Ancient Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but was different from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style. The two styles are considered one body of classical architecture. Roman architecture flourished in the Roman Republic and more so under the Empire, when the great majority of surviving buildings were constructed, it used new materials concrete, newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make buildings that were strong and well-engineered. Large numbers remain in some form across the empire, sometimes complete and still in use to this day. Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. No substantial examples survive from before about 100 BC, most of the major survivals are from the empire, after about 100 AD. Roman architectural style continued to influence building in the former empire for many centuries, the style used in Western Europe beginning about 1000 is called Romanesque architecture to reflect this dependence on basic Roman forms.
The Romans only began to achieve significant originality in architecture around the beginning of the Imperial period, after they had combined aspects of their original Etruscan architecture with others taken from Greece, including most elements of the style we now call classical architecture. They moved from trabeated construction based on columns and lintels to one based on massive walls, punctuated by arches, domes, both of which developed under the Romans; the classical orders now became decorative rather than structural, except in colonnades. Stylistic developments included the Composite orders; the period from 40 BC to about 230 AD saw most of the greatest achievements, before the Crisis of the Third Century and troubles reduced the wealth and organizing power of the central government. The Romans produced massive public buildings and works of civil engineering, were responsible for significant developments in housing and public hygiene, for example their public and private baths and latrines, under-floor heating in the form of the hypocaust, mica glazing, piped hot and cold water.
Despite the technical developments of the Romans, which took their buildings far away from the basic Greek conception where columns were needed to support heavy beams and roofs, they were reluctant to abandon the classical orders informal public buildings though these had become decorative. However, they did not feel restricted by Greek aesthetic concerns and treated the orders with considerable freedom. Innovation started in the 3rd or 2nd century BC with the development of Roman concrete as a available adjunct to, or substitute for and brick. More daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad domes; the freedom of concrete inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment. Factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own.
The use of vaults and arches, together with a sound knowledge of building materials, enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing infrastructure for public use. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and Colosseum; these were reproduced at a smaller scale in most important cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are complete, such as the town walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis, now northern Spain; the administrative structure and wealth of the empire made possible large projects in locations remote from the main centers, as did the use of slave labor, both skilled and unskilled. Under the empire, architecture served a political function, demonstrating the power of the Roman state in general, of specific individuals responsible for building. Roman architecture reached its peak in the reign of Hadrian, whose many achievements include rebuilding the Pantheon in its current form and leaving his mark on the landscape of northern Britain with Hadrian's Wall.
While borrowing much from the preceding Etruscan architecture, such as the use of hydraulics and the construction of arches, Roman prestige architecture remained under the spell of Ancient Greek architecture and the classical orders. This came from Magna Graecia, the Greek colonies in southern Italy, indirectly from Greek influence on the Etruscans, but after the Roman conquest of Greece directly from the best classical and Hellenistic examples in the Greek world; the influence is evident in many ways. Roman builders employed Greeks in many capacities in the great boom in construction in the early Empire; the Roman Architectural Revolution known as the Concrete Revolution, was the widespread use in Roman architecture of the little-used architectural forms of the arch and dome. For the first time in history, their potential was exploited in the construction of a wide range of civil engineering
Countries of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom comprises four countries: England and Wales and Northern Ireland. Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state, Northern Ireland and Wales have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution; the UK Parliament and British Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland and Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland. England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom, remains the responsibility of the UK Parliament centralised in London. England, Northern Ireland and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization list of countries.
However the ISO list of the subdivisions of the UK, compiled by British Standards and the UK's Office for National Statistics, uses "country" to describe England and Wales. Northern Ireland, in contrast, is described as a "province" in the same lists; each has separate national governing bodies for sports and compete separately in many international sporting competitions, including the Commonwealth Games. Northern Ireland forms joint All-Island sporting bodies with the Republic of Ireland for most sports, including rugby union; the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are dependencies of the Crown and are not part of the UK. The British overseas territories, remnants of the British Empire, are not part of the UK. From 1801, following the Acts of Union, until 1921 the whole island of Ireland was a country within the UK. Ireland was split into two separate jurisdictions in 1921: Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. Southern Ireland left the United Kingdom under the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922.
