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Silencer (firearms)

A silencer known as a sound suppressor, suppressor or sound moderator, is a muzzle device that reduces the acoustic intensity of the muzzle report and eliminates muzzle flash when a gun is discharged, by modulating the speed and pressure of the gas ejection from the muzzle and hence suppressing the muzzle blast. Like a muzzle brake, a silencer can be a detachable accessory mounted separately onto the muzzle, or an integral part of the barrel. A typical silencer is a metal cylinder with internal sound baffles that slow and cool the escaping propellant gas, dissipating its kinetic energy over a longer time and over a larger area, thus reducing the blast intensity and decreasing both the sound volume and recoil impulse generated during shooting. A flash suppressor, on the other hand cools or disperses burning gases which already exited the muzzle of a carbine-length weapon to reduce the amount of flash, without reference to sound reduction. American inventor Hiram Percy Maxim, son of Maxim gun inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim and co-founder of the American Radio Relay League, is credited with inventing and selling the first commercially successful silencer around 1902, receiving a patent for it on March 30, 1909.

Maxim gave his device the popularly trademarked name "Maxim Silencer", they were advertised in sporting goods magazines. The muffler for internal combustion engines was developed in parallel with the firearm silencer by Maxim in the early 20th century, using many of the same techniques to provide quieter-running engines, in many English-speaking countries automobile mufflers are called silencers. Former president of the United States Theodore Roosevelt was known to purchase and use Maxim Silencers. Silencers were used by agents of the United States Office of Strategic Services, who favored the newly designed High Standard HDM.22 LR pistol during World War II. OSS Director William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan demonstrated the pistol for President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the White House. According to OSS research chief Stanley Lovell, Donovan, an old and trusted friend of the President, was waved into the Oval Office, where Roosevelt was dictating a letter. While Roosevelt finished his message, Donovan turned his back and fired ten shots into a sandbag he had brought with him, announced what he had done and handed the smoking gun to the astonished president.

The British Special Operations Executive Welrod pistol with an integral silencer was used by the American OSS on clandestine operations in Nazi-occupied Europe. The US National Firearms Act of 1934 defined silencers and established regulations limiting their sale and ownership. Both the US Department of Justice and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives use the term silencer. Hiram Percy Maxim, the original inventor of the device, marketed them as "Maxim Silencers"; the earliest use of the technical term suppressor to refer to firearm noise reduction is in US Patent 4530417, July 23, 1985, "A suppressor for reducing the muzzle blast of firearms or the like". In UK English, silencer is the common term for a gun silencer. Sound moderator has been used in UK English for silencers on high-powered rifles used for hunting or at ranges; the Oxford, American Heritage, other dictionaries apply the term suppressor to such contexts as electromagnetic shielding devices and censorship, but not firearms.

These dictionaries define both silencer and suppressor as equivalent and interchangeable, neither applying or to sound, both being applicable as much to complete and total quiet or to partial reduction of sound. In 2011, the US National Rifle Association began a campaign to increase the civilian use of silencers for hunting and sport shooting, setting the goals of easing the restrictions in the Federal NFA of 1934, in various state laws, regulating the sale and ownership of firearm silencers. In the same year, the American Silencer Association was founded by US manufacturers of silencers, with the same goals of moving silencers into the mainstream. Along with state and federal legislative lobbying efforts, the NRA and ASA began public information campaigns designed to change the perception of silencers from their association with espionage, crime or military special operation use, to instead show that silencers can have health and safety benefits protecting the hearing of shooters and people in the vicinity, to debunk the perceived myth in popular television and video game media that silencers are so effective that gunshot sounds can go unnoticed, such as by people in the next room of a building.

