Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments. Broadly speaking, the term electronic keyboard or just a keyboard can refer to any type of digital or electronic keyboard instrument; these include synthesizers, digital pianos, stage pianos, electronic organs and digital audio workstations. However, an electronic keyboard is more a synthesizer with a built-in low-wattage power amplifier and small loudspeakers. Electronic keyboards are capable of recreating a wide range of instrument sounds and synthesizer tones with less complex sound synthesis. Electronic keyboards are designed for home users and other non-professional users, they have unweighted keys. The least expensive models mid - to high-priced models do. Home keyboards have little, if any, digital sound editing capacity; the user selects from a range of preset "voices" or sounds, which include imitations of many instruments and some electronic synthesizer sounds.
Home keyboards have a much lower cost than professional synthesizers. Casio and Yamaha are among the leading manufacturers of home keyboards. An electronic keyboard may be called a digital keyboard, portable keyboard, or home keyboard referring to their digital-based sound generation, light-weight and portable build. In China, Japan and Southeast Asia, electronic keyboards were mistakenly referred to as an organ, due to popularity of home electronic organs in those countries and keyboards/synthesizers being considered a similar instrument. In Russia, most kinds of keyboards were often referred to as a synthesizer with no other term to distinguish them from actual digital synthesizers; the term electronic keyboard may be used to refer to a synthesizer or digital piano on colloquial usage. The major components of a typical modern electronic keyboard are: Musical keyboard: The white and black piano-style keys which the player presses, thus connecting the switches, which trigger the electronic circuits to generate sound.
Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring necessary. Electronic keyboards use unweighted synthesizer-style keys to save costs and reduce the weight of the instrument. In contrast, stage piano and digital pianos have weighted or semi-weighted keys, which replicate the feel of an acoustic piano. User interface system: A program which handles user interaction with controllers such as the musical keyboard and buttons; these controllers enable the user to select different instrument sounds, digital effects, other features. The user interface system includes an LCD screen that gives the user information about the synthesized sound she has selected and on tempo, effects that are activated and other features. Computerized musical arranger: A software program which produces rhythms and chords by the means of computerized commands MIDI. Electronic hardware can do this. Most computerized arrangers can play a selection of rhythms. Sound generator: A digital sound module contained within an integrated Read-only memory, capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing electronic sounds.
Electronic keyboards incorporate sample-based synthesis, but more advanced keyboards might sometimes feature physical modeling synthesis. Amplifier and speakers: an internal audio power amplifier a few watts, connected to the sound generator chip; the amplifier is connected to small, low-powered speakers that reproduce the synthesized sounds so that the listener can hear them. Less expensive instruments may have a single mono speaker. More expensive models may have two speakers producing stereo sound. Power supply: Keyboards may or may not have an internal power supply system built to the main circuit board, but most modern keyboards are equipped with an included AC adapter. MIDI terminals: Most keyboards incorporate 5-pin MIDI connections for data communication so the keyboard can be connected with either a computer or another electronic musical instrument, such as a synthesizer, a drum machine or a sound module, allowing it to be used as a MIDI controller. Not all keyboards have conventional MIDI terminals and connector.
The least expensive models may have no MIDI connections. Post-2000s keyboards may have a USB instead, which serve as both input and output in a single connection. In the 2010s, conventional MIDI in/out terminals are only available in professional-grade keyboards, stage pianos and high-end synthesizers, while low-cost home keyboards, digital pianos, budget synthesizers use USB as the only connection available. Flash memory: Some electronic keyboards have a small amount of onboard memory for storing MIDI data and/or recorded songs. External storage device: Usually available on professional-grade keyboards and synthesizers, this allows the user to store data in externally connected storage media such as ROM cartridges, floppy disks, memory cards and USB flash drives. Floppy disks and cartridges were obsolete by the early 2000s, with memory cards starting to replace them shortly afterwards. USB storage was less common at the time, but was popularized by Yamaha's lineup of workstation keyboards in 2005 and has become a standard feature since.
