Andrea Jaeger is a former World No. 2 professional tennis player from the United States whose brief but successful tennis career ended prematurely due to major shoulder injuries. Jaeger reached the singles final of Wimbledon in 1983 and the French Open in 1982, she reached the singles semifinals of the Australian Open in 1982 and of the U. S. Open in 1980 and 1982, she won 10 singles titles. In mixed doubles, Jaeger won the French Open with Jimmy Arias in 1981. During her career, Jaeger won U. S. $1.4 million in prize money and millions more in endorsements. After retirement in 1987, she has prominently dedicated her life to public service and philanthropy. In 2006, she became "Sister Andrea" as a member of the Anglican Order of Preachers, she is a member of the Episcopal Church and based in Santa Rosa Beach, Florida, U. S. While a student at Stevenson High School in suburban Chicago, Jaeger was the top ranked player in the United States in the 18-and-under age group, she won 13 U. S. national junior titles, including the most prominent junior titles in tennis: the 1979 Orange Bowl and 1979 Boca Raton.
In 1980, she became the youngest player to be seeded at Wimbledon, a record, broken by Jennifer Capriati in 1990. After defeating former champion Virginia Wade, she became the youngest quarter-finalist in the history of the tournament. In the year, she became the youngest semifinalist in US Open history. In 1981, Jaeger won the U. S. Clay Court Championships, defeating Virginia Ruzici in the final. At the French Open in 1982, Jaeger defeated Chris Evert in a semifinal 6–3, 6–1 but lost the final to Martina Navratilova, she reached the semifinals of both the US Open and the Australian Open, losing both matches to Evert in straight sets. At Wimbledon in 1983, Jaeger defeated six-time Wimbledon singles champion Billie Jean King 6–1, 6–1 in a semifinal on Centre Court, King's last career singles match at that tournament and her most lopsided singles defeat at Wimbledon. Jaeger lost the final to Navratilova. In 2003, Jaeger said that the night before the final, she had a heated argument with her father over practicing and was locked out of her apartment by him.
Jaeger asked Navratilova to convince her father to let her back in. She stated. On July 4, 2008, Jaeger claimed in the British paper The Daily Mail that she threw the final against Navratilova. Jaeger competed in the tennis demonstration event at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. In 2006, Jaeger exchanged gifts with an Army Ranger serving in the Iraq War, he gave her his dog tags, she gave him her Olympic ring. Jaeger's career win-loss record against other top players was 3–17 against Evert, 4–11 against Navratilova, 2–8 against Tracy Austin, 6–8 against Hana Mandlíková, 2–4 against Pam Shriver. In an interview in 2003, Jaeger stated that she was never committed to being the top ranked player in the world and tanked matches to avoid the top spot; as she rose toward the top of the game, she started visiting hospitals during tournaments. She stated that she found it, in the words of a USA Today columnist, "difficult to reconcile the narrow-minded focus of a top tennis player with her desire to help others."Jaeger won eight of the nine singles matches she played for the U.
S. in Fed Cup. She won two of the three Wightman Cup singles matches she played for the U. S. A major shoulder injury at the age of 19 ended Jaeger's career prematurely in 1985. Seeing this career-ending injury as a door to a spiritual awakening, she went to college and obtained a degree in theology. Jaeger used her winnings from tennis to create the Silver Lining Foundation with her close friend and business partner Heidi Bookout in 1990. Located in Aspen, the organization transported groups of young cancer patients to Aspen for a week of support and activities, including horseback riding and whitewater rafting; the foundation provided money for reunions, family campouts, college scholarships, medical internships, other programs for children who could not travel. The organization had other powerful backers, both in the world of elsewhere; the first contributor was John McEnroe. Many high-profile celebrities were involved, including Andre Agassi, Pete Sampras, David Robinson. In 1996, Jaeger received the Samuel S. Beard Award for Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
Jaeger's autobiography, First Service, was published in 2004. In the book she wrote about her teenage years as a tennis player and her decision to focus on serving God. All proceeds from the book were donated to children's charities. Jaeger has since established reaching on average 4,000 kids annually, she has moved from Aspen to a much larger 220-acre property in Hesperus, where she will be able to expand her programs. On September 16, 2006, at the age of 41, Jaeger became an Anglican Dominican nun, she left the order in 2009. In April 2007, Jaeger and several former athletes, including Andre Agassi, Lance Armstrong, Tony Hawk, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, Muhammad Ali, appeared on the American morning television talk show Good Morning America to announce their formation of a new charity entitled "Athletes for Hope" with the goal of encouraging their fellow athletes to think philanthropically. Oprah Winfrey describes Jaeger. SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number played.
