The Limbu or Yakthung are Kirati people indigenous and native to the Himalayan Limbuwan region of the Indian subcontinent, what is now modern-day Eastern Nepal, Northern Sikkim and Western Bhutan. The original name of Limbus is Yakthumba or Yakthungba. Limbu males and Limbu females are called “Yakthumma" or "Yakthungma". In Ancient texts believe that "Yakthung" or "Yakthum" is a derivative from China and some interpret its meaning as the "Yaksha winner". In Limbu language it means "heroes of the hills". Subba is a title given by the Shah Kings to only Limbu village chiefs. Subba was not an indigenous Yakthung terminology, but now they are interchangeable terms, their history is stated to be written in a book called Bhongsoli known as Vanisavali of which copies are kept in some of the most ancient families. There are hundreds of Limbu Tribes; each Limbu clans are classified under their Tribe or subnational entity or according to their place of origin. The Chinese text Po-ou-Yeo-Jing, translated in 308 AD, refers to the Yi-ti-Sai, a name, an exact equivalent of Kiratas.
The Limbus were one of the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim. Their estimated population of 700,000 is centred in the districts of Sankhuwasabha, Dhankuta, Morang, Jhapa, Ilam, Nakhipot and Bhaktapur in Nepal; these are all within the Mechi and Kosi Zones or "Limbuwan". Portions of the Limbu population are located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. A smaller number are scattered throughout the cities of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Nagaland and in north and south Sikkim, Bhutan and others have migrated to the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States and many other countries. Accounts with Sirijunga Limbu is one of the few Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own pre-20th century scripts. Vowels: ʌ, ɑ, i, u, e, ɑi, o, ɑu, ɛ, ɔ Consonants: k, kh, g, gh, ŋ, c/ts, ch/tsh, j/dz, jh/dz, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, m, j, r, l, w, sh, s, h, tr Limbus practice many of their own life cycle rituals, they believe. Rather, a woman inherits her mother's gods, when she marries and lives with her husband she brings with her the deities that will be recognized as the household deities.
Limbu observe for two-to-three days through practiced death rituals. During death ceremony, they put the head of dead in chares ko coin on forehead, they block the nose and put alcohol on the lips of the dead body. Nikwasamma is a dead ritual done to cleanse the house by Phedangma. Relatives and visitors bring money as respect and put an offering on the top of the dead body. Sons of dead body shave head and eyebrows to respect the body of the dead, they will be known as the new hier in the family. They buried the dead body covered with white cloth in wooden box; the length of the mourning period varies depending on the gender of the deceased. Weddings, gift exchanges, settlement of conflicts involve consumption of alcohol i.e. liquor the Limbu traditional beer popularly known as thee, drunk in a container called Tongba. Dancing parties are arranged for visitors to the village; these affairs give the young Limbu boys a chance to meet and enjoy dancing and drinking. The traditional dress of the Limbus are mekhli and taga.
While performing mangsewa IPA:, Yakthung IPA: people wear mekhli and taga in white colour as it symbolizes purity. Dhaka is the traditional fabric of the Limbus which are made by weaving it in geometric patterns in a handloom; the art of making dhaka is taught by one generation to another. You will always see a Limbu man clad in dhaka topi and scarf, a Limbu lady in dhaka saree, mekhli and shawl. In the olden days, the Limbus were skilled in silk farming; the Kiratis were known as silk traders. According to JB Subba and Iman Xin Chemjong, the Kirat is a corrupt form of silkworm. Mekhli- Long dress worn with a horizontal strip of cloth with collars crossing over or in a Vneck style. Chunglokek/sunghamba- Blouse Chaubandi Cholo- Blouse with collars overlapping each other Sim-'gunyo' in Nepali. A long strip of cloth wrapped around like a skirt. Phaoee IPA: - waist beltLimbu women are famed for their use of gold jewellery and put by them on a daily basis with pride. Aside from samyang IPA:, they use yuppa, luung IPA:, mudhin.
