The Indian subcontinent known as the Asian subcontinent and Indo subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the geographical term'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with'South Asia', although that last term is used as a political term and is used to include Afghanistan. Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate. According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent".
It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century, it was convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions; the geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; the geographical region has simply been known as "India". Other related terms are South Asia, and the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.
There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; this geological region includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes; the English term "subcontinent" continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east.
It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent covers about 4.4 million km2, 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area. Overall, it is home to a vast array of peoples; the Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, by maritime routes. More difficult but important interaction has occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans.
These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India. In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka and other islands of the Indian Ocean, such as the Maldives; the term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India. The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent with Central Asia to the northwest, the Persian Plateau to the west.
The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and no
Islamic architecture is the range of architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam. It encompasses religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. Early Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Persian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Further east, it was influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia, it developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths and domestic architecture. Many of the buildings which are mentioned in this article are listed as World Heritage Sites; some of them, like the Citadel of Aleppo, have suffered significant damage in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
The most recent building that can be known as a true example modern of Islamic architecture is Imam Sadiq University, this building was the winner of Aga Khan fundation as well. This building designed by Nader Ardalan, Iranian architect teaching at Harvard University; the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture. It is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Byzantine Christian artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background; the great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre-Islamic Syrian style. The Dome of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. Desert palaces in Jordan and Syria served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, baths, were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury; the horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. Some suggest the Muslims acquired this from the Visigoths in Spain but they may have obtained it from Syria and Persia where the horseshoe arch had been in use by the Byzantines.
In Moorish architecture, the curvature of the horseshoe arch is much more accentuated. Furthermore, alternating colours were added to accentuate the effect of its shape; this can be seen at a large scale in the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The Great Mosque of Damascus, built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, still bore great resemblance to 6th and 7th century Christian basilicas. Certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic style of prayer; the Abbasid dynasty witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, from Baghdad to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics and art; the Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital. Other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir demonstrated the "despotic and the pleasure-loving character of the dynasty" in its grand size but cramped living quarters.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world. Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and other elements resemble Roman form, it is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form from the Aghlabid period. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a massive square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas; the Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul influenced Islamic architecture; when the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work. The Hagia Sophia served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.
Domes are a major structural feature of Islamic architecture. The dome first appeared in Islamic architecture in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock, a near replica of the existing Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other Christian domed basilicas situated nearby. Domes remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques and of the Taj Mahal in the 17th century; the distinctive pointed domes of Islamic architecture originating with the Byzantines and Persians, have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st century. Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been the mathematical themes of ordered repetition, radiating structures, rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. From the eighth to the eleventh century, Islamic architectural styles were influenced by two different ancien
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah was the third Sultan of Bengal and the Ilyas Shahi dynasty. He was one of the most prominent medieval Bengali sultans, he established diplomatic relations with the Ming Empire of China, pursued cultural contacts with leading thinkers in Persia and conquered Assam. Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah became the Sultan of Bengal after overthrowing and killing his father Sultan Sikandar Shah at the Battle of Goalpara in 1390. During the early part of his reign, he occupied Kamarupa in modern-day Assam, his interests included establishing an independent judiciary and fostering Persianate and Bengali culture. The Sultan pioneered diplomatic relations with China by sending embassies to the Ming dynasty court in Peking, he exchanged gifts with the Yongle Emperor. Bengal was interested in establishing a strategic partnership with China to counter the influence of its neighbors, including the Delhi Sultanate; the Chinese mediated in several regional disputes. The Sultan built strong relations with the Sultanate of Jaunpur in North India.