Performance timelines for all female tennis players who reached at least one Grand S
A hardcourt is a surface or floor on which a sport is played, most in reference to tennis courts. They are made of rigid materials such as asphalt or concrete, covered with acrylic material to seal the surface and mark the playing lines, while providing some cushioning. Hardwood surfaces were in use in indoor settings, similar to an indoor basketball court, but these surfaces are rare now. Tennis hard courts are made of synthetic/acrylic layers on top of a concrete or asphalt foundation and can vary in color; these courts tend to play medium-fast to fast because there is little energy absorption by the court, like in grass courts. The ball tends to bounce high and players are able to apply many types of spin during play. Flat balls are favored on hard courts because of the quick play style. Speed of rebound after tennis balls bounce on hard courts is determined by how much sand is in the synthetic/acrylic layer placed on top of the asphalt foundation. More sand will result in a slower bounce due to more friction.
Of the Grand Slam tournaments, the US Open and Australian Open use hard courts and it is the predominant surface type used on the professional tour. There are numerous hardcourt maintenance methods which are used to keep these facilities in top condition; some of these include brushing, pressure washing with a cleaning solution and applying chemical treatments to prevent the growth of moss and algae. Anti-slip paint is applied to hardcourts to give better playing qualities which enhance player safety and performance; some prominent brands of hardcourt surfaces used at professional tournaments include: DecoTurf GreenSet Laykold Plexicushion Rebound Ace SportMaster Sport Surfaces Clay court Carpet court DECONSTRUCTING THE HARD COURT. Greatest Hard Court Players in the History of Tennis, JA Allen, August 10, 2012. Tennis: Hard courts are hardest on the body - Nadal. Sliding On Tennis' Hard Courts Inspires Awe, Poses Risks. FedEx Performance Zone: 2017 Hard-Court Records. Concrete Jungle: WTA Insider Hard Court Power Rankings.
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Rosemary "Rosie" Casals is a former American professional tennis player. Rosemary Casals earned her reputation as a rebel in the tennis world when she began competing in the early 1960s. During a tennis career that spanned more than two decades, she won more than 90 tournaments, was a motivating force behind many of the changes that occurred in women's tennis during the 1960s and 1970s. Casals was born in 1948 in San Francisco, to poor parents who had immigrated to the United States from El Salvador. Less than a year after Casals was born, her parents decided they could not care for her and her older sister, Victoria. Casals's great-uncle and great-aunt and Maria Casals, took the young girls in and raised them as their own; when the children grew older, Manuel Casals took them to the public tennis courts of San Francisco and taught them how to play the game. He became the only coach Casals would have, but Nick Carter, former touring pro, father to Denise Carter-Triolo, once nationally ranked and made it to the fourth round at Wimbledon, gave her some lessons.
He was the teacher of many ranking junior players, including Jeoff Brown, national junior doubles champ, others at Arden Hills club, California, where Mark Spitz trained. Casals used a continental forehand like he did, with the power in it that all his students had, using the "racket back and hit" method. Casals attended San Francisco's George Washington High School. While still just a teenager, Casals began to rebel on the court, she hated the tradition of younger players competing only against each other on the junior circuit. Gutsy and determined right from the start, Casals wanted to work as hard as possible to better her game. For an added challenge, she entered tournaments to play against girls who were two or three years older. Junior tennis was the first of several obstacles Casals faced during her tennis career. At five-feet-two-inches tall, she was one of the shortest players on the court. Another disadvantage for her was class distinction. Traditionally, tennis was a sport practiced in expensive country clubs by the white upper class.
Casals's ethnic heritage and poor background set her apart from most of the other players. "The other kids had nice tennis clothes, nice rackets, nice white shoes, came in Cadillacs," Casals told a reporter for People. "I felt stigmatized because we were poor."Unfamiliarity with country club manners made Casals feel different from the other players. Traditionally, audiences applauded only politely during matches and players wore only white clothes on the court. Both of these practices seemed foolish to Casals, she believed in working hard to perfect her game and expected the crowd to show its appreciation for her extra efforts. In 1972 at the tradition-filled courts of Wimbledon, she was nearly excluded from competition for not wearing white. In her career, she became known for her brightly colored outfits, designed for her by Ted Tinling; the frustrations Casals endured due to her background affected her playing style. Despite her sweet-sounding nicknames, "Rosie" and "Rosebud," she was known as a determined player who used any shot available to her to score a point — one between her legs.
"I wanted to be someone," Casals was quoted as saying in Alida M. Thacher's Raising a Racket: Rosie Casals. "I knew I was good, winning tournaments — it's a kind of way of being accepted." By age 16 Casals was women's level player in northern California. At 17 she was ranked eleventh in the country and was earning standing ovations for her aggressive playing style. More experience on the national and international levels of play helped Casals improve her game. In 1966 she and Billie Jean King, her doubles partner, won the U. S. hard-court and indoor tournaments. That same year they reached the quarter-finals in the women's doubles at Wimbledon. In 1967 Casals and King took the doubles crown at Wimbledon and at the United States and South African championships; the two dominated women's doubles play for years, becoming one of the most successful duos in tennis history.. Casals was a successful individual player, ranking third among U. S. women during this period. Casals soon became. WTT involved tennis teams, each made up of two women and four men, from cities throughout the United States.
