A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell, rung in a church for a variety of ceremonial purposes, can be heard outside the building. Traditionally they were used to call worshippers to the church for a communal service, to announce times of daily prayer, called the canonical hours, they are rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached; the ringing of church bells, in the Christian tradition, was believed to drive out demons. The traditional European church bell used in Christian churches worldwide consists of a cup-shaped metal resonator with a pivoted clapper hanging inside which strikes the sides when the bell is swung, it is hung within a steeple or belltower of a church or religious building, so the sound can reach a wide area. Such bells are either hung from a pivoted beam so they can swing to and fro.
A rope hangs from a lever or wheel attached to the headstock, when the bell ringer pulls on the rope the bell swings back and forth and the clapper hits the inside, sounding the bell. Bells that are hung dead are sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or by a rope which pulls the internal clapper against the bell. A church may have a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale, they may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, or swung through a full circle to enable the high degree of control of English change ringing. Before modern communications, church bells were a common way to call the community together for all purposes, both sacred and secular. In Christianity, some Anglican and Lutheran churches ring their church bells from belltowers three times a day, at 6:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. summoning the Christian faithful to recite the Lord’s Prayer, or the Angelus, a prayer recited in honour of the Incarnation of God. The injunction to pray the Lord's prayer thrice daily was given in Didache 8, 2 f. which, in turn, was influenced by the Jewish practice of praying thrice daily found in the Old Testament in Psalm 55:17, which suggests "evening and morning and at noon", Daniel 6:10, in which Daniel prays thrice a day.
As such, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the Early Church prayed the Lord's Prayer thrice a day, supplanting the former Amidah predominant in the Hebrew tradition. In the Book of Common Prayer, the Daily Office, central to Anglican spirituality includes the Lord's Prayer, along with "a selection from the Psalter, readings from the Holy Scriptures, one or more canticles"; some Protestant Churches ring church bells during the congregational recitation of the Lord's Prayer, after the sermon, in order to alert those who are unable to be present to "unite themselves in spirit with the congregation". In many historic Christian Churches, church bells are rung on All Hallows' Eve, as well as during the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday; the Christian tradition of the ringing of church bells from a belltower is analogous to the Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. Most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, signalling the start of a mass or service of worship.
In the United Kingdom predominantly in the Anglican church, there is a strong tradition of change ringing on full-circle tower bells for about half an hour before a service. This originated from the early 17th century when bell ringers found that swinging a bell through a large arc gave more control over the time between successive strikes of the clapper; this culminated in ringing bells through a full circle, which let ringers produce different striking sequences. In Christianity, the ringing of church bells was traditionally believed to drive out demons and other unclean spirits. Inscriptions on church bells relating to this purpose of church bells, as well as the purpose of serving as a call to prayer and worship, were customary, for example "the sound of this bell vanquishes tempests, repels demons, summons men"; some churches have several bells with the justification that "the more bells a church had, the more loudly they rang, the greater the distance over which they could be heard, the less it was that evil forces would trouble the parish."
The ringing of a church bell in the English tradition to announce a death is called a death knell. The pattern of striking depended on the person; the age of the deceased was rung out. In small settlements this could identify who had just died. There were three occasions surrounding a death. There was the "Passing Bell" to warn of impending death, the second the Death Knell to announce the death, the last was the "Lych Bell", or "Corpse Bell", rung at the funeral as the procession approached the church; this latter is known today as the Funeral toll. A more modern tradition where there are full-circle bells is to use "half-muffles" when sounding one bell as a tolled bell, or all the bells in change-ringing; this means a leather muffle is placed on the clapper of each bell so that there is a loud "open" strike followed by a muffled strike, which has a sonorous and mournful effect. The tradition in the United Kingdom is that bells are only muffled for
In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse, of the mensural level. The beat is defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect. In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including: pulse, meter, specific rhythms, groove. Rhythm in music is characterized by a repeating sequence of stressed and unstressed beats and divided into bars organized by time signature and tempo indications. Metric levels faster than the beat level are division levels, slower levels are multiple levels. Beat has always been an important part of music; some music genres such as funk will in general de-emphasize the beat, while other such as disco emphasize the beat to accompany dance. As beats are combined to form measures, each beat is divided into parts; the nature of this combination and division is. Music where two beats are combined is in duple meter, music where three beats are combined is in triple meter.
