Maritime flag signalling
Maritime flag signalling flaghoist signalling, is the principal means other than radio by which ships communicate to each other or to shore. All signalling by non-naval vessels is now organized under the International Code of Signals, which specifies a standard set of flags and codes. Naval vessels use an extended set of flags and their own codes; this article will touch on the historical development of maritime flag signalling. In the early days of sail, the use of signals to communicate between ships was primitive, as seen by one admiral's instructions to his fleet in 1530: "Whensoever, at all tymes the Admyrall doth shote of a pece of Ordnance, set up his Banner of Council on Starrborde bottocke of his Shippe, everie shipps capten shall with spede go aborde the Admyrall to know his will." By 1653, the Royal Navy had issued instructions by which an admiral could signal various orders by hoisting flags in various locations on his ship. Modern naval code signalling began with the invention of maritime signal flags in the mid-17th century by the Duke of York, created Lord High Admiral after the Restoration.
A ship's message had to be approved by the Officer of the watch, his system was augmented and changed in various ways over the following century. In 1790, Admiral Lord Howe issued a new signal book for a numerary system using numeral flags to signal a number. Substitute flags were instituted to indicate repeated numerals, there was consideration of making the flags more distinct. In 1799, Captain Sir Home Popham published his first list of words and sentences which could be referenced by a number, it was based on the signal books created earlier by Admiral Lord Howe. Popham's code assigned the digits 0 to 9 to ten signal flags. Code numbers 1–25 represented letters of the alphabet; the code numbers would have been hoisted on the mizzenmast, one after another, preceded by the "telegraphic flag" to show that the subsequent signals would employ the Popham code. As well as digit flags, the code used "repeat" flags; the end of the message would be indicated by an "end of code" flag. Popham's code was famously used for the "England expects that every man will do his duty" signal at Trafalgar by Nelson: for this, a team of four to six men would have prepared and hoisted the flags onboard Lord Nelson's flagship HMS Victory, the whole process taking about 4 minutes.
The message shows one of the shortcomings of Popham's code—even the two-letter "do" required three flags hoisted for the signal. Previous systems were naval; the first general system of signalling for merchant vessels was Captain Frederick Marryat's A Code of Signals for the Merchant Service published in 1817. This consisted of six parts of large numbered lists: A list of English Men of War. A list of foreign Men of War. A list of the English Merchant Vessels. A list of Lighthouses, Headlands, Shoals, Reefs &c. A selection of Sentences; the Vocabulary. Different flags indicated; as an example, flying the Rendezvous flag over the numerals 1537 indicates that the ship's home port is Amsterdam. Flying Rendezvous under the number indicated that the ship is sailing from Amsterdam, flying it at some other mast-head indicates that she is bound for that port. Numbers alone indicate a sentence: "4576" means "I mean to keep sail set, carry on all night, as I am anxious to get into port." Marryat's code was an immediate success and was translated into several other languages, the 1854 edition was renamed The Universal Code of Signals for the Mercantile Marine of All Nations because of its widespread usage.
The last edition was published in 1879, two decades after the publication of the code that supplanted it. Various other codes were published, but all these were supplanted by the Commercial Code of Signals published by the British Board of Trade in 1857, which became the International Code of Signals. A significant development was the addition of letter flags to make the code alphabetical. During World War I, there was an unprecedented need for ships to communicate, merchant as well as naval, but the ICS was found wanting: "It was not international, it was found that when word by word, the occasions upon which signaling failed were more numerous than when the result was successful." This led to major revisions in 1931. This new international code of signals was brought into force worldwide on 1 January 1934. Thirteen new flags were introduced, so that the triangular pennants used for letters, C, D, E, F, G were replaced with new square flags and became the numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the numerals 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 were introduced by five new flags, there were three substitute flags, used when repeating letters in a hoist.