He financed the construction of madrasas in Mecca and Medina. Ghiyasuddin was a patron of poets. Among others, the Persian poet Hafez kept correspondences with him. Shah Muhammad Sagir, a Muslim Bengali poet, wrote his famous work, Yusuf-Zulekha, during Ghiyasuddin's reign; the Hindu poet, Krittibas Ojha translated the Ramayana in Bengali as Krittivasi Ramayan during his reign. List of rulers of Bengal
Gauḍa, Gaur, or Gour known as Lakhnauti and Jannatabad, is a ruined city on the Bangladesh-India border, split between present-day Nawabganj District of Rajshahi Division and Malda district of West Bengal, India. This city was on the east bank of the Ganges river, 40 kilometres downstream from Rajmahal, 12 km south of Malda. However, the current course of the Ganges is far away from the ruins. Lakhnauti gathered prominence during the Sena dynasty, with the name of the city attributed to the Sena king Lakshman Sena. Prior to the accession of the Sena dynasty, Gauda region was under the control of the Pala dynasty and, in all probability, the capital of Shashanka, served as the administrative headquarter. For example, the Khalimpur copperplate inscription of Dharmapal, refers to the monarch as Gaudeshwar, it is possible that, the Sena dynasty, that supplanted the Pala dynasty in Bengal proper felt the need for a new administrative capital, to reduce the Pala influence. It is possible that the process might have been started by Vijay or Ballal Sena – but given the final shape by Lakshmana Sena.
In fact Lakshmanasena had the administrative capital at Lakhnauti while a lesser capital at Nadia. It was in the capital less defended, that he was surprised by Ikhtiyar-ud-din Mohammad ibn Bakhtiyar Khalji; the area was known as Gauḍa at the time was under the rule of famous Bengali kings such as Shashanka. In the 7th century Gopala by a democratic election in Gauḍa became the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and founded the Pala Empire; the Pala dynasty ruled for nearly four centuries between the mid to late 8th century to 12th century CE. The Palas were described by opponents as the Lords of Gauḍa, it was a prosperous city during the Sena dynasty's rule in Bengal. However, its most well documented history begins with its conquest in 1198 by the Muslims, who retained it as the chief seat of their power in Bengal for more than three centuries. Around the year 1350, the Sultans of Bengal established their independence, transferred their seat of government to Pandua in Malda district. To build their new capital, they plundered Gauḍa of every monument.
When Pandua was in its turn deserted, Gauḍa once more became the capital under the name Jannatabad during the reign of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah. In 1565 Sulaiman Khan Karrani, a Pashtun ruler, abandoned it for Tanda, a place somewhat nearer the Ganges. Gauḍa was sacked by Sher Shah in 1539, was occupied by Akbar's general Munim Khan in 1575, when Daud Khan Karrani, the last of the Afghan dynasty, refused to pay homage to the Mughal emperor; this occupation was followed by an outbreak of the plague and course change of the Ganges, which completed the downfall of the city. Since it has been little better than a heap of ruins overgrown with jungle. Gauḍa is located at 24°52′N 88°08′E near the India-Bangladesh international border, it has an average elevation of 22 metres. Gauḍa lies in the Eastern bank of the rivers Pagla; the city in its prime measured 7 1/8 km. from north to south, with a breadth of 1 to 2 km. With suburbs it covered an area of 20 to 30 km². and in the 16th century the Portuguese historian Faria y Sousa described it as containing 1,200,000 inhabitants.
The ramparts of this walled city still exist. The facing of masonry and the buildings with which they were covered have now disappeared, the embankments themselves are overgrown with dense jungle; the western side of the city was washed by the Ganges, within the space enclosed by these embankments and the river stood the city of Gauḍa proper, with the fort containing the palace in its south-west corner. Radiating north and east from the city, other embankments are to be traced running through the suburbs and extending in certain directions for 30 or 40 m. Surrounding the palace is an inner embankment of similar construction to that which surrounds the city, more overgrown with jungle. A deep moat protects it on the outside. To the north of the outer embankment lies the Sagar Dighi, a great reservoir, 1600 yd. by 800 yd. dating from 1126. The fort or you can say the city was made by Great Gaur Rajputs or Pala Dynasty, great warriors who fought well, they present some area of Bangladesh. Fergusson in his History of Eastern Architecture thus describes the general architectural style of Gauḍa: It is neither like that of Delhi nor Jaunpur, nor any other style, but one purely local and not without considerable merit in itself.
