Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. York had been founded as the Roman legionary fortress of Eboracum and revived as the Anglo-Saxon trading port of Eoforwic, it was first captured in November 866 by Ivar the Boneless, leading a large army of Danish Vikings, called the "Great Heathen Army" by Anglo-Saxon chroniclers, which had landed in East Anglia and made their way north, aided by a supply of horses with which King Edmund of East Anglia bought them off and by civil in-fighting between royal candidates in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria between the leaders of its two sub-kingdoms. Declaring a truce, the rivals for the throne of Northumbria joined forces but failed to retake the city in March 867, with their deaths Deira came under Danish control as the Kingdom of Northumbria and the Northumbrian royal court fled north to refuge in Bernicia.
A Viking attempt against Mercia the same season failed, in 869 their efforts against Wessex were fruitless in the face of opposition from Kings Ethelred and Alfred the Great. The archbishop, seems to have temporised and collaborated with the Norse, for he was expelled from York when a Northumbrian uprising in 872 was only temporarily successful; the Viking king Guthred was buried in York Minster, a signal that he and the archbishop had reached a lasting accommodation. All the Viking coinage appears to have emanated from the mint at York, a mark of the city's unique status in Northumbria as an economic magnet. York's importance as the seat of Northumbria was confirmed when the Scandinavian warlord, headed for East Anglia, while Halfdan Ragnarsson seized power in AD 875. While the Danish army was busy in Britain, the Isle of Man and Ireland, the Swedish army was occupied with defending the Danish and Swedish homelands where Halfdan's brothers were in control. Native Danish rulers who made Jelling in Jutland the site of Gorm the Old's kingdom, were in the East Anglian kingdom.
The Five Burghs/Jarldoms were based upon the Kingdom of Lindsey and were a sort of frontier between each kingdom. King Canute the Great would "reinstall" a Norwegian dynasty of jarls in Northumbria, with a Danish dynasty of jarls in East Anglia. Northern England would continue to be a source of intrigue for the Norwegians until Harald III of Norway's death at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 just prior to the Battle of Hastings and the Norman conquest; the Old Norse placename Konungsgurtha, Kings Court, recorded in the late fourteenth century in relation to an area outside the site of the porta principalis sinistra, the west gatehouse of the Roman encampment, perpetuated today as King's Square, which nucleates the Ainsty indicates a Viking royal palace site based on the remains of the east gate of the Roman fortress. New streets, lined by regular building fronts for timber houses were added to an enlarging city between AD 900 and 935, dates arrived at by tree-ring chronology carried out on remaining posts preserved in anaerobic clay subsoil.
The Viking kingdom was absorbed into England in 954. After the Kingdom of Northumbria was remerged, the title King of Jórvík became redundant and was succeeded by the title Earl of York, created in 960. Loss of political independence did not cramp the region's economic success: by ca 1000, the urban boom brought the city to a population total second only to that of London within Great Britain. Although some of the early Earls of York were Nordic like the Jórvík Kings, they were succeeded by Normans after the Norman conquest. William the Conqueror ended the region's last vestiges of independence and established garrisoned castles in the city; the Earldom of York was abolished by King Henry II. Between 1070 and 1085, there were occasional attempts by the Danish Vikings to recapture their Kingdom of Jórvík; the title Duke of York, a title of nobility in British peerage, was created in 1341, but was merged with the Crown when the 4th Duke became King Edward IV. Subsequently, the title of Duke of York has been given to the second son of the King or Queen.
From 1976 to 1981, the York Archaeological Trust conducted a five-year excavation in and around the street of Coppergate in central York. This demonstrated that, in the 10th century, Jórvík's trading connections reached to the Byzantine Empire and beyond: a cap made of silk survives, coins from Samarkand were familiar enough and respected enough for a counterfeit to have passed in trade. Both these items, as well as a large human coprolite known as the Lloyds Bank coprolite, were famously recovered in York a millennium later. Amber from the Baltic is expected at a Viking site and at Jórvík an impractical and symbolic axehead of amber was found. A cowrie shell indicates contact with the Persian Gulf. Christian and pagan objects have survived side-by-side taken as a sign that Christians were not in positions of authority. After the excavation, the York Archaeological Trust took the decision to recreate the excavated
Sigtrygg Gnupasson was a king of Denmark of the House of Olaf who ruled in the 10th century, according to Adam of Bremen. Sigtrygg was son of the Danish noblewoman Asfrid. According to Adam, he became a Danish king during the tenure of Archbishop Hoger of Bremen, he is remembered on the two Sigtrygg Runestones found near Schleswig, erected by his mother after his death, suggesting this area represented the power-base of the family. Based on the testimony of king Sweyn, Adam reports that prior to Hoger's death, Harthacnut came to Denmark and deposed the young king Sigtrygg; however other sources show a Chnuba still ruling in 934, while Heimskringla reports Gnupa's defeat by Gorm the Old, again placing his death than Adam would have it. Adam himself mentions the existence of other kings at this time and expresses doubt that Denmark represented a single united realm
Stoneybatter known as Bohernaglogh, is a neighbourhood of Dublin, Ireland, on the Northside of the city between the River Liffey, the North Circular Road, Smithfield Market, Grangegorman. It is in the Dublin 7 postal district. James Collins' 1913 book Life in Old Dublin notes that "Centuries ago was called Bothar-na-gCloch". In Joyce's Irish names of places we find the following interesting information as to the original name of the place: "Long before the city had extended so far, while Stoneybatter was nothing more than a country road, it was -- as it still continues to be -- the great thoroughfare to Dublin from the districts lying west and north-west of the city; the Irish folk song "The Spanish Lady" mentions Stoneybatter. Apart from the striking artisan dwellings, the area is known for the prominent Viking street names. For example, there is Viking Road, Olaf Road, Thor Place, Sitric Road, Norseman Place, Ard Ri Road, Malachi Road, Ostman Place, Ivar Street, Sigurd Road and Harold Road.
At the time of the Norman invasion, the Vikings, Ostmen or Austmenn as they called themselves, were exiled to the north of the Liffey where they founded the hamlet of Ostmenstown to become Oxmantown. The northern end of Stoneybatter derives its name of Manor Street, bestowed in 1780, from the Manor of Grangegorman in which it was located. During the reign of Charles II, the Manor was held by Sir Thomas Stanley, a knight of Henry Cromwell and a staunch supporter of the Restoration; the short thoroughfare in Stoneybatter called. The streets and surrounding areas of Stoneybatter have been used as a filming location for both TV and film: Dear Sarah Who Do You Think You Are? Educating Rita Michael Collins The Boxer Sweety Barrett Angela's Ashes Shadow Dancer "Love,Rosie" Spice Girls - "Stop" List of towns and villages in Ireland Stoneybatter Flickr Dear Sarah' Michael Collins' Angela's Ashes'