsors six student-run scholarly legal journals. Student staff members are selected based on a writing competition, editing competition, first-year grades, or a publishable note or comment on a legal topic; the Journal of International Law and Business has a substantive focus on private international law, as opposed to public international law or human rights.
It seeks scholarship analyzing transnational and international legal problems and their effect on private entities. The Journal's stated goal is to promote an understanding of the future course of international legal developments as they relate to private entities; the Northwestern University Law Review was first published in 1906 when it was called the "Illinois Law Review." Prior editors include: Roscoe Pound, long-time dean of Harvard Law School. The Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property addr
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Cliff Dwellers Club
The Cliff Dwellers Club is a private civic arts organization in Chicago, Illinois. The Club was founded in 1907 by Chicago author Hamlin Garland as "The Attic Club", On January 18, 1909, the name was formally changed to The Cliff Dwellers. In 1908, Cliff Dwellers entered into a lease for the eighth floor and the ninth-story penthouse above Orchestra Hall at 220 South Michigan Avenue. Garland's model was the New York Players Club. According to the Cliff Dwellers' Articles of Incorporation, the club was formed to "encourage and develop higher standards of art and craftsmanship; the name of the Club is said to be based on the novel "The Cliff Dwellers" by Henry B. Fuller. Alternatively, it refers to the ancient cliff-dwelling Indians of the Southwest, for a club, perching on high ledges and values the arts; the club's interior, the meeting space called the "kiva", was designed by Chicago architect Howard Van Doren Shaw, featured the mural Navaho by John Warner Norton. Charter members of the club included Garland's brother-in-law Lorado Taft, a noted sculptor.
B. Pond and I. K. Pond; the Cliff Dwellers' space in Orchestra Hall was ready for occupancy on January 6, 1909, when inaugural ceremonies were held. Under the original by-laws, the Club's membership was limited to men. Women have been admitted as members since 1984; the Club became a meeting place for artists and lovers of the fine arts, through dinners and programs and performances by many local artists, the ongoing camaraderie provided by a place to meet and talk at a designated members table, open to all Cliff Dwellers members. In 1996, the Cliff Dwellers moved their meeting place from the penthouse above Orchestra Hall to the 22nd floor of the Borg-Warner building; the private club continues to operate as a non-profit organization for men and women either professionally engaged in, or who support, the fine arts and the performing arts. The Club maintains a document collection at the Newberry Library; the Club has continued its tradition of sponsoring programs and performances and providing a space for the lively exchange of ideas.
The Cliff Dwellers has been led by several of its charter members and their tradition has been carried on, with presidents who have been engaged as writers, scholars and lay members who love and support the arts. Many well-known Chicago figures have been active members of The Cliff Dwellers over the years. Members have included: Under the Club's by-laws, "any person of reputation for creative work or for distinguished service in the field of literature or arts may be elected an honorary member." Authors Stuart Dybek and Scott Turow, Chicago sculptors Terrence Karpowicz and Richard Hunt, Chicago historian Tim Samuelson, architect Carter Manny are recent honorary members of the Club. The Club has exhibitions of sculpture and visual arts, which are mounted every other month. In addition, the Club hosts numerous events every month, showcasing musicians and actors in unique and exciting performances. Over the years, the Club has opened its doors to many outstanding writers and artists in Chicago for special lectures and programs.
The Cliff Dwellers Arts Foundation operates as a charitable adjunct to the private club. The Foundation's stated mission is to support the arts. Throughout the year, the Foundation provides grants to arts-oriented organizations and individuals, presents performances at the Club, sponsors an annual music competition. Visual arts grant recipients often showcase their art at the Club. Funds are distributed biannually; the Cliff Dwellers has numerous affiliate clubs around the world. These include the Arts Club of Chicago and the Quadrangle Club, the Cosmos Club, the Salmagundi Club in New York City, the Lansdowne Club in London, England; the Cliff Dwellers official website: http://cliff-chicago.org/ Cliff Dwellers Club Records at The Newberry Library