Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town had 91,086 inhabitants in 2017, out of a municipal total of 121,510 in 2018, it is the seat of Skåne County. Lund is believed to have been founded around 990. From 1103 it was the see of the Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, the towering Lund Cathedral, built circa 1090–1145, still stands at the centre of the town; the city was ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, its status as part of Sweden was formalised in 1720. Lund University, established in 1666, is today one of Scandinavia's oldest and largest institutions for education and research; the university and its buildings dominate much of the centre of the city, have led to Lund becoming a centre for high-tech industry in the south of Sweden. Lund is sometimes mentioned as the oldest town or city in present-day Sweden, although it has only been a formal Swedish city for 300 years of its at least thousand year long history. It's so old that its origins are unclear, but was existing by the end of the Viking Age.
Until the 1980s, the town was thought to have been founded around 1020 by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark. The area was part of the kingdom of Denmark. But, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement dated to circa 990 the relocation of settlers at Uppåkra; the Uppåkra settlement dates back to the first century B. C. and its remains are at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. King Sweyn I Forkbeard moved Lund to a distance of some five kilometres; the new location of Lund, on a hill and across a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, situated on the highest point of a large plain. The city was made a see in 1048 and united with Dalby in 1060, in 1103 became the see of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, whose ecclesiastical province comprised Scandinavia and Garðar on Greenland; the diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was founded in or shortly after 1103. In 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund.
In 1164 Sweden acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was nominally subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. It is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden. Lund Cathedral School was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint; this is one of the oldest in Northern Europe. Many prominent people were educated there, among them the actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians. Lund was ceded to Sweden in 1658 as part of the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde, it was recaptured by Denmark in 1676 during the early phases of the Scanian War. The exceptionally bloody Battle of Lund was fought just north of the city in 1679, ended in a decisive Swedish victory. Sweden's control over Scania, hence Lund, was formalised by treaty in 1720. Scandinavia's first University, the Academy of Lund was founded in 1425, it was suppressed during the Danish Reformation in 1536. The present Lund University was established in 1666. In 1943, during the Second World War, Lund was accidentally bombed by a British aircraft.
No deaths were reported. Over the second half of the 20th century the population of Lund more than doubled, driven in large part by the growth of the university and high-tech industries. For example, Tetra-Pak, the food packaging and processing company, was founded in Lund in 1952. Suburbs were added to the outer edges of the city: Klostergården, Norra fäladen and Linero in the 1960s, Norra Nöbbelöv in the 1970s, Gunnesbo in the 1980s and Värpinge in the 1990s. Lund is located in Sweden's largest agricultural district, in the south-west of Scania, less than ten kilometres from the sandy shore of the Öresund Strait, its location on the south-facing slope of the Romeleåsen horst leads to the city rising from the low-lying Höje River in the south to 86 metres above mean sea level in the north. From the top of the Sankt Hans Hill it is possible to see the capital of Denmark; the nearest large Swedish city, Malmö, is about 15 kilometres to the south-west. Other Swedish cities are more distant: Gothenburg is 250 kilometres away, the capital Stockholm is 600 kilometres distant, Umeå lies 1,200 kilometres to the north.
The central region of Lund retains its medieval street layout. A few buildings from the Middle Ages remain, including Lund Cathedral, Liberiet, St. Peter's Priory, the restaurant Stäket and Krognoshuset. Many of the buildings in the centre today were constructed in the late 1800s, including Katedralskolan, the Grand Hotel and the main building and library of Lund University. Lund city contains a number of squares; the main city square, Stortorget contains numerous shops. Mårtenstorget, located south-east of the main square, hosts a market during the daytime and is otherwise used for parking. In earlier times the square was known as Oxtorget. Alongside the railway and associated station are Bantorget, Knut den Stores Torg and Clementstorg; the latter hosts a small market and is planned to be the central terminus of the tramway under construction. Lund's most central park is Lundagård, together with the adjoining University square forms the centre of the University; the park is dominated by historic buildings including Lu
Prince Eugen Medal
The Prince Eugen Medal, is a medal conferred by the King of Sweden for "outstanding artistic achievement". The medal was established in 1945 by the King of Sweden, Gustaf V, in connection with the eightieth birthday of his brother Prince Eugen, a noted painter and art collector, it is awarded every year on 5 November, the name day of Eugen, presented to the winners at the Royal Palace in Stockholm. The following people have received the Prince Eugen Medal since its inception. Winners are Swedish. Orders and medals of Sweden List of prizes and awards Prizes named after people List of recipients 1945-2007
Carl Milles was a Swedish sculptor. He was married to artist Olga Milles and brother to Ruth Milles and half brother to the architect Evert Milles. Carl Milles sculpted the Gustaf Vasa statue at the Stockholm Nordic Museum, the Poseidon statue in Gothenburg, the Orpheus group outside the Stockholm Concert Hall, the Fountain of Faith in Falls Church, Virginia, his home near Stockholm, Millesgården, is now a museum. Milles was born Carl Wilhelm Andersson, son of lieutenant Emil "Mille" Andersson and his wife Walborg Tisell, at Lagga outside Uppsala in 1875. In 1897 he made what he thought would be a temporary stop in Paris on his way to Chile, where he was due to manage a school of gymnastics. However, he remained in Paris, where he studied art, working in Auguste Rodin's studio and gaining recognition as a sculptor. In 1904 he and Olga moved to Munich. Two years they settled in Sweden, buying property on Herserud Cliff on Lidingö, a large island near Stockholm. Millesgården was built there between 1906 and 1908 as the sculptor's private residence and workspace.