Matches doubles games. During her years with WTT, Casals played with the Detroit Loves in 1974, the Los Angeles Strings from 1975 through 1977, the Anaheim Oranges in 1978, the Oakland Breakers in 1982, before serving as the player-coach of the San Diego Friars in 1983, she played for the St. Louis Eagles in 1984, the Chicago Fyre in 1985, the Miami Beach Breakers in 1986, the Fresno Sun-Nets in 1988. Casals won 112 professional doubles tournaments, the second most in history behind Martina Navratilova, her last doubles championship was at the 1988 tournament in Oakland, where her partner was Navratilova. Casals doubles tournaments during her career. Despite her victories on the courts, Casals continued to fight tennis traditions on several fronts. Amateur tennis players had always been favored over professionals; because many amateur tennis players came from non-wealthy backgrounds, they were forced to accept under-the-table money in order to continue playing. This, in turn, made them professionals and prevented them from entering major tournaments that allowed only amateurs to play, such as Wimbledon.
Fighting against this discrimination, Casals worked for an arrangement that allowed both a
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women's doubles, 11 in mixed doubles, she won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. She represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup, she was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup. King has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice. In 1973, at age 29, she won the "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match against the 55-year-old Bobby Riggs, she was the founder of the Women's Tennis Association and the Women's Sports Foundation. She was instrumental in persuading cigarette brand Virginia Slims to sponsor women's tennis in the 1970s and went on to serve on the board of their parent company Philip Morris in the 2000s. Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest tennis players of all time, King was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987.
The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on her in 2010. In 1972, she was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975, she has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1990, in 2006, the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. In 2018, she won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award. Billie Jean Moffitt was born in Long Beach, into a conservative Methodist family, the daughter of Betty, a housewife, Bill Moffitt, a firefighter, her family was athletic. Her younger brother, Randy Moffitt, became a Major League Baseball pitcher, pitching for 12 years in the major leagues for the San Francisco Giants, Houston Astros, Toronto Blue Jays, she excelled at baseball and softball as a child, playing shortstop at 10 years old on a team with girls 4–5 years older than her.
The team went on to win the Long Beach softball championship. She switched from softball to tennis at age 11, because her parents suggested she should find a more ladylike sport, she saved her own money – $8 – to buy her first racket. She learned tennis on the many free public courts in Long Beach, taking advantage of the free lessons tennis professional Clyde Walker offered at those courts. One of the city's tennis facilities has subsequently been named the Billie Jean Moffitt King Tennis Center; as a kid playing in her first tennis tournaments, she was hindered by her aggressive playing style. Bob Martin, sportswriter for the Long Beach, Press-Telegram wrote about her success in a weekly tennis column, she attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School. After graduating, she attended Los Angeles, she did not graduate. While attending Cal State, she met Larry King in a library; the pair became engaged while still in school when Billie Jean was 20 and Larry 19 years old and married on September 17, 1965 in Long Beach.
King's triumph at the French Open in 1972 made her only the fifth woman in tennis history to win the singles titles at all four Grand Slam events, a "career Grand Slam." She won a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles. In women's doubles, only the Australian Open eluded her. King won a record 20 career titles at Wimbledon – six in singles, 10 in women's doubles, four in mixed doubles. King played 51 Grand Slam singles events from 1959 through 1983, reaching at least the semifinals in 27 and at least the quarterfinals in 40 of her attempts. King was the runner-up in six Grand Slam singles events. An indicator of her mental toughness in Grand Slam singles tournaments was her 11–2 career record in deuce third sets, i.e. third sets that were tied 5–5 before being resolved. King won 129 singles titles, 78 of which were WTA titles, her career prize money totaled US$1,966,487. In Federation Cup finals, she was on the winning United States team seven times, in 1963, 1966, 1967, 1976 through 1979, her career win–loss record was 52–4.
She doubles. In Wightman Cup competition, her career win -- loss record was 22 -- 4; the United States won the cup ten of the 11 years. In singles, King was 6–1 against Ann Haydon-Jones, 4–0 against Virginia Wade, 1–1 against Christine Truman Janes; as King began competing in 1959, she began working with new coaches including Frank Brennan and Alice Marble, who had won 18 Grand Slam titles as a player herself. She made her Grand Slam debut at the 1959 U. S. Championships at age 15, she lost in the first round. She began playing at local and international tennis championships. Sports Illustrated claimed her as "one of the most promising youngsters on the West Coast." She won her first tournament the next year in Philadelphia at the 1960 Philadelphia and District Grass Court Championships. At her second attempt at the U. S. Championships, King made it to the third round. In 1960, she reached the final of the National Girl's 18 and Under Championships, losing to Karen Hantze Susmen, her national tennis ranking improved from number 19 in 1959 to number 4 1960.
