Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group. The French word étiquette signifying a tag or label, was used in a modern sense in English around 1750. Etiquette is behaviour that assists survival and has changed and evolved over the years. In the 3rd millennium BC, Ptahhotep wrote The Maxims of Ptahhotep; the Maxims were conformist precepts extolling such civil virtues as truthfulness, self-control and kindness towards one's fellow beings. Learning by listening to everybody and knowing that human knowledge is never perfect are a leitmotif. Avoiding open conflict wherever possible should not be considered weakness. Stress is placed on the pursuit of justice, although it is conceded that it is a god's command that prevails in the end; some of the maxims refer to one's behaviour when in the presence of the great, how to choose the right master and how to serve him. Others teach the correct way to lead through kindness.
Greed is the base of all evil and should be guarded against, while generosity towards family and friends is deemed praiseworthy. Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor and philosopher whose philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships and sincerity. Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author, most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier; the work was an example of a courtesy book, dealing with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier, was influential in 16th century European court circles. Louis XIV "transformed a royal hunting lodge in Versailles, a village 25 miles southwest of the capital, into one of the largest palaces in the world moving his court and government there in 1682, it was against this awe-inspiring backdrop that Louis tamed the nobility and impressed foreign dignitaries, using entertainment, ceremony and a codified system of etiquette to assert his supremacy.”
During the Enlightenment era, a self-conscious process of the imposition of polite norms and behaviours became a symbol of being a genteel member of the upper class. Upwardly mobile middle class bourgeoisie tried to identify themselves with the elite through their adopted artistic preferences and their standards of behaviour, they became preoccupied with precise rules of etiquette, such as when to show emotion, the art of elegant dress and graceful conversation and how to act courteously with women. Influential in this new discourse was a series of essays on the nature of politeness in a commercial society, penned by the philosopher Lord Shaftesbury in the early 18th century. Shaftesbury defined politeness as the art of being pleasing in company:'Politeness' may be defined a dext'rous management of our words and actions, whereby we make other people have better opinion of us and themselves. Periodicals, such as The Spectator, founded as a daily publication by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in 1711, gave regular advice to its readers on how to conform to the etiquette required of a polite gentleman.
Its stated goal was "to enliven morality with wit, to temper wit with morality... to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffeehouses" It provided its readers with educated, topical talking points, advice in how to carry on conversations and social interactions in a polite manner. The allied notion of'civility' – referring to a desired social interaction which valued sober and reasoned debate on matters of interest – became an important quality for the'polite classes'. Established rules and procedures for proper behaviour as well as etiquette conventions, were outlined by gentlemen's clubs, such as Harrington's Rota Club. Periodicals, including The Tatler and The Spectator, infused politeness into English coffeehouse conversation, as their explicit purpose lay in the reformation of English manners and morals. Etiquette is the virtue of code of behaviour, it was Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield who first used the word'etiquette' in its modern meaning, in his Letters to His Son on the Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman.
This work comprised over 400 letters written from 1737 or 1738 and continuing until his son's death in 1768, were instructive letters on various subjects. The letters were first published by his son's widow Eugenia Stanhope in 1774. Chesterfield endeavoured to decouple the issue of manners from conventional morality, arguing that mastery of etiquette was an important weapon for social advancement; the Letters were full of deduction. Chesterfield epitomised the restraint of polite 18th-century society, for instance, in 1748: I would heartily wish that you may be seen to smile, but never heard to laugh while you live. Frequent and loud laughter is the characteristic of folly and ill-manners. In my mind there is nothing so illiberal, so ill-bred, as audible laughter. I am neither of a melancholy nor a cynical disposition, am as willing and as apt to be pleased as anybody. By the Victorian era, etiquette had developed into an exceptionally complicated system of rules, governing everything from the proper method for writing letters and using cutlery to the minutely regulat
Nonverbal communication is the nonlinguistic transmission of information through visual, auditory and kinesthetic channels. It includes the use of visual cues such as body language and physical environments/appearance, of voice and of touch, it can include the use of time and eye contact and the actions of looking while talking and listening, frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, blink rate. Just as speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, pitch and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm and stress, so written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the physical layout of a page. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on interaction between individuals, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, behaviors of communicators during interaction.