It was turned into a foundation and donated to the Swedish people in 1936. In 1931, American publisher George Gough Booth brought Milles to Cranbrook Educational Community, in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, to serve as his sculptor in residence. Part of Booth's arrangement with his principal artists was that they were expected to create major commissions outside the Cranbrook environment. In 1938, for the 300th anniversary of the founding of New Sweden, the country commissioned a sculpture by Milles featuring a replica of the Kalmar Nyckel, the ship which brought the Swedish colonists to America; the sculpture is located at Fort Christina in Wilmington, near the landing site where the colonists arrived in 1638. In America he is best known for his fountains. Milles's fountain group The Wedding of the Waters in St. Louis symbolizes the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers merging just upstream. Commissioned in 1936 and unveiled in May 1940 to a crowd of about 3000 people, the fountain caused a local uproar because of its playful, irreverent and nearly cartoonish figures, because Milles had conceived the group as a wedding party.
Local officials insisted. Outside Detroit's Frank Murphy Hall of Justice is a Carl Milles statue, The Hand of God, sculpted in honor of Frank Murphy, Detroit Mayor, Michigan Governor, United States Supreme Court Associate Justice; the statue was placed on a pedestal with the help of sculptor Marshall Fredericks. The statue was commissioned by the United Automobile Workers, paid for by individual donations from UAW members; the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, an annual award for research on entrepreneurship, consists of a replica statuette of The Hand of God and a prize of 100,000 euros. Milles's sculptures sometimes offended American sensibilities, he had a'fig leaf' maker on retainer. Photographs of his sculptures, taken for a monograph on Milles, are now held in the Carl Milles Photograph Collection, c. 1938–1939, in the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. Milles and his wife returned to Sweden in 1951, lived in Millesgården every summer until Milles's death in 1955.
They spent winters in Rome. Milles and his wife, who died in 1967 in Graz, are buried in a small stone chapel, designed by Milles, at Millesgården; because Swedish law requires burial on sacred ground, it took the assistance of the reigning Gustaf VI Adolf to allow this resting place. Aganippe Fountain, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, 1951-55 Aviator Monument, Stockholm, 1931 Fountain of Faith, National Memorial Park cemetery, Falls Church, Virginia, 1939-52 Gustav Vasa Statue, Nordic Museum, Stockholm, 1905-07 and 1925 Folkung Fountain, Old Square, Linköping, 1924–27 Louis De Geer, Old Square, Norrköping, 1945 Sten Sture Monument, Uppsala, 1902–25 Vision of Peace, City Hall, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1932–36 Bronze doors, Finance Building, Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex, Pennsylvania, 1938 Diana Fountain, Matchstick Palace, Stockholm, 1927–28 Europe and the Bull Fountain, Old Square, Halmstad, 1924–26 Exterior sculpted decor of Sweden's Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stockholm, 1903–08 God on the Rainbow, Nacka, 1995 Greendale War Memorial for Veterans of All Wars, Massachusetts, 1948 Man and Nature, lobby of 1 Rockefeller Plaza, Rockefeller Center, New York City, 1937–41 Man and Pegasus, Castle Park, Malmö, 1949 Maritime Goddess, Helsingborg, 1921–23 Meeting of the Waters, monumental fountain, St. Louis, Missouri, 1936–40 Monument to Johannes Rudbeckius, Västerås, 1923 Numerous works at Cranbrook Educational Community, Bloomfield Hills, including Mermaids & Tritons Fountain, 1930, Sven Hedin on a Camel, 1932, Jonah and the Whale Fountain, 1932, Orpheus Fountain, 1936.
On a Sunday Morning, monumental fountain, Ingalls Mall, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1939–41 Orpheus Group, in front of Stockholm Concert Hall, 1926–36 Playing Angels, Pennsylvania, 1950 Poseidon Fountain, Götaplatsen, Gothenburg, 1925–31 Saint Martin of Tours, Kansas City, Missouri, 1950-55 Sjöguden, Stockholm, 1913 Spirit of Transportation, Detroit Civic Center, Michigan, 1952 Sun Singer, Stockholm, 1926
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Malmö Opera is an opera house in Malmö, Sweden. An opera company of the same name presents seasons of opera in this house. Built 1933-1944 by architect Sigurd Lewerentz and, until 1992, known as the Malmö City Theatre accommodating several different organizations, the Opera House is one of the largest auditoriums in Scandinavia with 1508 seats, created in the form of an enclosed amphitheatre in order to allow for the greatest viewing possibility, it is used for opera and musical performances. Influenced by German director Max Reinhardt, a large revolving stage was constructed; the foyer is considered to be beautiful, with its open surfaces and marble staircases, it is adorned with a number of works of art by artists such as Carl Milles and Isaac Grünewald. An offshoot of the opera company, whose musical director was Gintaras Rinkevicius and Joseph Swensen 2006-2011, is the program of opera designed for children ages 3 to 19; this is known as Operaverkstan. Royal Swedish Opera Gothenburg Opera Norrland Opera Drottningholm Palace Theatre Official site