Music where the beat is split in two are in simple meter, music where the beat is split in three are called compound meter. Thus, simple duple, simple triple, compound duple, compound triple. Divisions which require numbers, are irregular divisions and subdivisions. Subdivision begins two levels below the beat level: starting with a quarter note or a dotted quarter note, subdivision begins when the note is divided into sixteenth notes; the downbeat is the first beat of the bar, i.e. number 1. The upbeat is the last beat in the previous bar which precedes, hence anticipates, the downbeat. Both terms correspond to the direction taken by the hand of a conductor; this idea of directionality of beats is significant. The crusis of a measure or a phrase is a beginning; the anacrusis doesn't have the same'explosion' of sound. An anticipatory note or succession of notes occurring before the first barline of a piece is sometimes referred to as an upbeat figure, section or phrase. Alternative expressions include "pickup" and "anacrusis".
In English, anákrousis translates as "pushing up". The term anacrusis was borrowed from the field of poetry, in which it refers to one or more unstressed extrametrical syllables at the beginning of a line. In typical Western music 44 time, counted as "1 2 3 4, 1 2 3 4...", the first beat of the bar is the strongest accent in the melody and the likeliest place for a chord change, the third is the next strongest: these are "on" beats. The second and fourth are weaker—the "off-beats". Subdivisions that fall between the pulse beats are weaker and these, if used in a rhythm, can make it "off-beat"; the effect can be simulated by evenly and counting to four. As a background against which to compare these various rhythms a bass drum strike on the downbeat and a constant eighth note subdivision on ride cymbal have been added, which would be counted as follows: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 —play eighth notes and bass drum alone 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4—the stress here on the "on" beat play But one may syncopate that pattern and alternately stress the odd and beats, respectively: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 —the stress is on the "unexpected" or syncopated beat play So "off-beat" is a musical term applied to syncopation that emphasizes the weak beats of a bar, as opposed to the usual on-beat.
This is a fundamental technique of African polyrhythm. According to Grove Music, the "Offbeat is where the downbeat is replaced by a rest or is tied over from the preceding bar"; the downbeat can never be the off-beat. Certain genres tend to emphasize the off-beat, where this is a defining characteristic of rock'n'roll and Ska music. A back beat, or backbeat, is a syncopated accentuation on the "off" beat. In a simple 44 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4."A big part of R&B's attraction had to do with the stompin' backbeats that make it so eminently danceable," according to the Encyclopedia of Percussion. An early record with an emphasised back beat throughout was "Good Rockin' Tonight" by Wynonie Harris in 1948. Although drummer Earl Palmer claimed the honor for "The Fat Man" by Fats Domino in 1949, which he played on, saying he adopted it from the final "shout" or "out" chorus common in Dixieland jazz, urban contemporary gospel was stressing the back beat much earlier with hand-clapping and tambourines.
There is a hand-clapping back beat on "Roll'Em Pete" by Pete Johnson and Big Joe Turner, recorded in 1938. A distinctive back beat can be heard on "Back Beat Boogie" by Harry James And His Orchestra, recorded in late 1939. Other early recorded examples include the final verse of "Grand Slam" by Benny Goodman in 1942 and some sections of The Glenn Miller Orchestra's " Kalamazoo", while amateur direct-to-disc recordings of Charlie Christian jamming at Minton's Playhouse around the same time have a sustained snare-drum back-beat on the hottest choruses. Outside U. S. popular music, there are early recordings of music with a distinctive backbeat, such as the 1949 recording of Mangaratiba by
Diatonic and chromatic
Diatonic and chromatic are terms in music theory that are most used to characterize scales, are applied to musical instruments, chords, musical styles, kinds of harmony. They are often used as a pair when applied to contrasting features of the common practice music of the period 1600–1900; these terms may mean different things in different contexts. Diatonic refers to musical elements derived from the modes and transpositions of the "white note scale" C–D–E–F–G–A–B. In some usages it includes all forms of heptatonic scale. Chromatic most refers to structures derived from the twelve-note chromatic scale, which consists of all semitones. However, it had other senses, referring in Ancient Greek music theory to a particular tuning of the tetrachord, to a rhythmic notational convention in mensural music of the 14th through 16th centuries. In ancient Greece there were three standard tunings of a lyre; these three tunings were called diatonic and enharmonic, the sequences of four notes that they produced were called tetrachords.