Nonverbal communication involves the unconscious processes of encoding and decoding. Encoding is the act of generating information such as facial expressions and postures. Encoding information utilizes signals. Decoding is the interpretation of information from received sensations given by the encoder. Decoding information utilizes knowledge one may have of certain received sensations. For example, refer to the picture provided above; the encode holds up two fingers and the decoder may know from previous experience that this means two. The Nonverbal encoding sequence includes facial expressions, posture, tone of voice, tactile stimulation such as touch, body movements, like when someone moves closer to communicate or steps away due to spacial boundaries; the Decoding processes involves the use of received sensations combined with previous experience with understanding the meaning of communications with others. Culture plays an important role in nonverbal communication, it is one aspect that helps to influence how learning activities are organized.
In many Indigenous American Communities, for example, there is an emphasis on nonverbal communication, which acts as a valued means by which children learn. In this sense, learning is not dependent on verbal communication. Nonverbal communication represents two-thirds of all communications. Nonverbal communication can portray a message both vocally and with the correct body signals or gestures. Body signals comprise physical features and unconscious gestures and signals, the mediation of personal space; the wrong message can be established if the body language conveyed does not match a verbal message. Nonverbal communication strengthens a first impression in common situations like attracting a partner or in a business interview: impressions are on average formed within the first four seconds of contact. First encounters or interactions with another person affect a person's perception; when the other person or group is absorbing the message, they are focused on the entire environment around them, meaning the other person uses all five senses in the interaction: 83% sight, 11% hearing, 3% smell, 2% touch and 1% taste.
Many indigenous cultures use nonverbal communication in the integration of children at a young age into their cultural practices. Children in these communities learn through observing and pitching in through which nonverbal communication is a key aspect of observation. Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior was started in 1872 with the publication of Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. In the book, Darwin argued that all mammals, both humans and animals, showed emotion through facial expressions, he posed questions such as: "Why do our facial expressions of emotions take the particular forms they do?" and "Why do we wrinkle our nose when we are disgusted and bare our teeth when we are enraged?" Darwin attributed these facial expressions to serviceable associated habits, which are behaviors that earlier in our evolutionary history had specific and direct functions. For example, a species that attacked by biting, baring the teeth was a necessary act before an assault and wrinkling the nose reduced the inhalation of foul odors.
In response to the question asking why facial expressions persist when they no longer serve their original purposes, Darwin's predecessors have developed a valued explanation. According to Darwin, humans continue to make facial expressions because they have acquired communicative value throughout evolutionary history. In other words, humans utilize facial expressions as external evidence of their internal state. Although The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals was not one of Darwin's most successful books in terms of its quality and overall impact in the field, his initial ideas started the abundance of research on the types and expressions of nonverbal communication and behavior. Despite the introduction of nonverbal communication in the 1800s, the emergence of behaviorism in the 1920s paused further research on nonverbal communication. Behaviorism is defined as the theory of learning that describes people's behavior as acquired through conditioning. Behaviorists such as B. F. Skinner trained pigeons to engage in various behaviors to demonstrate how animals engage in behaviors with rewards.
While most psychology researchers were ex
A napkin, serviette or face towelette is a rectangle of cloth used at the table for wiping the mouth and fingers while eating. It is small and folded, sometimes in intricate designs and shapes; the word comes from Middle English, borrowing the French nappe—a cloth covering for a table—and adding -kin, the diminutive suffix. "Serviette" can be heard in the United Kingdom, some parts of Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. In Australia and New Zealand, "serviette" refers to the paper variety and "napkin" refers to the cloth variety; the same distinction is used in Canada although "paper napkin" may be used interchangeably with "serviette". In the UK, the term "napkin" is traditionally "U" and "serviette" is "non-U". Conventionally, the napkin is folded and placed to the left of the place setting, outside the outermost fork. In a restaurant setting or a caterer's hall, it may be folded into more elaborate shapes and displayed on the empty plate. Origami techniques can be used to create a three-dimensional design.