1 The UK Parliament makes all English legislation, whilst the London Assembly scrutinizes the Mayor of London.2 The UK Government, the Mayor of London and their Mayoral cabinet, Metro Mayors and combined authorities, the councils of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly exercise executive power in England.3 The former flag of Northern Ireland, the Ulster Banner, is still used in some sport-related contexts. *Gross value added. Figures for GVA do not include oil and gas revenues generated beyond the UK's territorial waters, in the country's continental shelf region. Various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland and Wales; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 annexed the legal system of Wales to England to create the single entity known for centuries as England, but officially renamed England and Wales. Wales was described as the "country", "principality", "dominion" of Wales. Outside Wales, England was not given a specific term; the Laws in Wales Acts have subsequently been repealed.
The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "part" of a united kingdom of Great Britain The Acts of Union 1800 use "part" in the same way to refer to England and Scotland. However, they use the word "country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland when describing trade between them The Government of Ireland Act 1920 described Great Britain, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland as "countries" in provisions relating to taxation; the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which repealed the Government of Ireland Act 1920, does not use any term to describe Northern Ireland. The Interpretation Act 1978 provides statutory definitions of the terms "England", "Wales" and the "United Kingdom", but neither that Act nor any other current statute defines "Scotland" or "Northern Ireland". Use of the first three terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act; the definitions in the 1978 Act are listed below: "England" means, "subject to any alteration of boundaries under Part IV of the Local Government Act 1972, the area consisting of the counties established by section 1 of that Act, Greater London and the Isles of Scilly."
This definition applies from 1 April 1974. "United Kingdom" means "Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This definition applies from 12 April 1927. "Wales" means the combined area of 13 historic counties, including Monmouthshire, re-formulated into 8 new counties under section 20 of the Local Government Act 1972, as enacted, but subject to any alteration made under section 73 of that Act. In 1996 these 8 new counties were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities. In the Scotland Act 1998 there is no delineation of Scotland, with the definition in section 126 providing that Scotland includes "so much of the internal waters and territorial sea of the United Kingdom as are adjacent to Scotland"; the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 refers to England, Scotland and Northern Ireland as "parts" of the United Kingdom in the following clause: "Each constituency shall be wholly in one of the four parts of the United Kingdom." The Royal Fine Art Commission's 1847 report on decorating the Palace of Westminster referred to "the nationality of the component parts of the United Kingdom" being represented by their four respective patron saints.
"Regions": For purposes of NUTS 1 co
Edward Pakenham, 2nd Baron Longford
Edward Michael Pakenham, 2nd Baron Longford was an Irish sailor and landowner. Pakenham was the son of Thomas Pakenham, 1st Baron Longford and Elizabeth Cuffe, 1st Countess of Longford. Longford joined the Royal Navy at the age of sixteen, he served during the Seven Years' War taking part in naval engagements off the coasts of West Africa and North America. He was held for over a year. After he returned home following the Treaty of Paris he represented County Longford in the Irish House of Commons between 1765 and 1766. In 1776 he inherited his father's seat in the Irish House of Lords. In January 1778 he returned to active service during the American War of Independence, serving in the English Channel and Mediterranean Sea, he returned home in 1782 having earned around £5,000 in prize money. Lord Langford married Catherine Rowley, daughter of Hercules Langford Rowley, in 1768, they had a number of children including General Sir Edward Pakenham. Their daughter Catherine married the Duke of Wellington.