A diatonic tetrachord comprised, in descending order, two whole tones and a semitone, such as A G F E. In the chromatic tetrachord the second string of the lyre was lowered from G to G♭, so that the two lower intervals in the tetrachord were semitones, making the pitches A G♭ F E. In the enharmonic tetrachord the tuning had two quarter tone intervals at the bottom: A G F E. For all three tetrachords, only the middle two strings varied in their pitch; the term cromatico was used in the Medieval and Renaissance periods to refer to the coloration of certain notes. The details vary by period and place, but the addition of a colour to an empty or filled head of a note, or the "colouring in" of an otherwise empty head of a note, shortens the duration of the note. In works of the Ars Nova from the 14th century, this was used to indicate a temporary change in metre from triple to duple, or vice versa; this usage became less common in the 15th century as open white noteheads became the standard notational form for minims and longer notes called white mensural notation.
In the 16th century, a form of notating secular music madrigals in was referred to as "chromatic" because of its abundance of "coloured in" black notes, semiminims and shorter notes, as opposed to the open white notes in used for the notation of sacred music. These uses for the word have no relationship to the modern meaning of chromatic, but the sense survives in the current term coloratura; the term chromatic began to approach its modern usage in the 16th century. For instance Orlando Lasso's Prophetiae Sibyllarum opens with a prologue proclaiming, "these chromatic songs, heard in modulation, are those in which the mysteries of the Sibyls are sung, intrepidly," which here takes its modern meaning referring to the frequent change of key and use of chromatic intervals in the work.. This usage comes from a renewed interest in the Greek genera its chromatic tetrachord, notably by the influential theorist Nicola Vicentino in his treatise on ancient and modern practice, 1555. Diatonic scale on C equal just.
Medieval theorists defined scales in terms of the Greek tetrachords. The gamut was the series of pitches from which all the Medieval "scales" notionally derive, it may be thought of as constructed in a certain way from diatonic tetrachords; the origin of the word gamut is explained at the article Guidonian hand. The intervals from one note to the next in this Medieval gamut are all tones or semitones, recurring in a certain pattern with five tones and two semitones in any given octave; the semitones are separated as much as they can be, between alternating groups of three tones and two tones. Here are the intervals for a string of ascending notes from the gamut:... –T–T–T–S–T–T–S–T–T–T–S–T–... And here are the intervals for an ascending octave from the gamut: T–S–T–T–S–T–T In its most strict definition, therefore, a diatonic scale is one that may be derived from the pitches represented in successive white keys of the piano: the modern equivalent of the gamut; this would include the major scale, the natural minor scale, but not the old ecclesiastical church modes, most of which included both versions of the "variable" note B♮/B♭.
There are specific applications in the music of the Common Practice Period, music that shares its core features. Most, but not all writers, accept the natural minor as diatonic; as for other forms of the minor: "Exclusive" usageSome writers classify the other variants of the minor scale – the melodic minor and the harmonic minor – as non-diatonic, since they are not transpositions of the white-note pitches of the piano. Among such theorists there is no agreed general term that encompasses the major and all forms of the minor scale."Inclusive" usageSome writers i
The alphorn or alpenhorn or alpine horn is a labrophone, consisting of a straight several-meter-long wooden natural horn of conical bore, with a wooden cup-shaped mouthpiece. It is used by mountain dwellers in the Swiss Alps, Austrian Alps, Bavarian Alps in Germany, French Alps, elsewhere. Similar wooden horns were used for communication in most mountainous regions of Europe, from the Alps to the Carpathians. Alphorns are today used as musical instruments. For a long time, scholars believed that the alphorn had been derived from the Roman-Etruscan lituus, because of their resemblance in shape, because of the word liti, meaning Alphorn in the dialect of Obwalden. There is no documented evidence for this theory, and, the word liti was borrowed from 16th–18th century writings in Latin, where the word lituus could describe various wind instruments, such as the horn, the crumhorn, or the cornett. Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner used the words lituum alpinum for the first known detailed description of the alphorn in his De raris et admirandis herbis in 1555.