Most Limbu ornaments are nature inspired. Nowadays, traditional Limbu ornaments are used by different ethnic groups and can be found in other parts of Nepal; this is due to the sold by different jewelry shops referring Nepali. As many other global indigenous people, they are shamanistic and worship nature. Samyanfung IPA: - Huge circular disc like in gold; the common design features a coral on the centre. Amongst Limbus, Samyangfung IPA: represents sun. Nessey IPA: - Large circular flattened gold earring. Common designs are water springs with glass stones. Laksari- Gold earrings worn continuously on the ear lobes In the shape of leaves, diamonds etc. Namloyee or yogakpa- Large silver necklace in the shape of a square or circle embedded with coral stones. Same as Tibetan ghau. Yangyichi or Reji - Long necklace with coins Sesephung - A forehead piece with cora
Kirateshwar Mahadev Temple
Kirateshwar Mahadev Temple is a Hindu temple, identified to be a Hindu pilgrimage site, located at Legship, West Sikkim, India along the banks of River Rangeet. Which has many mythological episodes of the Mahabharata attached to it; the temple is known as Kirateshwar Mahadev Thaan by the Kirati people or known as Shiv Mandir. The main attraction of the temple are the festival of the Bala Chaturdesi, observed in November–December every year and the Shiv Ratri known as Maha Shivaratri which falls in the month of February or March every year. There are other temples dedicated to Lord Rama and Durga can be found here making it an important pilgrimage destination for Hindus. According to Hindu mythology, pleased with Arjuna's hard penance and devotion, Lord Shiva appeared before him in the spot where the temple lies as hunter Kirateshwar or Lord of the Kiratas and blessed him with success in the Mahabharat War. Long time ago as the people found miraculously existed a stone manifesting Shiva Ling.
The said. Belief of many that a mere visit with true devotion to this temple fulfills one’s wishes a wish for son or daughter and wishes for peace harmony and good health. Kirata Kirata Kingdom Kirati people Kirat Mundhum Kirat Mundhum
Dzongkha, or Bhutanese, is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan. The Tibetan alphabet is used to write Dzongkha; the word dzongkha means "the language of the district". District-like Dzong architecture characterises monasteries, established throughout Bhutan by its unifier, Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche, in the 17th century; as of 2013, Dzongkha had about 640,000 total speakers. Dzongkha and its dialects are the native tongue of eight western districts of Bhutan. There are some native speakers found near the Indian town of Kalimpong, once part of Bhutan but now in North Bengal. Dzongkha was declared as the national language of Bhutan in 1971. Dzongkha study is mandatory in all schools in Bhutan, the language is the lingua franca in the districts to the south and east where it is not the mother tongue; the 2003 Bhutanese film Travellers and Magicians is in Dzongkha. The Tibetan alphabet used to write Dzongkha has thirty basic letters, sometimes known as "radicals", for consonants.
Dzongkha is written in Bhutanese forms of the Uchen script, forms of the Tibetan alphabet known as Jôyi "cursive longhand" and Jôtshum "formal longhand". The print form is known as Tshûm. There are various ways of romanization and transliteration systems for Dzongkha, however all possible systems failed to represent the true phonetic sound. A phonetic transcription system known as Roman Dzongkha, devised by the linguist George van Driem, was adopted as the standard romanization system of Dzongkha by the Bhutanese government in 1991. Dzongkha has two register tones: high and low; the tone of a syllable determines the allophone of the onset and the phonation type of the nuclear vowel. All consonants may begin a syllable. In the onsets of low tone syllables, consonants are voiced. Aspirated consonants, /ɬ/, /h/ are not found in low tone syllables; the rhotic /r/ is a trill or a fricative trill, is voiceless in the onsets of high tone syllables./t, tʰ, ts, tsʰ, s/ are dental. Descriptions of the palatal affricates and fricatives vary from alveolo-palatal to plain palatal.