In 2014, the ASA changed its name to American Suppressor Association "in a continuing effort to dispel myths about suppressors". Gun control advocates have said that changing the name from "silencer" to "suppressor" is semantic propaganda similar to the efforts to avoid terms like "assault rifle" or "assault weapon" in favor of friendlier-sounding language like "modern sporting rifle", while gun rights advocates make the opposite argument, that the widespread term silencer reflects technical ignorance and is poorly defined. Gun rights advocates and gun media say that the word "silencer" is defined as meaning total silence, while "suppressor" is defined as only meaning reduced sound intensity; when a firearm is discharged, there are three ways sound. Part of it can be managed. In order of importance, the three ways a firearm generates sound are: Muzzle blast — shockwave generated by high-pressure gases escaping and expanding from the

The Legend of Wenlong

"The Legend of Wenlong" is an ancient folk story of Han Chinese origin, early on adopted by several people groups in Southern China including the Zhuang. It is known by the name of the associated Chinese opera Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror, it is now a traditional song of the Zhuang people, sung at the Dragon Boat Festival in some places.'The lost Nanxi opera version of Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror is the source of the versions found among the Zhuang, Buyi and Mulao peoples of Southern China.' The story has at least an 800-year-old history and remains a form of cultural entertainment to this day both as a traditional Zhuang opera and within a number of Chinese opera adaptations. In 16th century Ming Dynasty the famous painter, poet and dramatist Xu Wei mentions "The Legend of Wenlong" in a list of 65 12th century Song Dynasty Nanxi operas under the title 刘文龙菱花镜. However, all copies of this opera have been lost; the earlier 15th century Yongle Encyclopedia, the largest known encyclopedia at the time, mentions the opera-play Liu Wenlong.

Although the original version has been lost, the general content of Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror is still known to a degree. A comparison of the roles and plot make it clear that the Zhuang version is adapted from this lost opera-play. Since there is no record of when its transition from Chinese took place, it is assumed to have happened from the Song Dynasty onwards, most during the Ming Dynasty, it has been preserved in written form using the traditional Zhuang writing system, Sawndip since the Ming or Qing dynasties. Although their lengths vary, most of the Sawndip manuscripts are about 500 lines long; some versions have others seven characters per line. The story is sometimes set in the Tang Dynasty. In his teens, Wenlong marries an arrangement by his parents. Both are good looking; the young couple love each other much. Because Wenlong is so bright, he is ordered by the Emperor to go to the capital to become an official; when they say goodbye, as a reminder to be faithful, the couple split a metal mirror in two, Lanshi gives Wenlong one of a pair of shoes she has made herself and keeps the other.

They remain faithful to each other. Whilst Wenlong gone, Wenzong tries to court the beautiful Lanshi to become his wife, he says that Wenlong must be dead, but Lanshi refuses to marry him. Unable to convince Lanshi, Wenzong talks to her parents and convinces them to agree, because Wenlong has been gone for 15 years. A wedding date is fixed for a few days' time. Wenlong has a vivid dream of his home and the next day sets out from the capital to return there; the story ends with the return of Wenlong on Lanshi's wedding. Wenlong, nearing his home town, meets a woman crying by the river, talking to her discovers she is his wife. Wenlong has the shoe made by his wife many years before and his wife fetches the other shoe which she has kept safe for many years, they are happy at last. Whilst sometimes maligned by academia for not being based on Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror, various forms of modern Chinese opera have stories of Wenlong. One such is 刘文龙上京, in Huangmei opera. Another is Zheng Chaoyang's 1999 opera 洗马桥, her own adaptation of the tradition, in which Wenlong comes from Wenzhou.

A Dong version 门龙 belongs to the same tradition as Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror and the Zhuang versions. The relationship between Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror and other operas with extant manuscripts is the subject of ongoing debate. Whilst the Nanxi opera is still considered lost, copies of Chinese operas which have similar stories have been found. For example, the Ming Dynasty work 刘希必金钗记, a copy of, discovered in 1975 in Guangdong, may have a common source with Liu Wenlong and the Water-chestnut Mirror, though some argue it is an adaptation. Other versions include the 100-year-old late Qing Dynasty manuscript of 刘文龙赶考, discovered in 1952 in Anhui. In 1960 in Fuijan, among a discovery of a dozen Nanxi manuscripts there was a partial manuscript entitled "Liu Wenlong"; these discoveries provide fuel for academic progress. In 1987, a Chinese translation of the Zhuang song by Lan Hong'en was published under the title "文龙与肖尼", by which it is sometimes better known. In 1998, the Guangxi Minorities Ancient Literature Bureau printed a Youjiang Zhuang version called "唱文隆".