He was the owner of Pakenham Hall Castle in County Westmeath which he systematically improved during his lifetime. Langford died in June 1792, aged 49, was succeeded in the barony by his eldest son Thomas, who in 1794 succeeded his grandmother in the earldom of Longford, his third son was Sir Hercules Robert Pakenham CB, KCB, a lieutenant-general of the British Army and was brevet colonel and aide-de-camp to the William IV of the United Kingdom. Pakenham, Eliza. Tom and Kitty: An Intimate Portrait of an Irish Family. Phoenix, 2008
Duke of Wellington (title)
Duke of Wellington is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The name derived from Wellington in Somerset, the title was created in 1814 for Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington, the Anglo-Irish military commander, best known for leading the decisive victory with Field Marshal von Blücher over Napoleon's forces at Waterloo in Brabant. Wellesley served twice as British prime minister; the first Duke's father, Garret Wesley, had been granted the title of Earl of Mornington in 1760. His male-line ancestors were wealthy agricultural and urban landowners in both countries, among the Anglo-Irish Protestant Ascendancy; the dukedom has descended to heirs male of the body, along with eleven other hereditary titles. The titles of Duke of Wellington and Marquess Douro were bestowed upon Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington, on 3 May 1814 after he returned home a hero following Napoleon's abdication, he fought some sixty battles during his military career, never lost a single one. He was considered "the conqueror of Napoleon".
He stands as one of the finest soldiers that Great Britain and Ireland has produced, others being the 1st Duke of Marlborough and the 2nd Duke of Argyll. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Wellington are Marquess of Wellington, Marquess Douro, Earl of Mornington, Earl of Wellington, Viscount Wellesley, Viscount Wellington, Baron Mornington, Baron Douro; the Viscountcy of Wellesley and the Barony and Earldom of Mornington are in the Peerage of Ireland. Apart from the British titles, the Dukes of Wellington hold the titles of Prince of Waterloo of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo of the Kingdom of Spain, Duke of Victoria, with the subsidiary titles Marquess of Torres Vedras and Count of Vimeiro of the Kingdom of Portugal; these were granted to the first Duke as victory titles for his distinguished service as victorious commanding general in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo. The family seat is Stratfield Saye House, near Hampshire. Apsley House, in London, is now owned by English Heritage, although the family retain an apartment there.
Heir apparent: Arthur Gerald Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, eldest son of the present Duke His heir apparent: Arthur Darcy Wellesley, Viscount Wellesley, eldest son of Lord Mornington Should the direct male line of succession from the first Duke of Wellington become extinct, the dukedom and its subsidiary titles in the British peerage will become extinct, as will the titles of Prince of Waterloo in the Dutch peerage and the dukedom of the Victory and its subsidiary titles in the Portuguese peerage. The dukedom of Ciudad Rodrigo in the Spanish peerage, together with its subsidiary titles, will continue to be held in the female line of descendants of the first Duke; the earldom and barony of Mornington, along with the viscountcy of Wellesley, which are all titles in the Irish peerage, will revert to the line of the Earl Cowley, a male-line descendant of a younger brother of the first Duke of Wellington. The Colley or Cowley family had come to Ireland from Glaston, in Rutland about 1500, he married the daughter of Thomas Cusack, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, Catherine Wellesley Cusack whose grandmother was a Wellesley.
Upon the death of his cousin, Garret Wesley and his inheritance of the Estates of Dangan and Mornington, Richard Colley and his wife Elizabeth Sale daughter of John Sale, Registrar of the Diocese of Dublin, on 23 December 1719. Adopted the name Wellesley and through her Husband's Family, his cousin, Garret Wesley. Waterloo ceremony Duke of Wellington's Regiment An Online Gotha – Wellington Genealogical information on the Dukes of Vitória Genealogical information on the Marquesses of Torres Vedras Genealogical information on the Counts of Vimeiro
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is a fence or wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a stake used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.
However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.
Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.
Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. In its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary
Basingstoke and Deane
Basingstoke and Deane is a local government district and borough in Hampshire, England. Its primary settlement is Basingstoke. Other settlements include Bramley, Kingsclere, Oakley and the hamlet of Deane, some 7 miles from Basingstoke, it is the northernmost borough of Hampshire, bordered by Berkshire to the north. The first Basingstoke Mayor, George Baynard, was appointed in 1641; the district was formed as the District of Basingstoke on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the borough of Basingstoke, Basingstoke Rural District and Kingsclere and Whitchurch Rural District. On 20 January 1978, following the grant of borough status, the district became the Borough of Basingstoke and Deane; the council claims that the new title included the names of the largest town and smallest village in the borough, although there are eight civil parishes with populations smaller than Deane. Basingstoke and Deane has over 430 local neighbourhood watch schemes in the area. Elections to the borough council are held in three out of every four years, with one third of the 60 seats on the council being elected at each election.