Despite the success, Marble terminated her professional relationship with King because for reasons stemming from King's ambi
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
San Jose State University
San José State University is a public comprehensive university located in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley. SJSU is the oldest public university on the West Coast, as well as the founding campus of the California State University system. Located in downtown San Jose, the SJSU main campus is situated on 64 acres, or 19 square blocks. SJSU offers 145 bachelor's and master's degrees with 108 concentrations and five credential programs with 19 concentrations; the university offers two joint doctoral degree programs and one independent doctoral program as of 2018. SJSU is accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. SJSU's total enrollment was 32,828 in fall 2018, including over 5,500 graduate and credential students; as of fall 2018, graduate student enrollment at SJSU was the highest of any campus in the CSU system. SJSU's student population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the nation, with large Asian and Hispanic enrollments, as well as the highest foreign student enrollment of all master's institutions in the United States.
SJSU is listed as one of the leading suppliers of undergraduate and graduate alumni to Silicon Valley technology firms, philanthropic support of SJSU is among the highest in the CSU system. SJSU sports teams are known as the Spartans, compete in the NCAA Division I FBS Mountain West Conference. What is now San José State University was established in 1857 as the Minns Evening Normal School in San Francisco, founded by George W. Minns. In 1862, by act of the California legislature, Minns Evening Normal School became the California State Normal School and graduated 54 women from a three-year program; the school moved to San Jose in 1871, was given Washington Square Park at Fourth and San Carlos Streets, where the campus remains to this day. In 1881, a large bell was forged to commemorate the school; the bell was inscribed with the words "California State Normal School, A. D. 1881," and would sound on special occasions until 1946. The original bell appears on the SJSU campus to this day, is still associated with various student traditions and rituals.
In August 1882, a southern branch campus of the California State Normal School opened in Los Angeles, which became the University of California, Los Angeles. The southern branch campus remained under administrative control of the San Jose campus until 1887. In 1921, the California State Normal School changed its name to the State Teachers College at San Jose. In 1935, the State Teachers Colleges became the California State Colleges, the school's name was changed again, this time to San Jose State College. In 1972, upon meeting criteria established by the board of trustees and the Coordinating Council for Higher Education, SJSC was granted university status, the name was changed to California State University, San Jose. In 1974, the California legislature voted to change the school's name to San José State University. In 1930, the Justice Studies Department was founded as a two-year police science degree program, it holds the distinction of offering the first policing degree in the United States.
A stone monument and plaque are displayed close to the site of the original police school near Tower Hall. In 1942, the old gym was used to register and collect Japanese Americans before sending them to internment camps. Coincidentally, Uchida's parents and siblings were among those processed in the building. In 1963, in an effort to save Tower Hall from demolition, SJSU students and alumni organized testimonials before the State College Board of Trustees, sent telegrams, provided signed petitions; as a result of those efforts, the tower, a prime campus landmark and SJSU icon, was refurbished and reopened in 1966. The tower was again renovated and restored in 2007. Tower Hall is registered with the California Office of Historic Preservation. During the 1960s and early 1970s, San Jose State College witnessed a rise in political activism and civic awareness among its student body, including major student protests against the Vietnam War. One of the largest campus protests took place in 1967 when Dow Chemical Company — a major manufacturer of napalm used in the war — came to campus to conduct job recruiting.
An estimated 3,000 students and bystanders surrounded the Seventh Street administration building, more than 200 students and teachers lay down on the ground in front of the recruiters. In 1972–73, the economics department experienced political turmoil as the administration conducted a purge of left-leaning professors. For several years thereafter, the economics department was under censor by the American Association of University Professors. In 1982 the English department began sponsoring the annual Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest. In 1999, San Jose State and the City of San Jose agreed to combine their main libraries to form a joint city-university library located on campus, the first known collaboration of this type in the United States; the combined library faced opposition, with critics stating the two libraries have different objectives and that the project would be too expensive. Despite opposition, the $177 million project proceeded, the new Martin Luther King Jr. Library opened on time and on budget in 2003.
The new library has won several national awards since its initial opening. During its 2006–07 fiscal year, SJSU received a record $50+ million in private gifts and $84 million in capital campaign contributions. In 2007, SJSU president Don Kassing launched SJSU's first-ever comprehensive capital fundraising campaign dubbed "Acceleration: the Campaign for San Jose State University." The original goal of the multi-year