It is 488 lines long with seven Sawndip characters on each line and a Chinese translation on the opposite side of the page. In 2006, a Pingguo version in Sawndip, arranged by 潘润环, is 488 lines long in stanzas of four lines but with only five characters per line; the Chinese title is "唱文隆", the Zhuang title "Fwen Vwnzlungz" and the Sawndip title "文隆". The names of characters in the story and the characters used to write them vary in different versions. For readability the same English renderings of names are used throughout this article

Marta Civil

Marta Civil Sirera is an American mathematics educator. Her research involves understanding the cultural background of minority schoolchildren Hispanic and Latina/o students in the Southwestern United States, using that understanding to promote parent engagement and focus mathematics teaching on students' individual strengths, she is the Roy F. Graesser Endowed Professor at the University of Arizona, where she holds appointments in the department of mathematics, the department of mathematics education, the department of teaching and sociocultural studies. Civil earned her Ph. D. at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1990. Her dissertation and Talking about Mathematics: A Study of Preservice Elementary Teachers, was supervised by Peter George Braunfeld. In 2011 she moved from the University of Arizona to the University of North Carolina, to become Frank A. Daniels Distinguished Professor of Mathematics Education, but returned to Arizona in 2014 to become the Graesser Professor.

Civil is co-editor of the books Transnational and Borderland Studies in Mathematics Education, Latinos/as and Mathematics Education: Research on Learning and Teaching in Classrooms and Communities, Cases for Mathematics Teacher Educators: Facilitating Conversations about Inequities in Mathematics Classrooms, Access & Equity: Promoting High-Quality Mathematics in Grades 3-5. In 2013 TODOS: Mathematics for All gave Civil their Iris M. Carl Equity and Leadership Award. Home page SOE Profile: Marta Civil, University of North Carolina School of Education

Monaghan GAA

The Monaghan County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Monaghan GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in County Monaghan and the Monaghan inter-county football and hurling teams. Separate county boards are responsible for the promotion & development of handball and ladies' Gaelic football within the county as well as having responsibility for their representative inter-county players/teams; the current team sponsor of Monaghan GAA is Investec. Gaelic football was recorded in Inniskeen in 1706 in a poem. Monaghan were prominent in Ulster championship competitions during the period 1914-30 and one of the first Ulster counties to contest an All Ireland final. Monaghan beat Kildare in a semi-final to reach the 1930 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final, where Kerry beat them by 3-11 to 0-2 without their goalkeeper touching the ball. In 1979 the Monaghan team won the Ulster Senior Football Championship for the first time in 41 years with a defeat of Donegal.

In the final Monaghan Kieran Finlay scored 1-09, a record in an Ulster final for 20 years, until Armagh's Oisin McConville bettered it with a 2-07 tally against Down in 1999. They won the Dr McKenna Cup in 1979. Victories in the Ceannarus Tournament against Roscommon and Dublin in 1979 brought gloss to the county's finest year on the football field in half a century. In the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship 1979 semi-final at Croke Park, Monaghan were again beaten by Kerry, 5-14 to 0-07. In 1984 the Centenary Cup final was reached following wins over Limerick, Mayo and Derry The Offaly and Derry games were played in Croke Park as was the final against Meath which Monaghan lost by 0-10 to 0-08. Monaghan won Division 3 of the National Football League that year and lost to Meath in the quarterfinal. 1985 was the county's most successful year to date when a National Football League final victory against Armagh in 1985 created a momentum that peaked in 1985 when future Monaghan manager Eamonn McEneaney kicked one of the most spectacular equalizing points in many years from 48 metres out near the sideline beside the Hogan stand to draw the thrilling All Ireland semi-final against Kerry on a scoreline of Monaghan 2-09 to Kerry's 1-12.

Kerry won the replay on a 2-09 to 0-10 score. That National football league title of 1985 was won by Monaghan on a 1-11 to 0-09 score against pre-match favourites Armagh; the game was settled by an Eamon McEneaney penalty in the first half when referee John Gough from Antrim decided that an Armagh defender had taken too many steps in his own penalty area. Armagh got to within a point in the second half but a flurry of exceptional long range points from Bernie Murray, Eamon McEneaney and Ray McCarron brought the trophy to Monaghan for the first time ever; that year's Ulster Senior Football Championship was a stirring success. An easy first round victory over Donegal in Castleblayney, marked by a spectacular Eamon Murphy goal, followed by a lucky draw against Armagh in the semi final and one-point victory in the replay saw Monaghan meet Derry in the Ulster Senior Football Championship final; the first day against Armagh, Monaghan relied on pure luck to survive for a draw, as Armagh dominated the game from start to finish, doing everything but score.