Owing to the lightness of the small, thin bricks, which were chiefly used in the making of Gauḍa, its buildings have not well withstood the ravages of time and the weather. Moreover, the ruins long served as a quarry for the builders of neighboring towns and villages, till in 1900 steps were taken for their preservation by the government; the finest ruin in Gauḍa is that of the Great Golden Mosque called Bara Darwaza, or twelve doored. An arched corridor running along the whole front of the original building is the principal portion now standing. There are eleven arches on either side of the corridor and one a
The Sultanate of Bengal was an Islamic kingdom established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent. It was the first independent unified Bengali kingdom under Muslim rule; the region became known as Bangalah and Bengala under this kingdom. The two terms are precursors to Bengal; the kingdom was formed. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah united the region's states into a single government headed by an imperial Sultan; the kingdom was ruled by five dynasties. At the height of its territorial empire, the kingdom ruled over areas in Eastern South Asia and Southeast Asia, it re-established diplomatic relations between the Indian subcontinent. It permitted the creation of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong, the first European enclave in Bengal; the kingdom looked west for cultural inspiration from Persianate cultures. Its rulers sponsored the construction of colleges in Mecca and Medina, which host the holiest sites of Islam. Literature was fostered with strong Sufi influences.
Bengali architecture evolved during this period, with several external influences. The kingdom had an influential Hindu minority, which included aristocrats, military officers and bureaucrats, it assisted the Buddhist king of Arakan to regain control of his country from the Burmese. The kingdom began to disintegrate in the 16th century, in the aftermath of Sher Shah Suri's conquests; the Mughal Empire began to absorb Bengal under Babur. The second Mughal emperor Humayun occupied the Bengali capital of Gaurh. In 1576, the armed forces of emperor Akbar defeated Daud Khan Karrani; the region became Mughal Bengal. The Delhi Sultanate lost its hold over Bengal in 1338 when separatist states were established by governors, including Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah in Sonargaon, Alauddin Ali Shah in Lakhnauti and Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah in Satgaon. In 1352, Ilyas Shah defeated the rulers of Sonargaon and Lakhnauti and united the Bengal region into an independent kingdom, he founded the Turkic Ilyas Shahi dynasty which ruled Bengal until 1490.
During this time, much of the agricultural land was controlled by Hindu zamindars, which caused tensions with Muslim Taluqdars. The Ilyas Shahi rule was challenged by Raja Ganesha, a powerful Hindu landowner, who managed to place his son, Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah, on the throne in the early 15th century, before the Ilyas Shahi dynasty was restored in 1432; the late 1480s saw four usurper sultans from the mercenary corps. Tensions between different Muslim communities affected the kingdom. After a period of instability, Alauddin Hussain Shah gained control of Bengal in 1494 when he was prime minister; as Sultan, Hussain Shah ruled till 1519. The dynasty he founded reigned till 1538. Muslims and Hindus jointly served in the royal administration during the Hussain Shahi dynasty; this era is regarded as a golden age of the Bengal Sultanate, in which Bengali territory included areas of Arakan, Orissa and Assam. The sultanate gave permission for establishing the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong. Sher Shah Suri conquered Bengal in the 16th century.
After conquering Bengal, Sher Shah Suri proceeded to Agra. The absorption of Bengal into the Mughal Empire was a gradual process beginning with the defeat of Bengali forces under Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah by Babur at the Battle of Ghaghra and ending with the Battle of Raj Mahal where the Pashtun Karrani dynasty, the last reigning Sultans of Bengal, were defeated; the Bengal Sultanate was an absolute monarchy. The Ilyas Shahi dynasty promoted a Persianate society, it copied the pre-Muslim Persian tradition of statecraft. The courts of the capital cities sanctified the sultan, used Persianized royal paraphernalia, adopted an elaborate court ceremony modeled on the Sasanian imperial paradigm, employed a hierarchical bureaucracy, promoted Islam as the state religion; the rise of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah saw more native elements inducted in the courts. The Hussain Shahi dynasty employed many Hindus in the government and promoted a form of religious pluralism. Military strength was the existential basis of other parts of India.