Additional changes in 1969 reduced the Code (dropping the Geographical a
Signals (Mallory Knox album)
Signals is the debut album by the British rock band Mallory Knox. The album was released on 21 January 2013. Mallory Knox formed in September 2009. After two months, drummer Dave Rawling, bassist Sam Douglas, guitarist Joe Savins invited guitarist James Gillett and vocalist Mikey Chapman to a practice session; the group hit it off as Chapman explains, "Everyone was on the same page. All of the members had played in locals band prior to Mallory Knox. Looking back in 2017, Douglas said the group wrote Signals "in the way we did because we were 19 and didn't have much to say." "Creeper" was written during a period when Chapman was growing sick of what was on TV. According to Chapman, "I was watching the House of Commons and seeing them talk over one another and talk shit and just being pathetic and pointless and wasting time, it just wound me up."The band recorded Signals in three weeks in January 2012. Drums were tracked in a half; the album was recorded a year before its release. The band waited after the album's recording to gain some radio and press behind the album to back it up so as when it was released it would gain further promotion.
A year elapsed before the band decided to release Signals on 21 January 2013 through A Wolf at Your Door. Following this, all of the band members quit their day jobs to focus on Mallory Knox as a full-time project. A deluxe edition was released on 7 October; the bonus tracks that came from the deluxe editions consisted of new tracks and a re-release of Oceans recorded on their début EP Pilot. For the release of the deluxe edition, the band embarked on a headlining tour across the UK, along with band Blitz Kids and The Crooks as supporting bands; the band performed as part of Warped Tour Australia in December. Signals was met with positive reviews by reviewers. AbsolutePunk stated that the songs from the album were worthy of going on the radio for the likes of the singles released from the album itself. Ourzone Magazine explained that the album contained a mix of hyper and gentle songs, that the band fitted into the trend of rock verging on mainstream styling. For this album, Ourzone placed the band at the top 25 bands to watch out for of 2013.
Signals was included on Rock Sound's "50 Best Albums of 2013" list at number 22. Mallory KnoxMikey Chapman – lead vocals Sam Douglas – vocals, bass guitar James Gillett – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Joe Savins – lead guitar, backing vocals Dave Rawling – drumsProductionDan Lancaster - producer, mixerArtworkCraig Lister - art direction and design David Kai Piper - photography Citations Sources Signals at YouTube
Signal is a 2009 children's science fiction novel by Cynthia DeFelice. The book was a Junior Library Guild selection for 2009; the novel is about a boy, bored with his new life in upstate New York and discovers a girl who claims to be from another planet, kidnapped by an abusive couple, attempts to make a signal to contact her home planet. Owen is a lonely and bored kid who just moved to the Finger Lakes of upstate New York with his father, a workaholic, his mother died, he is trying to find something to do with his summer since he does not live in a neighborhood like he used to when he lived in Buffalo. One day, while he is running up and down a seven-mile trail that he found with his Pointer, Josie, his mother used to talk to him about life on other planets. When he gets by the creek, he finds a piece of cloth with blood on it, he follows a trail of footsteps and blood to an abandoned house where he meets a girl named Campion, with shiny green eyes who claims she is from another planet. Cam explains her parents landed and she got left behind by mistake.
She explains the blood from a wound she got because of a hubcap, thrown at her by Ray, the boyfriend of Bobbie, the woman who found her. She explains that Ray and Bobbi are pursuing her because she escaped from a hotel room they kept her in. Cam says she likes Tootsie Rolls, agrees life on Earth has its points. Owen kindly brings her food and supplies. Owen tries to keep Cam a secret from his father, from the "Dog People", a friendly family who has over 19 pets whom they walk down the trail daily. Cam says she needs him to make a "signal" in a wheat field to signal her parents so they can pick her up. Cam tells Owen that he needs to hide her for four days, when a full moon comes, they search during full moons. But, since they have become good friends, Cam asks Owen to come with her, leave his boring life for her planet. Cam and Owen talk about her home planet. Cam explains her planet was once ravaged with war, they have evolved into smarter beings, she explains they "like dogs" and says Josie can come.