The oldest known document using the German word Alphorn is a page from a 1527 account book from the former Cistercian abbey St. Urban near Pfaffnau mentioning the payment of two Batzen for an itinerant alphorn player from the Valais. 17th–19th century collections of alpine myths and legends suggest that alphorn-like instruments had been used as signal instruments in village communities since medieval times or earlier, sometimes substituting for the lack of church bells. Surviving artifacts, dating back to as far as ca. AD 1400, include wooden labrophones in their stretched form, like the alphorn, or coiled versions, such as the "Büchel" and the "Allgäuisches Waldhorn" or "Ackerhorn"; the alphorn's exact origins remain indeterminate, the ubiquity of horn-like signal instruments in valleys throughout Europe may indicate a long history of cross influences regarding their construction and usage. The alphorn is carved from solid softwood spruce but sometimes pine. In former times the alphorn maker would find a tree bent at the base in the shape of an alphorn, but modern makers piece the wood together at the base.
A cup-shaped mouthpiece carved out of a block of hard wood is added and the instrument is complete. An alphorn made at Rigi-Kulm and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, measures 8 feet in length and has a straight tube; the Swiss alphorn varies in shape according to the locality, being curved near the bell in the Bernese Oberland. Michael Praetorius mentions an alphorn-like instrument under the name of Hölzern Trummet in Syntagma Musicum; the alphorn has no lateral openings and therefore gives the pure natural harmonic series of the open pipe. The notes of the natural harmonic series overlap, but do not correspond, to notes found in the familiar chromatic scale in standard Western equal temperament. Most prominently within the alphorn's range, the 7th and 11th harmonics are noticeable, because they fall between adjacent notes in the chromatic scale. Accomplished alphornists command a range of nearly three octaves, consisting of the 2nd through the 16th notes of the harmonic series; the availability of the higher tones is due in part to the small diameter of the bore of the mouthpiece and tubing in relation to the overall length of the horn.
The well-known "Ranz des Vaches" is a traditional Swiss melody heard on the alphorn. The song describes the time of bringing the cows to the high country at cheese making time. Rossini introduced the "Ranz des Vaches" into his masterpiece William Tell, along with many other delightful melodies scattered throughout the opera in vocal and instrumental parts that are well-suited to the alphorn. Brahms wrote to Clara Schumann that the inspiration for the dramatic entry of the horn in the introduction to the last movement of his First Symphony was an alphorn melody he heard while vacationing in the Rigi area of Switzerland. Among music composed for the alphorn: "Concerto Grosso No. 1" for four alphorns and orchestra by Georg Friedrich Haas Sinfonia Pastorella for Alphorn and String Orchestra by Leopold Mozart Concerto for alphorn and orchestra by Jean Daetwyler Concerto for alphorn No. 2 by Daetwyler Dialogue with Nature for alphorn, flute & orchestra by Daetwyler Concertino rustico by Ferenc Farkas Begegnung for 3 alphorns and concert band, by Kurt Gable.