Canción Animal is the fifth album released by the Argentine rock band Soda Stereo, released in August 1990. Many of the songs on the album are among the band's most popular, such as one of their biggest hits "De Música Ligera", the last song played in Soda Stereo's last concert in 1997, "Hombre al agua", "Un Millón de Años Luz", "Te para tres" and others, it is considered one of the best and most influential albums in the history of Latin American rock music. For many people, it's regarded as the best album to come out of South America. All tracks written except where noted. Soda StereoGustavo Cerati – Lead vocals, guitars Zeta Bosio – bass guitar, backing vocals Charly Alberti – drums, percussionAdditional personnelAlfredo Lois – art direction Mariano Lopez – engineer / mixing Pedro Aznar – vocal arrangement Daniel Melero - Keyboards and arrangements Tweety González - Keyboards Andrea Álvarez - Percussion Peter Baleani – production coordination Roger Hughes – assistant engineer Vanessa Eckstem - assistant Adrian Taverna - Band assistant Caito Lorenzo & Alfredo Lois - Photography Lyrics Coveralia - Cancion Animal Rate your music - Cancion animal by Soda Stereo CDUniverse - Soda Stereo, Cancion Animal CD Album
George Marino was an American mastering engineer known for working on albums by rock bands starting in the late 1960s. George Marino was born on April 1947 in the New York City borough of the Bronx, he attended Christopher Columbus High School there and learned to play the saxophone and bass fiddle in the high school band and was classically trained on guitar. Marino broke into the music business as a guitarist playing rock and roll in local New York City bands such as The Chancellors and The New Sounds Ltd. until most of the band members were drafted into the service for the war in Vietnam. In 1967, Marino landed his first job in the industry as a librarian and assistant at Capitol Studios. Soon after, he apprenticed in the mastering department alongside of Joe Lansky, cutting rock, pop and classical albums. There, in 1968, he met his future wife, Rose Gross, whom he married in 1973. Gross became Clive Davis' assistant in 1974, a few months before Davis started Arista Records and she remained Clive Davis' assistant for 26 years.
During his time at Capitol, Marino mastered such classics as The Beatles 7" single of "Hey Jude" and John Lennon & Plastic Ono Band's Live Peace in Toronto 1969. When Capitol Records closed its New York studio in 1971, Marino joined the fledgling Record Plant becoming a partner in the mastering business of the Record Plant called the Master Cutting Room, on West 44th Street in Manhattan. There he became established with projects such as Don McLean’s American Pie, Alice Cooper's Billion Dollar Babies, Gregg Allman's Laid Back, Stevie Wonder's Talking Book and Innervisions. Lee Hulko, one of the owners of Sterling Sound, saw Marino's success and asked him to come work at Sterling, however Marino did not say yes immediately. After Chris Stone, the owner of the Record Plant went to LA, Marino had more management duties and he felt it distracted him from his mastering work. Marino took Hulko up on his offer and he headed to Sterling Sound in 1973 to work in a room that Hulko had built for him. From 1973, until his death in 2012, Marino worked at Sterling Sound.
In 1998, Ted Jensen, Greg Calbi and Tom Coyne, along with Murat Aktar and UK based Metropolis, purchased Sterling from previous owner, Lee Hulko. Marino was the most senior mastering engineer. Sterling Sound is located in New York City, occupying the top floor of the Chelsea Market in the Meatpacking District. Marino's studio is one of the three surround sound studios at Sterling and it was designed by Fran Manzella, FM Design. Marino's room became one of the few mastering suites in the industry, if not the only one, capable of doing both surround sound and vinyl mastering. Marino, along with Chris Muth and Sterling techs Barry Wolifson and Phil Sztenderowicz, turned Marino's mastering console into an 8 channel A/B preview console; this design made possible presetting console parameters from song to song, needed for the continuous process of cutting a side of a vinyl album. This type of design was common in mastering houses during vinyl's heyday, but what made this one different was the ability to process 6 discrete channels for surround sound.
Over the course of Marino's nearly 40 years with Sterling, he mastered and/or remastered albums by AC/DC, Led Zeppelin, Guns N' Roses, Cheap Trick, Arcade Fire, Whitney Houston, Coldplay. George Marino mastered many of John Lennon's and Yoko Ono's albums, one of them being Double Fantasy with producer Jack Douglas. Double Fantasy had been out a few weeks when Douglas and Lennon decided to have a song they had just finished, Yoko Ono's "Walking on Thin Ice", mastered with Marino at Sterling Sound for a single release. On the evening of December 8, 1980, after finishing up a session at the Record Plant, Douglas said to Lennon "See you in the morning" as they planned to have breakfast together at 9am before heading to Sterling, but John Lennon was gunned down 20 minutes on his way back to the Dakota. Marino received his only Grammy for Arcade Fire's The Suburbs, the year before he died. In 2002, mastering engineers became eligible to win Grammys. From 1969 to 2012, Marino mastered albums which under current rules, would have won him an additional seven Grammys in the categories of Record of the Year, Album of the Year and Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical: three for Album of the Year winners Innervisions, Double Fantasy and The Bodyguard, two Record of the Year Grammys for "I Will Always Love You" and "Clocks", two more for Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical for his mastering of Innervisions and Chicago 17.