Only a few consonants are found in syllable-final positions. Most common among them are /m, n, p/. Syllable-final /ŋ/ is elided and results in the preceding vowel nasalized and prolonged word-finally. Syllable-final /k/ is most omitted when word-final as well, unless in formal speech. In literary pronunciation, liquids /r/ and /l/ may end a syllable. Though rare, /ɕ/ is found in syllable-final positions. No other consonants are found in syllable-final positions; when in low tone, vowels are produced with breathy voice. In closed syllables, /i/ varies between and, the latter being more common. /yː/ varies between and. / e / varies between open-mid, the latter being common in closed syllables. /eː/ is close-mid. /eː/ may not be longer than /e/ at all, differs from /e/ more in quality than in length. Descriptions of / øː / vary between open-mid. /o/ is close-mid, but may approach open-mid in closed syllables. /oː/ is close-mid. /ɛː/ is lower than open-mid, i.e.. /ɑ/ may approach in closed syllables. When nasalized or followed by, vowels are always long.
Many words in Dzongkha are monosyllabic. Syllables take the form of CVC, CV, or VC. Syllables with complex onsets are found, but such an onset must be a combination of an unaspirated bilabial stop and a palatal affricate; the bilabial stops in complex onsets are omitted in colloquial speech. Dzongkha is considered a South Tibetic language, it is related to and intelligible with Sikkimese, to some other Bhutanese languages such as Chocangaca, Brokpa and Lakha. Dzongkha bears a close linguistic relationship to J'umowa, spoken in the Chumbi Valley of Southern Tibet, it has a much more distant relationship to Standard Tibetan. Although spoken Dzongkha and Tibetan are mutually unintelligible, the literary forms of both are both influenced by the liturgical Classical Tibetan language, known in Bhutan as Chöke, used for centuries by Buddhist monks. Chöke was used as the language of education in Bhutan until the early 1960s when it was replaced by Dzongkha in public schools. Although descended from Classical Tibetan, Dzongkha shows a great many irregularities in sound changes that make the official spelling and standard pronunciation more distant from each other than is the case with Standard Tibetan.
"Traditional orthography and modern phonology are two distinct systems operating by a distinct set of rules." The following is a sample text in Dzongkha of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Dzongkha in the Tibetan alphabet ༄༅། །འགྲོ་བ་མི་རིགས་ག་ར་དབང་ཆ་འདྲ་མཉམ་འབད་སྒྱེཝ་ལས་ག་ར་གིས་གཅིག་གིས་གཅིག་ལུ་སྤུན་ཆའི་དམ་ཚིག་བསྟན་དགོས།Translation All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Dzongkha Braille Dzongkha numerals Languages of Bhutan Downs, Cheryl Lynn. "Issues in Dzongkha Phonology: An Optimality Theoretic Approach". San Diego State University. Dzongkha Development Commission. Rigpai Lodap: An Intermediate Dzongkha-English Dictionary. Thimphu: Dzongkha Development Commission. ISBN 978-99936-765-3-9. Dzongkha Development Commission. K
Gangtok is a city, the capital and the largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim. It is the headquarters of the East Sikkim district. Gangtok is located at an elevation of 1,650 m; the town's population of 100,000 are from different ethnicities such as Nepalis and Bhutia. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya and enjoying a year-round mild temperate climate, Gangtok is at the centre of Sikkim's tourism industry. Gangtok rose to prominence as a popular Buddhist pilgrimage site after the construction of the Enchey Monastery in 1840. In 1894, the ruling Sikkimese Chogyal, Thutob Namgyal, transferred the capital to Gangtok. In the early 20th century, Gangtok became a major stopover on the trade route between Lhasa in Tibet and cities such as Kolkata in British India. After India won its independence from Britain in 1947, Sikkim chose to remain an independent monarchy, with Gangtok as its capital. In 1975, after the integration with the union of India, Gangtok was made India's 22nd state capital.