Owen starts talking to his father and gets excited when he leaves a note saying he will come home early so they can talk again. However, his dad is working on a big audit, does not make it. Towards ten o'clock, Owen cries himself to sleep. Angry, Owen plows the signal into a wheat field with a board. Owen tells Cam, they attacks them. While Ray is injuring Owen, Cam knocks him unconscious with the board. Cam frantically shouts to the sky. However, it is a police helicopter searching for Owen, they give themselves up, Cam reveals she was Bobbi's daughter, but she ran away and imagined being from another planet. When Owen believed her, she felt. In the end, Cam moves in with Ernie and Charlene, Owen begins to talk to his dad, they say. The final sentence has Owen say: "Cam said life on Earth has its points, and I think she is right." Signal at Macmillan Books website review, Blogcritics website Signal title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Signals (Wayne Krantz album)
Signals is a solo album by American jazz guitarist Wayne Krantz, released in 1990. All songs written by Wayne Krantz, except where noted "Alliance" – 3:37 "Faith In Process" – 3:52 "One of Two" – 4:16 "Don't Tell Me" – 5:29 "As Is" – 3:30 "Signals" – 5:35 "Sossity, You're a Woman" – 3:32 "Music Room" – 4:50 "Two of Two" – 3:17 "For Susan" – 3:40 Wayne Krantz – guitar Leni Stern – guitar Jim Beard – keyboards Anthony Jackson – bass guitar Dennis Chambers – drums Don Alias – percussion
Traffic lights known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights and traffic control signals, are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, other locations to control flows of traffic. The world's first traffic light was short lived, it was a manually operated gas-lit signal installed in London in December 1868. It exploded less than a month. Traffic control started to seem necessary in the late 1890s and Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910, it used the words "STOP" and "PROCEED". Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to users by illuminating lamps or LEDs of standard colours following a universal colour code. In the typical sequence of colour phases: The green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so and there is room on the other side of the intersection; the amber light warns. In a number of countries – among them the United Kingdom – a phase during which red and yellow are displayed together indicates that the signal is about to change to green.
Actions required by drivers on a yellow light vary, with some jurisdictions requiring drivers to stop if it is safe to do so, others allowing drivers to go through the intersection if safe to do so. A flashing amber indication is a warning signal. In the United Kingdom, a flashing amber light is used only at pelican crossings, in place of the combined red–amber signal, indicates that drivers may pass if no pedestrians are on the crossing; the red signal prohibits any traffic from proceeding. A flashing red indication is treated as a stop sign. In some countries traffic signals will go into a flashing mode if the conflict monitor detects a problem, such as a fault that tries to display green lights to conflicting traffic; the signal may display flashing yellow to the main road and flashing red to the side road, or flashing red in all directions. Flashing operation can be used during times of day when traffic is light, such as late at night. Before traffic lights, traffic police controlled the flow of traffic.
A well-documented example is that on London Bridge in 1722. Three men were given the task of directing traffic coming out of either London or Southwark; each officer would help direct traffic coming out of Southwark into London and he made sure all traffic stayed on the west end of the bridge. A second officer would direct traffic on the east end of the bridge to control the flow of people leaving London and going into Southwark. On 9 December 1868, the first non-electric gas-lit traffic lights were installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London to control the traffic in Bridge Street, Great George Street, Parliament Street, they were proposed by the railway engineer J. P. Knight of Nottingham who had adapted this idea from his design of railway signalling systems and constructed by the railway signal engineers of Saxby & Farmer; the main reason for the traffic light was that there was an overflow of horse-drawn traffic over Westminster Bridge which forced thousands of pedestrians to walk next to the Houses of Parliament.
The design combined three semaphore arms with red and green gas lamps for night-time use, on a pillar, operated by a police constable. The gas lantern was manually turned by a traffic police officer with a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic; the signal was 22 feet high. The light was called the semaphore and had arms that would extend horizontally that commanded drivers to "Stop" and the arms would lower to a 45 degrees angle to tell drivers to proceed with "Caution". At night a red light would command "Stop" and a green light would mean use "Caution". Although it was said to be successful at controlling traffic, its operational life was brief, it exploded on 2 January 1869 as a result of a leak in one of the gas lines underneath the pavement and injured the policeman, operating it. In the first two decades of the 20th century, semaphore traffic signals like the one in London were in use all over the United States with each state having its own design of the device.
