SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Signal Corps (United States Army)

The United States Army Signal Corps is a division of the Department of the Army that creates and manages communications and information systems for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of Major Albert J. Myer, had an important role in the American Civil War. Over its history, it had the initial responsibility for portfolios and new technologies that were transferred to other U. S. government entities. Such responsibilities included military intelligence, weather forecasting, aviation. Support for the command and control of combined arms forces. Signal support includes network operations and management of the electromagnetic spectrum. Signal support encompasses all aspects of designing, data communications networks that employ single and multi-channel satellite, tropospheric scatter, terrestrial microwave, messaging, video-teleconferencing, visual information, other related systems, they integrate tactical and sustaining base communications, information processing and management systems into a seamless global information network that supports knowledge dominance for Army and coalition operations.

While serving as a medical officer in Texas in 1856, Albert James Myer proposed that the Army use his visual communications system, called aerial telegraphy. When the Army adopted his system on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps was born with Myer as the first and only Signal Officer. Major Myer first used his visual signaling system on active service in New Mexico during the early 1860s Navajo expedition. Using flags for daytime signaling and a torch at night, wigwag was tested in Civil War combat in June 1861 to direct the fire of a harbor battery at Fort Wool against the Confederate positions opposite Fort Monroe. For nearly three years, Myer was forced to rely on detailed personnel, although he envisioned a separate, trained professional military signal service. Myer's vision came true on 3 March 1863, when Congress authorized a regular Signal Corps for the duration of the war; some 2,900 officers and enlisted men served, although not at any single time, in the Civil War Signal Corps. Myer's Civil War innovations included an unsuccessful balloon experiment at First Bull Run, and, in response to McClellan's desire for a Signal Corps field telegraph train, an electric telegraph in the form of the Beardslee magnetoelectric telegraph machine.

In the Civil War, the wigwag system, restricted to line-of-sight communications, was waning in the face of the electric telegraph. Myer used his office downtown in Washington, D. C. to house the Signal Corps School. When it was found to need additional space, he sought out other locations. First came Fort Greble, one of the Defenses of Washington during the Civil War, when that proved inadequate, Myer chose Fort Whipple, on Arlington Heights overlooking the national capital; the size and location were outstanding. The school remained there for over 20 years and was renamed Fort Myer. Signal Corps detachments participated in campaigns fighting Native Americans in the west, such as the Powder River Expedition of 1865; the electric telegraph, in addition to visual signaling, became a Signal Corps responsibility in 1867. Within 12 years, the corps had constructed, was maintaining and operating, some 4,000 miles of telegraph lines along the country's western frontier. In 1870, the Signal Corps established a congressionally mandated national weather service.

Within a decade, with the assistance of Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, Myer commanded a weather service of international acclaim. Myer died in 1880, having attained the rank of brigadier general and the title of Chief Signal Officer; the weather bureau became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1891, while the corps retained responsibility for military meteorology; the Signal Corps' role in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection was on a grander scale than it had been in the Civil War. In addition to visual signaling, including heliograph, the corps supplied telephone and telegraph wire lines and cable communications, fostered the use of telephones in combat, employed combat photography, renewed the use of balloons. Shortly after the war, the Signal Corps constructed the Washington-Alaska Military Cable and Telegraph System known as the Alaska Communications System, introducing the first wireless telegraph in the Western Hemisphere. For more details on this topic, see Aeronautical Division, U.

S. Signal Corps and Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps On 1 August 1907, an Aeronautical Division was established within the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. In 1908, on Fort Myer, the Wright brothers made test flights of the Army's first airplane built to Signal Corps' specifications. Reflecting the need for an official pilot rating, War Department Bulletin No. 2, released on 24 February 1911, established a "Military Aviator" rating. Army aviation remained within the Signal Corps until 1918. During World War I. Chief Signal Officer George Owen Squier worked with private industry to perfect radio tubes while creating a major signal laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail. Early radiotelephones developed by the Signal Corps were introduced into the European theater in 1918. While the new American voice radios were superior to the radiotelegraph sets and telegraph remained the major technology of World War I. A pioneer in radar, Colonel William Blair, director of the Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, patented the first Army radar demonstrated in May 1937.

Before the United States entered World War II, mass

Reach for the Stars (will.i.am song)

"Reach for the Stars", is a song written and recorded by American recording artist will.i.am in commemoration of the landing of the Curiosity rover on the planet Mars. First released on August 28, 2012 as a promotional single, the song appears on the deluxe edition of his fourth studio album #willpower. "Reach for the Stars" became the first song in history to be broadcast from another planet, completing a journey of more than 300 million miles between Mars and Earth. "Reach for the Stars" was written in February 2011, after NASA asked will.i.am to write and produce a song for the Curiosity rover's landing on Mars. The songwriter said that the experience with NASA administrator Charles Bolden discussing the possibility of broadcasting a song from Mars was "surreal", The song is part of NASA's educational outreach, with will.i.am stating that the song "aims to encourage youth to study science." Rather than produce a song via the computer, will.i.am said that he wanted to show "human collaboration", which featured a 40-piece orchestra.

He added that "people in my field aren't supposed to try and execute something classical, or orchestral, so I wanted to break that stigma, that would be timeless and translated in different cultures."NASA confirmed during the Mars Science Laboratory launch tweet-up on November 24, 2011 that it partnered with will.i.am to deliver a song for Curiosity's landing. After being uploaded to the rover, which landed near the equator of Mars, the song was broadcast live from the planet, completing a journey of more than 300 million miles, it became the first song in history to be broadcast from another planet and the second song to be broadcast in space, after the Beatles' "Across the Universe" was beamed into space by NASA in 2008. Digital download"Reach for the Stars" – 4:21 will.i.am – co-writer, recording Jordan Millervocals Dr. Luke – co-writer, producer Lil Jon – background vocals Music in space

Law FC

Law, or The Law Club as it was known, was a 19th-century football club that fielded teams playing by rugby football codes. It is notable for being one of the twenty-one founding members of the Rugby Football Union and for producing in a short life span, a number of international players. Law was established in 1870 as a closed club for members of the legal profession; because of the demands of their profession, the club could only play on Wednesdays. The club was nomadic, so despite having a secretary based at Lincoln's Inn Fields, the club played only away matches; the teams colours were Black with a red cross on the breast. On 26 January 1871, it sent representation to a meeting of twenty-one London and suburban football clubs that followed Rugby School rules which assembled at the Pall Mall Restaurant in Regent Street. E. C. Holmes, captain of the Richmond Club assumed the presidency, it was resolved unanimously that the formation of a Rugby Football Society was desirable and thus the Rugby Football Union was formed.

A president, a secretary and treasurer, a committee of thirteen were elected, to whom was entrusted the drawing-up of the laws of the game upon the basis of the code in use at Rugby School. Law was considered prominent enough to have been invited, gain one of the thirteen places on the original committee in the person of R. Leigh; the club disbanded in 1874 after just four seasons. Despite their short longevity, the club produced three international players with nine caps between them: P. Wilkinson Sydney Morse Ernest Cheston