Grammy Awards In 2002, Marino earned his first Grammy nomination for Bob Dylan's Love and Theft In 2011, Marino won a Grammy Award for Album of the Year for Arcade Fire's The SuburbsNominations for a Mix Foundation TEC Award for Outstanding Creative Achievement 1985 1991 1992 1993 George Marino mastered and remastered thousands of albums in over forty years as a mastering engineer
Gustavo Adrián Cerati was an Argentine singer-songwriter and producer, considered one of the most important and influential figures of Ibero-American rock. Cerati along with his band Soda Stereo, were one of the most popular and influential Spanish-language rock and pop groups of the 1980s and ’90s. Cerati was the recipient of many awards throughout his career including various Grammys, MTV awards, as well as the MTV Legend Award with Soda Stereo, the first of its kind. Cerati died on 4 September 2014 at the age of 55, after suffering a stroke four years earlier in Caracas, Venezuela which resulted in a coma, when Cerati had gone out to party at the rock club Moulin Rouge, located on Francisco Solano López Avenue in the Sabana Grande area of Caracas. Cerati was born on 11 August 1959 in Argentina, he grew up in a middle class household. His father was an accountant and traveled abroad. From his early memories he had an idyllic love of the nature. Cerati’s first passion was art and in elementary school he drew comics and created his own comic book characters.
Cerati’s parents acquired a guitar for him when he was nine years old, at that point Cerati started to take music becoming a fanatic of rock and roll: Los que me pegaron en ese momento fueron Hendrix con "Purple Haze" y The Who con "Pictures of Lily". Durante semanas los escuché sin parar. Ahí se. By the age of 13, he formed a trio and started playing at house parties and in the local Catholic school, where he joined the choir. Cerati was a good student until his third year of junior high school when he met a fellow student who, like himself, was into rock and roll, He was more advanced in everything, he smoked marijuana and had many records. At that moment I started to separate myself from my classmates. I started listening to Progressive rock because this guy had everything, King Crimson, Frank Zappa, Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Soft Machine, Roxy Music... My dad used to travel abroad on business trips and he started bringing me records. In 1973 it was not easy to have imports. In Argentina the records came out a long time after....they came out.
My father brought me a Gibson. I went to meet him at the airport and it was unforgettable. After serving compulsory military service in 1979 Cerati entered the university to pursue a degree in marketing, something that he was not passionate about, his family supported him with his music, "Mi familia me vio tan enloquecido con la música, que pensaron que algo de éxito iba a tener". At the Universidad del Salvador, a Jesuit university in Buenos Aires, he met Héctor "Zeta" Bosio a marketing student; the two decided to form a band. They were fans of The Police, The Beatles, XTC, Elvis Costello and The Talking Heads. In 1982, after various lineup changes that included Richard Coleman, Daniel Melero, Andrés Calamaro as well as others and Cerati recruited Charly Alberti as their drummer, thus forming Soda Stereo. Soda Stereo released their debut LP Soda Stereo that same year. Nada Personal followed in 1985 giving Soda Stereo their first hit with "Cuando pase el temblor". Soda released Signos in 1986, Doble Vida in 1988, Canción Animal in 1990.
During the 1990s Soda Stereo released Dynamo in 1992, Sueño Stereo in 1995, their final album Comfort y Música Para Volar in 1997. In 1992 Cerati recorded Colores Santos with electronic musician Daniel Melero, a longtime Soda Stereo collaborator. 1993 saw the release of Cerati's first solo album Amor Amarillo, which included the participation of Zeta Bosio and Cerati's wife at the time, the Chilean singer and model Cecilia Amenábar who sang and appeared on the video for the lead single "Te llevo para que me lleves". In 1995 Gustavo Cerati teamed up with three Chilean musicians, Andrés Bucci, Guillermo Ugarte, Christian Powditch, to form Plan V. Plan V released two albums Plan V, Plan Black V Dog, a collaboration with the British electronic music group The Black Dog. In 1999 Cerati formed the electronic duo Ocio with longtime Soda Stereo collaborator and trumpeter, Flavio Etcheto, releasing Medida Universal. Around this time Cerati participated in the album Outlandos d'Americas: A Rock en Español Tribute to the Police collaborating with Andy Summers of The Police and Vinnie Colaiuta, on a cover of The Police's "Bring on the Night,".
Bocanada was regarded as Gustavo Cerati's proper debut as a solo artist. It was recorded in Estudio CasaSubmarina in Buenos Aires. Cerati used an MPC to record many of the tracks; the 48 piece orchestra in "Verbo Carne" was recorded in Abbey Road Studios in London. The album was mixed and mastered in London at Townhouse Studios. Bocanada' reached gold status in Argentina and received many accolades in the Argentinian and Latin American press; the album was universally praised for its grandeur and its beauty and is still considered by critics and
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i