Säumerweg-Blues among many compositions by Hans-Jürg Sommer, Alphorn Musik Messe für Alphorn und Chor by Franz Schüssele Alphorn-Center Wolf Music: Tapio for Alphorn and echoing Instruments by R. Murray Schafer Bob Downes & The Alphorn Brothers by Bob Downes Open Music Very described as a lituus in Bb: Cantata BWV 118 - O Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht The alphorn is prominently featured in television advertisements for Ricola cough drops, which are manufactured in Switzerland. Bucium, a type of alphorn used by mountain dwellers in Romania Didgeridoo Erke, a similar instrument of Argentine Northwest Kuhreihen, a type of melody played on an alphorn Tibetan horn Trembita, a Ukrainian alpine horn made of wood Bachmann-Geiser, Das Alphorn: Vom Lock- zum Rockinstrument. Paul Haupt, Berne, 1999. ISBN 3-258-05640-4 Franz Schüssele, Alphorn und Hirtenhorn in Europa, book and CD with 63 sound samples available at Alphorn-Center, ISBN 3-927-78121-5 Third Annual North American Alphorn Retreat Alphorn in concert Concert and composition contest taking place annually in Oensingen, Canton Solothurn, Switzerland International Alphorn Festival at Nendaz, Canton Valais, Switzerland VSP orkestra & Arkady Shilkloper al
Olifant was the name applied in the Middle Ages to ivory hunting horns made from elephants' tusks. One of the most famous olifants belonged to the legendary Frankish knight Roland, protagonist of The Song of Roland. In The Song of Roland, Roland carries his olifant while serving on the rearguard of Charlemagne's army; when they are attacked at the Battle of Roncevaux, Oliver tells Roland to use it to call for aid, but he refuses. Roland relents, but the battle is lost, he tries to destroy the olifant along with his sword Durendal. In the end, Roland blows the horn, but the force required bursts his temple; the Karlamagnussaga elaborates. Another famous olifant belonged to Gaston IV, viscount of Béarn, is now preserved in the Spanish city of Saragosse, which he helped conquer from the Banu Hud; the Horn or Oliphant of Ulph, preserved in the treasury of York Minster is one of a group that were carved in Salerno in the first half of the eleventh century. In one of its bands of low-relief carving, addorsed paired griffons have tails that terminate in monstrous eared heads.
The horn of Ulph is most the Horn of Tenure given to York Minster by the Viking nobleman Ulph, who resided in Yorkshire before the reign of Edward the Confessor.
In music, timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone. Timbre distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, percussion instruments, it enables listeners to distinguish different instruments in the same category. The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques. For example, a violinist can use different bowing styles or play on different parts of the string to obtain different timbres. On electric guitar and electric piano, performers can change the timbre using effects units and graphic equalizers. In simple terms, timbre is what makes a particular musical sound have a different sound from another when they have the same pitch and loudness. For instance, it is the difference in sound between a guitar and a piano playing the same note at the same volume.
Both instruments can sound tuned in relation to each other as they play the same note, while playing at the same amplitude level each instrument will still sound distinctively with its own unique tone color. Experienced musicians are able to distinguish between different instruments of the same type based on their varied timbres if those instruments are playing notes at the same pitch and loudness. Tone quality and tone color are synonyms for timbre, as well as the "texture attributed to a single instrument". However, the word texture can refer to the type of music, such as multiple, interweaving melody lines versus a singable melody accompanied by subordinate chords. Hermann von Helmholtz used the German Klangfarbe, John Tyndall proposed an English translation, but both terms were disapproved of by Alexander Ellis, who discredits register and color for their pre-existing English meanings; the sound of a musical instrument may be described with words such as bright, warm and other terms. There are colors of noise, such as pink and white.
In visual representations of sound, timbre corresponds to the shape of the image, while loudness corresponds to brightness. The Acoustical Society of America Acoustical Terminology definition 12.09 of timbre describes it as "that attribute of auditory sensation which enables a listener to judge that two nonidentical sounds presented and having the same loudness and pitch, are dissimilar", adding, "Timbre depends upon the frequency spectrum, although it depends upon the sound pressure and the temporal characteristics of the sound". Timbre has been called "...the psychoacoustician's multidimensional waste-basket category for everything that cannot be labeled pitch or loudness.". Many commentators have attempted to decompose timbre into component attributes. For example, J. F. Schouten describes the "elusive attributes of timbre" as "determined by at least five major acoustic parameters", which Robert Erickson finds, "scaled to the concerns of much contemporary music": Range between tonal and noiselike character Spectral envelope Time envelope in terms of rise and decay Changes both of spectral envelope and fundamental frequency Prefix, or onset of a sound, quite dissimilar to the ensuing lasting vibrationAn example of a tonal sound is a musical sound that has a definite pitch, such as pressing a key on a piano.