One example was from Toledo, Ohio in 1908. The words "Stop" and "Go" were in white on a green background and the lights had red and green lenses illuminated by kerosene lamps for night travelers and the arms were 8 feet above ground, it was controlled by a traffic officer who would blow a whistle before changing the commands on this signal to help alert travelers of the change. The design was used in Philadelphia and Detroit; the example in Ohio was the first time America tried to use a more visible form of traffic control that evolved the use of semaphore. The device, used in Ohio was designed based on the use of railroad signals. In 1912, a traffic control device was placed on top a tower in Paris at the Rue Montmartre and Grande Boulevard; this tower signal was manned by a police woman and she operated a revolving four-sided metal box on top of a glass showcase where the word "Stop" was painted in red and the word "Go" painted in white. An electric traffic light was developed in 1912 by Lester Wire, a policeman in Salt Lake City, who used red-green lights.
On 5 August 1914, the American Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. It had two colours and green, a buzzer, based on the design of James Hoge, to provide a warning for colour changes; the design by James Hoge allowed police and fire stations to control the signals in case of emergency
In communication systems, signal processing, electrical engineering, a signal is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon". In its most common usage, in electronics and telecommunication, this is a time varying voltage, current or electromagnetic wave used to carry information. A signal may be defined as an "observable change in a quantifiable entity". In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space is a signal that might provide information on the status of a physical system, or convey a message between observers, among other possibilities; the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing states that the term "signal" includes audio, speech, communication, sonar, radar and musical signals. In a effort of redefining a signal, anything, only a function of space, such as an image, is excluded from the category of signals, it is stated that a signal may or may not contain any information. In nature, signals can take the form of any action by one organism able to be perceived by other organisms, ranging from the release of chemicals by plants to alert nearby plants of the same type of a predator, to sounds or motions made by animals to alert other animals of the presence of danger or of food.
Signaling occurs in organisms all the way down to the cellular level, with cell signaling. Signaling theory, in evolutionary biology, proposes that a substantial driver for evolution is the ability for animals to communicate with each other by developing ways of signaling. In human engineering, signals are provided by a sensor, the original form of a signal is converted to another form of energy using a transducer. For example, a microphone converts an acoustic signal to a voltage waveform, a speaker does the reverse; the formal study of the information content of signals is the field of information theory. The information in a signal is accompanied by noise; the term noise means an undesirable random disturbance, but is extended to include unwanted signals conflicting with the desired signal. The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal integrity; the separation of desired signals from a background is the field of signal recovery, one branch of, estimation theory, a probabilistic approach to suppressing random disturbances.
Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering have led the way in the design and implementation of systems involving transmission and manipulation of information. In the latter half of the 20th century, electrical engineering itself separated into several disciplines, specialising in the design and analysis of systems that manipulate physical signals. Definitions specific to sub-fields are common. For example, in information theory, a signal is a codified message, that is, the sequence of states in a communication channel that encodes a message. In the context of signal processing, signals are analog and digital representations of analog physical quantities. In terms of their spatial distributions, signals may be categorized as point source signals and distributed source signals. In a communication system, a transmitter encodes a message to create a signal, carried to a receiver by the communications channel. For example, the words "Mary had a little lamb" might be the message spoken into a telephone.
The telephone transmitter converts the sounds into an electrical signal. The signal is transmitted to the receiving telephone by wires. In telephone networks, for example common-channel signaling, refers to phone number and other digital control information rather than the actual voice signal. Signals can be categorized in various ways; the most common distinction is between discrete and continuous spaces that the functions are defined over, for example discrete and continuous time domains. Discrete-time signals are referred to as time series in other fields. Continuous-time signals are referred to as continuous signals. A second important distinction is between continuous-valued. In digital signal processing, a digital signal may be defined as a sequence of discrete values associated with an underlying continuous-valued physical process. In digital electronics, digital signals are the continuous-time waveform signals in a digital system, representing a bit-stream. Another important property of a signal is its information content.
Two main types of signals encountered in practice are digital. The figure shows a digital signal that results from approximating an analog signal by its values at particular time instants. Digital signals are quantized. An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e. analogous to another time varying signal. For example, in an analog audio signal, the instantaneous voltage of the signal varies continuously with the pressure of the sound waves, it differs from a digital signal, in which the continuous quantity is a representation of a sequence of discrete values which can only take on one of a finite number of values. The term analog signal refers to electrical signals. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For ex
Signals (Rush album)
Signals is the ninth studio album by Canadian rock band Rush, released in September 1982 by Anthem Records. After the release of their previous album, Moving Pictures, the band started to prepare material for a follow-up during soundchecks on their 1981 concert tour and during the mixing of their subsequent live album Exit... Stage Left. Signals demonstrates the group continuing with the use of synthesizers and other electronic instrumentation, it is their last album produced by their longtime associate Terry Brown, who had worked with them since 1974. The album peaked at No. 1 in Canada, No. 3 in the United Kingdom, No. 10 in the United States. In November 1982, the album was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for selling one million copies in the United States. Rush released five singles from the album: "New World Man", which became their highest charting single in the United States, "Subdivisions", "The Analog Kid", "The Weapon", "Countdown"; the group supported Signals with a concert tour from April 1982 to May 1983.