The sultans had a well-organised army, including cavalry, artillery and war elephants. Due to the riverine geography and climate, it was not feasible to use cavalry throughout the year in Bengal; the cavalry was the weakest component of the Bengal Sultanate's army, as the horses had to be imported from foreign countries. The artillery was an important section. Portuguese historian João de Barros opined that the military supremacy of Bengal over Arakan and Tripura was due to its efficient artillery; the artillery used guns of various sizes. The paiks formed the vital part of the Bengal infantry during this period. There were occasions when the paiks tackled political situations; the particular battle array of the foot-soldiers who used bows and guns attracted the attention of Babur. War elephants played an important part in the Bengal army. Apart from carrying war materials, elephants were used for the movement of the armed personnel. In riverine Bengal the usefulness of elephants, though slow, could not be minimised.
The navy was of prime necessity in riverine Bengal. In fact, the cavalry could ensure the hold over this country for a period of six months whereas the boats backed by the paiks could command supr
Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. It was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power", it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate; the term is distinct from king, despite both referring to a sovereign ruler. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance, contrasting the more secular king, used in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title has been used for some Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts; however and Ottoman Turkish uses sultan for imperial lady, as Turkish grammar—which is influenced by Persian grammar—uses the same words for both women and men.
However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall; the female leaders in Muslim history are known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu is styled as the "panguian" while the sultan's chief wife in many sultanates of Indonesia and Malaysia are known as "permaisuri", "Tunku Ampuan", "Raja Perempuan", or "Tengku Ampuan"; the queen consort in Brunei is known as Raja Isteri with the title of Pengiran Anak suffixed, should the queen consort be a royal princess. In recent years, "sultan" has been replaced by "king" by contemporary hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law. A notable example is Morocco, whose monarch changed his title from sultan to king in 1957; these are secondary titles, either lofty'poetry' or with a message, e.g.: Mani Sultan = Manney Sultan - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja of Travancore Sultan of Sultans - the sultanic equivalent of the style King of Kings Certain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation.
Sultanic Highness - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt, who bore it with their primary titles of Prince or Princess, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922, when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king were granted the title Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malaki, or Royal Highness. Ghaznavid Sultanate. Sultans of Great Seljuk Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, the Osmanli Elisu Sultanate and a few others. A Sultan ranked below a Khan. in Syria: Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans in present-day Yemen, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate and South Arabia: Audhali, Haushabi, Lahej, Lower Aulaqi, Lower Yafa, Mahra, Qu'aiti, Upper Aulaqi, Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates in present-day Saudi Arabia: Sultans of Nejd Sultans of the Hejaz Oman – Sultan of Oman, on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 in Algeria: sultanate of Tuggurt in Egypt: Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans in Morocco, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir al-Mu´minin in Sudan: Darfur Dar al-Masalit Dar Qimr Funj Sultanate of Sinnar Kordofan in Chad: Bagirmi Wada'i, successor state to Birgu Dar Sila Ajuran Sultanate, in southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia Adal Sultanate, in northwestern Somalia, southern Djibouti, the Somali, Oromia and Afar regions of Ethiopia Majeerteen Sultanate, in northern Somalia Isaaq Sultanate, in northern Somalia Sultanate of the Geledi, in southern Somalia Sultanate of Aussa, in northeastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Harar, in eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Hobyo, in central Somalia Sultanate of Ifat, in northern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Mogadishu, in south-central Somalia Sultanate of Showa, in central Ethiopia Warsangali Sultanate, in northern Somalia Bimaal Sultanate, in south eastern Somalia centred in Merka Angoche Sultanate, on the Mozambiquan coast various sultans on the Comoros.
Sultanate of Zanzibar: two incumbents since the de
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who