The precise meaning of the name "Gangtok" is unclear, though the most popular meaning is "hill cut". Today, Gangtok is an emerging as urbanized city with literacy rate of 94% of total population. Like the rest of Sikkim, not much is known about the early history of Gangtok; the earliest records date from the construction of the hermitic Gangtok monastery in 1716. Gangtok remained a small hamlet until the construction of the Enchey Monastery in 1840 made it a pilgrimage center, it became the capital of what was left of Sikkim after an English conquest in the mid-19th century in response to a hostage crisis. After the defeat of the Tibetans by the British, Gangtok became a major stopover in the trade between Tibet and British India at the end of the 19th century. Most of the roads and the telegraph in the area were built during this time. In 1894, Thutob Namgyal, the Sikkimese monarch under British rule, shifted the capital from Tumlong to Gangtok, increasing the city's importance. A new grand palace along with other state buildings was built in the new capital.
Following India's independence in 1947, Sikkim became a nation-state with Gangtok as its capital. Sikkim came under the suzerainty of India, with the condition that it would retain its independence, by the treaty signed between the Chogyal and the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; this pact gave the Indians control of external affairs on behalf of Sikkimese. Trade between India and Tibet continued to flourish through the Nathula and Jelepla passes, offshoots of the ancient Silk Road near Gangtok; these border passes were sealed after the Sino-Indian War in 1962, which deprived Gangtok of its trading business. The Nathula pass was opened for limited trade in 2006, fuelling hopes of economic boom. In 1975, after years of political uncertainty and struggle, including riots, the monarchy was abrogated and Sikkim became India's twenty-second state, with Gangtok as its capital after a referendum. Gangtok has witnessed annual landslides, resulting in loss of damage to property; the largest disaster occurred in June 1997, when 38 were killed and hundreds of buildings were destroyed.
Gangtok is located at 27.3325°N 88.6140°E / 27.3325. It is situated in the lower Himalayas at an elevation of 1,650 m; the town lies on one side of a hill, with "The Ridge", a promenade housing the Raj Bhawan, the governor's residence, at one end and the palace, situated at an altitude of about 1,800 m, at the other. The city is flanked on west by two streams, namely Roro Chu and Ranikhola, respectively; these two rivers divide the natural drainage into the eastern and western parts. Both the streams meet the Ranipul and flow south as the main Ranikhola before it joins the Teesta at Singtam. Most of the roads are steep, with the buildings built on compacted ground alongside them. Most of Sikkim, including Gangtok, is underlain by Precambrian rocks which contains foliated phyllites and schists. Surface runoff of water by natural streams and man-made drains has contributed to the risk of landslides. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-IV, near the convergent boundary of the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates and is subject to frequent earthquakes.
The hills are nestled within higher peaks and the snow-clad Himalayan ranges tower over the town from the distance. Mount Kanchenjunga —the world's third-highest peak—is visible to the west of the city; the existence of steep slopes, vulnerability to landslides, large forest cover and inadequate access to most areas have been a major impediment to the natural and balanced growth of the city. There are densely forested regions around Gangtok, consisting of temperate, deciduous forests of poplar, birch and elm, as well as evergreen, coniferous trees of the wet alpine zone. Orchids are common, rare varieties of orchids are featured in flower shows in the city. Bamboos are abundant. In the lower reaches of the town, the vegetation changes from alpine to temperate deciduous and subtropical. Flowers such as sunflower, marigold and others bloom in November and December. Gangtok features a monsoon-influenced subtropical highland climate; because of its elevation and sheltered environment, Gangtok enjoys a mild, temperate climate all year round.
Like most Himalayan towns, Gangtok has five seasons: summer, autumn and spring. Temperatures range from an average maximum of 22 °C in summer to an average minimum of 4 °C in winter. Summers
Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. It borders Tibet in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, West Bengal in the south. Sikkim is located close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park. The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century, it was ruled by a Buddhist priest-king known as the Chogyal. It became a princely state of British India in 1890. After 1947, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Republic of India, it enjoyed per capita income among Himalayan states. In 1973, anti-royalist riots took place in front of the Chogyal's palace. In 1975, the monarchy was deposed by the people.