Erickson gives a table of subjective experiences and related physical phenomena based on Schouten's five attributes: See Psychoacoustic evidence below. The richness of a sound or note a musical instrument produces is sometimes described in terms of a sum of a number of distinct frequencies; the lowest frequency is called the fundamental frequency, the pitch it produces is used to name the note, but the fundamental frequency is not always the dominant frequency. The dominant frequency is the frequency, most heard, it is always a multiple of the fundamental frequency. For example, the dominant frequency for the transverse flute is double the fundamental frequency. Other significant frequencies are called overtones of the fundamental frequency, which may include harmonics and partials. Harmonics are whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency, such as × 2, × × 4, etc.. Partials are other overtones. There are sometimes subharmonics at whole number divisions of the fundamental frequency. Most instruments produce harmonic sounds, but many instruments produce partials and inharmonic tones, such as cymbals and other indefinite-pitched instruments.
When the tuning note in an orchestra or concert band is played, the sound is a combination of 440 Hz, 880 Hz, 1320 Hz, 1760 Hz and so on. Each instrument in the orchestra or concert band produces a different combination of these frequencies, as well as harmonics and overtones; the sound waves of the different frequencies overlap and combine, the balance of these amplitudes is a major factor in the characteristic sound of each instrument. William
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris; the palace is now a Monument historique and UNESCO World Heritage site, notable for the ceremonial Hall of Mirrors, the jewel-like Royal Opera, the royal apartments. The Palace was stripped of all its furnishings after the French Revolution, but many pieces have been returned and many of the palace rooms have been restored. In 2017 the Palace of Versailles received 7,700,000 visitors, making it the second-most visited monument in the Île-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and ahead of the Eiffel Tower; the site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. It was owned by the priory of Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589, returned in 1604 and 1609, staying in the village inn.
His son, the future Louis XIII, came on his own hunting trip there in 1607. After he became King in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, in 1623-24 built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the current marble courtyard, he was staying there in November 1630 during the event known as the Day of the Dupes, when the enemies of the King's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, aided by the King's mother, Marie de' Medici, tried to take over the government. The King sent his mother into exile. After this event, Louis XIII decided to make his hunting lodge at Versailles into a château; the King purchased the surrounding territory from the Gondi family, in 1631–1634 had the architect Philibert Le Roy replace the hunting lodge with a château of brick and stone with classical pilasters in the doric style and high slate-covered roofs, surrounding the courtyard of the original hunting lodge. The gardens and park were enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours, reached the size they have today.
Louis XIV first visited the château on a hunting trip in 1651 at the age of twelve, but returned only until his marriage to Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660 and the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, after which he acquired a passion for the site. He decided to rebuild and enlarge the château and to transform it into a setting for both rest and for elaborate entertainments on a grand scale; the first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. He added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north and west of the original château; these buildings had nearly-flat roofs covered with lead. The king commissioned the landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most magnificent gardens in Europe, embellished with fountains, basins, geometric flower beds and groves of trees, he added two grottos in the Italian style and an immense orangerie to house fruit trees, as well as a zoo with a central pavilion for exotic animals.
After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant François d'Orbay. The main floor of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens; the two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center. Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, each had seven rooms, aligned in a row. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. Under the Queen's apartment was the apartment of the Grand Dauphin, the heir to the throne; the interior decoration was assigned to Charles Le Brun. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens.
The grand stairway to the King's apartment was soon redecorated as soon as it was completed with plaques of colored marble and trophies of arms and balconies, so the members of the court could observe the processions of the King. In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers, it was surrounded by flowerbeds and decorated with blue and white porcelain, in imitation of the Chinese style. The King spent his days in Versailles, the government and courtiers, numbering six to seven thousand persons, crowded into the buildings; the King ordered a further enlargement, which he entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Hadouin-Mansart added two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale, he replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what bec