A napkin may be held together in a bundle with cutlery by a napkin ring. Alternatively, paper napkins may be contained with a napkin holder. Napkins were used in ancient Roman times. One of the earliest references to table napkins in English dates to 1384–85. Summaries of napkin history say that the ancient Greeks used bread to wipe their hands; this is suggested by a passage in one of Alciphron's letters, some remarks by the sausage seller in Aristophanes' play, The Knights. The bread in both texts is referred to as apomagdalia, which means bread from inside the crust known as the crumb, not special "napkin bread"; the use of paper napkins is documented in ancient China, where paper was invented in the 2nd century BC. Paper napkins were known as chih pha, folded in squares, used for the serving of tea. Textual evidence of paper napkins appears in a description of the possessions of the Yu family, from the city of Hangzhou. Paper napkins Sanitary napkin Wet wipe Napkin Folding Tutorials, a huge collection of step by step video tutorials on how to fold napkins Serviettes and How to Fold Them, a guide to folding napkins from 1890
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
A plate is a broad, but flat vessel on which food can be served. A plate can be used for ceremonial or decorative purposes. Most plates are circular, but they may be any shape, or made of any water-resistant material. Plates are raised round the edges, either by a curving up, or a wider lip or raised portion. Vessels with no lip if they have a more rounded profile, are to be considered as bowls or dishes, as are large vessels with a plate shape. Plates are dishware, tableware. Plates in wood and metal go back into antiquity in many cultures. A plate is composed of: The well, the bottom of the plate, where food is placed; the lip, the flattish raised outer part of the plate. Its width in proportion to the well can vary greatly, it has a slight upwards slope, or is parallel with the base, as is typical in larger dishes and traditional Chinese shapes. Not all plates have a distinct lip; the rim, the outer edge of the piece. The base, the underside; the usual wide and flat European raised lip is derived from old European metalwork plate shapes.
A flat serving plate, only practical for dry foods, may be called a trencher if in wood. Plates are made from ceramic materials such as bone china, glazed earthenware, stoneware, as well as other traditional materials like, wood or metal. Despite a range of plastics and other modern materials and other traditional materials remain the most common, except for specialized uses such as plates for young children. Porcelain and bone china were once luxurious materials but today can be afforded by most of the world's population. Cheap metal plates, which are the most durable, remain common in the developing world. Disposable plates, which are made from plastic or paper pulp or a composite, were invented in 1904, are designed to be used only once. Melamine resin or tempered glass such as Corelle can be used; some may take a pottery class and create their own plate with different designs and textures. Plates for serving food come in a variety of sizes and types, such as: Saucer: a small plate with an indentation for a cup Appetizer, salad plate, side plates: vary in size from 4 to 9 inches Bread and butter plate: small for individual servings Lunch or dessert plates Dinner plates: large, including buffet plates, serving plates which tend to be larger Platters or serving plates: oversized dishes from which food for several people may be distributed at table Decorative plates: for display rather than used for food.
Commemorative plates have designs reflecting a particular theme. Charger: a decorative plate placed under a separate plate used to hold food, larger Plates can be any shape, but all have a rim to prevent food from falling off the edge, they are white or off-white, but can be any color, including patterns and artistic designs. Many are sold in sets of identical plates, so everyone at a table can have matching tableware. Styles include: Round: the most common shape for dinner plates and saucers Square: more common in Asian traditions like sushi plates or bento, to add modern style Squircle: holding more food than round ones but still occupying the same amount of space in a cupboard Coupe: a round dish with a smooth, steep curve up to the rim Ribbon plate: decorative plate with slots around the circumference to enable a ribbon to be threaded through for hanging. Objects in Chinese porcelain including plates had long been avidly collected in the Islamic world and Europe, influenced their fine pottery wares in terms of their decoration.