Paddy Linden saved a penalty and Armagh player saw the line 30 seconds after coming onto the field as a substitute, following an apparent high tackle on Declan Flanagan. The replay was a better match but a late Armagh goal had Monaghan concerned; however they won by 1-11 to 2-07. In the Ulster final against Derry Eamon McEneaney helped himself to 2-04 as Monaghan recorded and easy 2-09 to 0-08 win; as stated the drawn All-Ireland semi-final against Kerry was a thriller but the absence of David Byrne through injury in the second half cost Monaghan victory. Eamon McEneaney's last gasp equaliser was something special but in the replay Kerry were ruthless and despite serious Monaghan pressure the Kingdom won by 5 points. Monaghan's run that year was something special considering the fact that they were missing Declan Loughman, Gerry Hoey and Bernie Murray. All three were prominent in the National Football League win over Armagh while they would form the spine of the Ulster Senior Football Championship winning side of 1988.

It could be argued that with these three players on board, Monaghan could have won the All-Ireland in 1985. Their absence robbed the team of vital strength in depth, they reached the 1986 National Football League final but this time the opposition was Laois. Played in front of over 30,000 supporters the Laoismen edged out Monaghan by 2-06 to 2-05. Monaghan's championship run in 1986 consisted of a draw against Down in Castleblayney thanks to a last gap Eamon McEneaney free while in the replay Down emerged victors in Newcastle on a 2-11 to 0-11 score. A promising season was over. In 1987, Monaghan reached the National Football League semi-final again where they played out a thrilling game against Kerry at Croke Park. A superb second half performance against the wind had Monaghan leading by a couple of points near the end but a Pat Spillane goal and a late point by Mikey Sheehy saw the Kingdom win by 2-11 to 2-09. Monaghan's goals came from Hugo Clerkin. Disappointment followed in the Ulster championship with a shock 0-14 to 0-12 loss to Cavan in Breffni Park.

The early promise of 1985 looked over as two successive seasons of flattering to deceive left the county in a state of gloom. In 1988, the team reached the National Football League semi-final again but ended in a 4-12 to 1-08 drubbing from Dublin at Croke Park; however a g

Kyzylsky District

Kyzylsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic, its administrative center is the urban locality of Kaa-Khem. Population: 27,659 ; the population of Kaa-Khem accounts for 54.4% of the district's total population. Законодательная палата Великого Хурала Республики Тыва. Постановление №1648 ЗП-1 от 21 декабря 2005 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориального деления Республики Тыва», в ред. Постановления №455 ЗП-2 от 21 ноября 2007 г «О внесении изменения в реестр административно-территориального деления Республики Тыва». Вступил в силу 21 декабря 2005 г. Опубликован: "Тувинская правда", №2, 12 января 2006 г.. Великий Хурал Республики Тыва. Закон №268 ВХ-1 от 24 декабря 2010 г. «О статусе муниципальных образований Республики Тыва», в ред. Закона №837 ВХ-1 от 10 октября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Тыва "О статусе муниципальных образований Республики Тыва"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.

Опубликован: "Тувинская правда", №178, 31 декабря 2010 г

Jon Finlayson

Jon "Finno" Finlayson was an Australian actor and writer. He was known for his roles in The Magic Show, he was well-known from his numerous television roles, such as Colonel Archibald Spencer in Zoo Family and as James Gleeson in Snowy River: The McGregor Saga. He wrote sketches for The Mavis Bramston Show, he was noted for his hospitality as well as his'Sunday Soirees' in the Melbourne show business community. Jon Finlayson was born in Victoria to Clorine and Ron Finlayson; when he was about age 8 the family moved to Burwood where he attended Hartwell Primary School and Camberwell High School. His performing career began at about the same time when he toured Australia with the Australian Boys' Choir as a soprano. Finlayson died of prostate cancer on 12 September 2012 at St Vincent's Hospital. Jon Finlayson on IMDb "Vale Jon Finlayson". Tvtonight.com.au "Jon Finlayson". Rottentomatoes.com