Since the first election in 1973, the council has either been controlled by the Conservative Party or under no overall control. Most the Conservatives have formed the administration on the council since the 2006 election and had a majority since the 2008 election. Following the 2012 election a Conservative Party councillor defected to independent, one to UKIP. - In the 2016 Local Elections the Labour Party made two gains and the Conservative Party one gain and the current council is now composed of the following councillors: Since 2004 the Borough has had a youth council named "Basingstoke and Deane Youth Council", although known as "Youth of Basingstoke and Deane". As of 2009, Basingstoke and Deane consists of 29 wards
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. As constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts, had a county council and were the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies. Changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately, based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. In 2009, there were further structural changes in some areas, resulting in a total of 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these 83 counties collectively consist of 292 districts or district-level subdivisions, i.e. 36 metropolitan boroughs and 256 non-metropolitan districts. The metropolitan counties are Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and Wear, West Midlands and West Yorkshire.
The counties have populations of 1.2 to 2.8 million. The county councils of these were abolished in 1986, but the counties themselves still exist legally, they are used for some administrative and geographic purposes, are still ceremonial counties. Most of the powers that the former county councils had were devolved to their metropolitan boroughs, which are now in effect unitary authorities. A shire county is a non-metropolitan county, its name does not need to have shire in it. The term shire county is unofficial. There are 28 such counties: Berkshire, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, East Sussex, Gloucestershire, Hertfordshire, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Somerset, Suffolk, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire. All, apart from Berkshire, have county councils. Sometimes shire county is used to exclude Berkshire; the counties have populations of 109,000 to 1.4 million. Under local government reforms coming into effect in 2009, the number of such counties was reduced.
The non-metropolitan counties of Bedfordshire and Cheshire were split into two separate non-metropolitan counties while Cornwall, County Durham, Northumberland and Wiltshire became unitary authorities each of a single district. Unitary authorities are areas with only one council, there are 55 in total. 49 are coterminous with a non-metropolitan county, 43 of which are defined as counties with a single district council and no county counci: Bath and North East Somerset, Blackburn with Darwen, Bournemouth and Hove, Central Bedfordshire, Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Derby, East Riding of Yorkshire, Hartlepool, Kingston upon Hull, Luton, Middlesbrough, Borough of Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Peterborough, Poole, Portsmouth and Cleveland, South Gloucestershire, Southend-on-Sea, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon and Wrekin, Torbay, York. The other 6 are technically counties with a county council and no district councils, but the effect is the same: Isle of Wight, Durham, Northumberland and Wiltshire The remaining 6 unitary authorities are districts of Berkshire, however they are not non-metropolitan counties, as the non-metropolitan county of Berkshire still exists albeit without a county council.
The Local Government Act 1972 created the system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts, but excluded two parts of England from the new system, a situation which exists to the present. Greater London was created in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 as a sui generis administrative area, with the Greater London Council functioning as an upper-tier local government, it consists of 33 local authority districts and spans the area, prior made up of the County of London, most of Middlesex, parts of other neighbouring administrative counties. In 1972, no metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties or districts were created in this area. However, the council was abolished along with the metropolitan county councils in 1986. In 1994, Greater London was designated as one of nine regions of England, which each had a government office up until they were abolished 2011. Since 2000, Greater London has had an elected Assembly and Mayor responsible for strategic local government. In the other eight regions, plans for elected assemblies were abandoned, leaving London as the only region with a conterminous authority.
The area does however include two counties for the purposes of lieutenancies: the county of Greater London and the City of London. The Isles of Scilly are, like Greater London, not covered by the system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; the Council of the Isles of Scilly remain