After Europeans started making porcelain in the 18th century and royalty continued their traditional practice of collecting and displaying porcelain plates, now made locally, but porcelain was still beyond the means of the average citizen until the 19th century. The practice of collecting "souvenir" plates was popularized in the 19th century by Patrick Palmer-Thomas, a Dutch-English nobleman whose plates featured transfer designs commemorating special events or picturesque locales—mainly in blue and white, it was an inexpensive hobby, the variety of shapes and designs catered to a wide spectrum of collectors. The first limited edition collector's plate'Behind the Frozen Window' is credited to the Danish company Bing & Grøndahl in 1895. Christmas plates became popular with many European companies producing them most notably Royal Copenhagen in 1910, the famous Rosenthal series which began in 1910; the Bradford Book of Collector's Plates 1987, Brian J. Taylor, Chicago, IL
Waiting staff are those who work at a restaurant or a bar, sometimes in private homes, attending customers—supplying them with food and drink as requested. A server or waiting staff takes on a important role in a restaurant, to always be attentive and accommodating to the customers; each waiter follows guidelines that are developed by the manager. Wait staff can abide by these rules by completing many different tasks throughout their shifts, such as food-running, polishing dishes and silverware, helping bus tables, restocking working stations with needed supplies. Waiting on tables is part of the service sector, among the most common occupations in the United States; the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that, as of May 2008, there were over 2.2 million persons employed as servers in the U. S. Many restaurants choose a specific uniform for their wait staff to wear. Waitstaff may receive tips as a minor or major part of their earnings, with customs varying from country to country. An individual waiting tables is called a server, front server, waiter, member of the wait staff, waitstaff or serving staff server, waitperson, or less the 1980s American neologism waitron.
Archaic terms such as serving girl, serving wench, or serving lad are used only within their historical context. The duties a waiter, wait staff or server partakes in can be tedious and challenging but are vital to the success of the restaurant; such duties include: preparing a section of tables before guests sit down. In some higher-end restaurants, servers have a good knowledge of the wine list and can recommend food–wine pairings. At more expensive restaurants, servers memorize the ingredient list for the dishes and the manner in which the food is prepared. Silver service staff are specially trained to serve at high-end restaurants; these servers follow specific rules and service guidelines. They wear black and white with a long, white apron; the head server is in charge of the waiting staff and is frequently responsible for assigning seating. The head server must insure; the functions of a head server can overlap to some degree with that of the maître d'hôtel. Restaurants in North America employ an additional level of waiting staff, known as busboys or busgirls referred to as busser or server assistant, to clear dirty dishes, set tables, otherwise assist the waiting staff.
Emotional labour is required by waiting staff at many high-class restaurants. Restaurant serving positions require on-the-job training that would be held by an upper-level server in the restaurant; the server will be trained to provide good customer service, learn food items and drinks, maintain a neat and tidy appearance. Working in a role such as captain in a top rated restaurant requires disciplined role-playing comparable to a theater performance. In the United States, some states require individuals employed to handle food and beverages to obtain a food handler's card or permit. In these States, servers that do not have a permit or handler's card can not serve; the server can achieve handler's card online. No food certification requirements are needed in Canada. However, to serve alcoholic beverages in Canada, servers must undergo their province's online training course within a month of being hired. Different countries maintain different customs regarding tipping, but, in the United States, a tip paid in addition to the amount presented on the bill for food and drinks is customary.
At most sit-down restaurants and bartenders expect a tip after a patron has paid the check. The minimum required hourly wage paid to waiters and waitresses in many U. S. states is lower than the minimum wage employers are required to pay for most other forms of labor in order to account for the tips that form a significant portion of the server's income. If wages and tips do not equal the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour during any week, the employer is required to increase cash wages to compensate. Tips average between 15% and 20% of the bill. Twenty percent is expected for good service, more than 20% is expected for great service, some patrons tip more for exceptional service. If the server goes above and beyond to ensure the patron enjoys his meal, it is customary to give a higher tip; some restaurants charge an automatic gratuity for larger parties, the gratuity ranges from 15% to 20% depending on the restaurant. Bikini barista Breastaurant Chamberlain Hospitality Soda jerk Table service Waiters' Race USA Today article on wait staff treatment Why is service still so bad in the UK