A referendum in 1975 led to Sikkim joining India as its 22nd state. Modern Sikkim is a multilingual Indian state. Sikkim has 11 official languages: Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu, Rai, Magar and English. English is used in government documents; the predominant religions are Vajrayana Buddhism. Sikkim's economy is dependent on agriculture and tourism, as of 2014 the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, although it is among the fastest-growing. Sikkim accounts for the largest share of cardamom production in India, is the world's second largest producer of the spice after Guatemala. Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to organic over the interval 2003 to 2016, the first state in India to achieve this distinction, it is among India's most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles and styrofoam products. The origin theory of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two Limbu words: su, which means "new", khyim, which means "palace" or "house".
The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong, which means "valley of rice", while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means'"the hidden valley of rice". According to the folklore, after establishing Rabdentse as his new capital Bhutia king Tensung Namgyal built a palace and asked his Limbu Queen to name it; the Lepcha people, the original inhabitants of Sikkim, called it Nye-mae-el, meaning "paradise". In historical Indian literature, Sikkim is known as the garden of the war god Indra; the Lepchas are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim. However the Limbus and the Magars lived in the inaccessible parts of West and South districts as early as the Lepchas lived in the East and North districts; the Buddhist saint Padmasambhava known as Guru Rinpoche, is said to have passed through the land in the 8th century. The Guru is reported to have blessed the land, introduced Buddhism, foretold the era of monarchy that would arrive in Sikkim centuries later. According to legend, Khye Bumsa, a 14th-century prince from the Minyak House in Kham in eastern Tibet, received a divine revelation instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes.
A fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, Phuntsog Namgyal, became the founder of Sikkim's monarchy in 1642, when he was consecrated as the first Chogyal, or priest-king, of Sikkim by the three venerated lamas at Yuksom. Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son, Tensung Namgyal, who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse. In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, denied the throne; the Bhutanese were driven away by the Tibetans, who restored the throne to the Chogyal ten years later. Between 1717 and 1733, the kingdom faced many raids by the Nepalese in the west and Bhutanese in the east, culminating with the destruction of the capital Rabdentse by the Nepalese. In 1791, China sent troops to defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. Following the subsequent defeat of Gorkha, the Chinese Qing dynasty established control over Sikkim. Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal.
The Nepalese attacked Sikkim. This prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal, resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal resulted in the return of the territory annexed by the Nepalese in 1817. However, ties between Sikkim and the British weakened when the latter began taxation of the Morang region. In 1849, two British physicians, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr. Archibald Campbell, the latter being in charge of relations between the British and Sikkimese governments, ventured into the mountains of Sikkim unannounced and unauthorised; the doctors were detained by the Sikkimese government, leading to a punitive British expedition against the kingdom, after which the Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to British India in 1853. The invasion led to the Chogyal of Sikkim becoming a titular ruler under the directive of the British governor. Sikkim became a British protectorate in the decades of the 19th century, formalised by a convention signed with China in 1890.
Sikkim was granted more sovereignty over the next three decades, became a member of the Chamber of Princes, the assembly representing the rulers of the Indian princely states, in 1922. Prior to the Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, as the Vice President of the Executive Council, pushed through a resolu
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
The Nepalis are citizens of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal under the provisions of Nepali nationality law. The country is home to people of many different ethnic origins; as a result, people of Nepal do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance. Although citizens make up the majority of Nepali, non-citizen residents, dual citizen and expatriates may claim a Nepali identity. Nepal is a multiethnic country. Nepali are multilinguistic group. Kathmandu Valley, in the middle hill region, constitutes a small fraction of the nation's area but is the most densely populated, with 5 percent of the nation's population. Local legends say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times and that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Ne", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there.
The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people. The terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history. Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people; the founder of modern Nepal, Badamaharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah is considered a unifying figure and symbol of Nepali National Unity. He is considered a visionary leader and his birthday is celebrated as National Unity Day after years of Maoist hegemony and demolition of monarchial history called as Krambhanga; the population ranking of 125 Nepali castes/ethnic groups as per the 2011 Nepal census. List of Nepali people Culture of Nepal Demographics of Nepal Religion in Nepal Ethnic groups in Nepal Kazara Languages of Nepal Gurkha Music of Nepal