Signals has been reissued several times, including a remaster with a new stereo and 5.1 surround sound mix in 2011. In July 1981, Rush ended their tour in support of their previous album Moving Pictures; the album became their most commercially successful of their history, granting them their first No. 1 album in Canada and selling over one million copies in the United States at the tour's conclusion. Rush took a three-month break, during which they oversaw the production and mixing of their second live release, Exit... Stage Left, at Le Studio in Quebec. In one of drummer and lyricist Neil Peart's diary entries written during this time, he had been cleaning a Hayman drum kit, housed in the studio and, in September 1981, began working out a song with two members of the band's road crew, the unreleased "Tough Break". Peart was working on lyrics, in particular a set which included "Subdivisions", a track the group would record for Signals. Having arranged some material for their next studio album, Rush toured North America and Europe from October to December 1981 with a setlist that contained "Subdivisions".
The group had their sound man capture their soundchecks on tape which provided a method of developing new songs, the case for "Chemistry". The majority of Signals was written and rehearsed in early 1982. Geddy Lee has said that the group were aware of how easy it would have been to " it safe" and produce another Moving Pictures, so they attempted to adopt such a mindset; the album displays the band continuing to incorporate the synthesizer into their songs with less emphasis on guitar-oriented riffs, the focus of their sound in the 1970s. Lee considered Signals as the beginning of a new era for the band. In hindsight, he said it was difficult to make because it took longer than usual for the band to achieve the right feel for each song; some ideas that Alex Lifeson and Lee had saved for a potential solo album were used on Signals. Writer and journalist Greg Quill noticed a "cyclical framework" in Signals the album opening in suburbia followed by contemplating escape in "The Analog Kid". "universal human imponderables" are explored through humanity, sex and ageing, which ends in an actual escape in "Countdown".
Quill spoke to Peart about this theory. We were hoping. It's so unfashionable these days to construct grand concepts. We're being closed mouthed about it". Recording began at Le Studio in April 1982, ended on 15 July, it is Rush's last album co-produced by their longtime associate Terry Brown, who had worked with them since 1974. He was joined by engineer Paul Northfield with assistance from Robbie Whelan. Rush intended to finish the album in June, but had to spend additional time in the studio which led to a month's reduction in their planned vacation time. Upon completion, the album was mastered by Bob Ludwig at Gateway Mastering Studios. "Subdivisions" was one of the first songs. After Peart devised a set of lyrics and Lee wrote a collection of musical ideas to fit Peart's words. Peart recalled that his bandmates interrupted him as he was cleaning his car and set up a portable cassette player on the driveway outside the studio, played him what they had come up with. Peart added: "I listened picking up the variations on 7/8 and 3/4, the way the guitar adopts the role of rhythm section while the keyboards take the melody, returning to bass with guitar leading in the chorus the Mini-moog taking over again for the instrumental bridge", told Lifeson and Lee that he liked it."The Analog Kid" originated during the group's stay at Virgin Gorda in the British Virgin Islands in January 1982, travelling on a yacht named Orianda.
Peart had written the words to the song as a companion piece to "Digital Man", which Rush had started working on in late 1981, presented it to Lee. The two discussed what could be done with the lyrics in a musical sense, deciding on the opposite on what the words may suggest, with Peart describing the track as "a up-tempo rocker, with some kind of a dynamic contrast for the choruses"."Chemistry" was developed during soundchecks on the Moving Pictures tour in 1981. It was during one particular session during the United States leg whereby, after each member checking each of their instruments separately, "a little spontaneous creation" came about which produced a song without the group realising it; each member played a different part. Upon listening to the soundcheck tapes, L