Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Radiant Silvergun is a shoot'em up developed by Treasure. It was released in Japanese arcades in 1998 and subsequently ported to the Sega Saturn that year; the story follows a team of fighter pilots in the far future who are battling waves of enemies summoned by a mysterious crystal dug up from the Earth. The player hosts an arsenal of six different types of shots to choose from, a sword to destroy nearby targets; the stages are designed to present players with scenarios that can be approached differently with the various weapon types. Treasure was known for developing action and platform games for home consoles before Radiant Silvergun. Despite the company's concerns about the financial viability of arcade games and the shooter genre, they felt they had a good premise for a game and decided to pursue it. Radiant Silvergun was developed with Gonzo outsourced for animated cutscenes; the game was developed for the ST-V arcade board first and ported to the architecturally similar Sega Saturn. Towards the end of development, the team recruited professional gamers that held high scores in shooters to play test the game.
Radiant Silvergun was first released in Japanese arcades in May 1998. Treasure president Masato Maegawa went in person to arcades to gauge the reaction of players; the Saturn port was released two months in Japan. Despite its region exclusivity, Radiant Silvergun was imported by Western critics and received critical acclaim. Journalists agreed that the game revived the shoot'em up genre which had fallen by the wayside after the rise in popularity of arcade fighting games in the 1990s. In retrospect, it is considered Sega Saturn games of all time, it received a spiritual sequel in the form of Ikaruga, was ported to the Xbox 360 in 2011. Radiant Silvergun is a vertically scrolling shoot'em up; the player is given a wide arsenal from the start of the game featuring three primary weapons: a standard forward firing shot, weak but versatile homing projectiles, a spread gun which fires two powerful exploding lasers at a wide angle. Combining each of these shot types with another will result in one of three new types of weapons: a rear shooting standard shot, a close range missile targeting system, a longer range targeting system that electrocutes enemies.
The ship is equipped with a sword that can be swung around the ship damaging nearby enemies. The sword can be continuously held in front of the ship to inflict damage and absorb special bullets to power up for a special large sword attack; the stages are methodically and paced with crafted scenarios that can be approached differently with the varying weapons. The game's scoring system is based on enemy color. All enemies are one of three colors: blue, or yellow. Destroying three enemies of the same color in a row nets the player a scoring bonus. Killing another set of the same color increases the bonus while shooting another color will reset it. In addition to gaining a higher score, chaining attacks on the same color increases the effectiveness of the weapon used to destroy them; the weapons stay powered up for the remainder of the game. The player can obtain extra points by destroying bosses more methodically; each boss has different segments and appendages that can be destroyed before targeting their weak spot.
If all these segments are destroyed first, the player will earn a greater bonus. There are hidden dogs that when shot, will give the player bonus points and unlock more game options; the story of Radiant Silvergun is told non-linearly through animated videos and scripted dialogue between stages. In the year 2520, scientists on Earth have unearthed a giant crystal along with a robot bearing the same serial number as another robot called "Creator" on the Tetra spaceship orbiting around Earth. After the crystal begins summoning enemies to attack Earth, fighter pilots on Tetra board their Silvergun fighters and fly down through the atmosphere to save what they can of the planet; the Silvergun pilots fight through hordes of enemies until they reach the crystal which they destroy. The crystal explodes, killing all humans. 20 years the Creator uses DNA from the pilots of the Silverguns to create clones and start humanity anew, bringing the story into a loop. Since the company's inception, Treasure had been a developer of action and platform games for home consoles.
Sega had asked the company to develop an arcade game for them, but Treasure president Masato Maegawa was concerned the shrinking arcade business would be too risky from a business perspective and arcade goers would not appreciate the effort placed into their game. Despite this concern the team had wanted to develop a 2D arcade style shoot'em up for some time. Much of the staff were fans of the genre, having grown up during the genre's golden age, but entering their careers after fighting games started filling arcades. Director Hiroshi Iuchi was passionate about starting the project. Although the team was eager to develop the game, there were still concerns. Maegawa believed that the shoot'em up genre was dying, was risky from a sales perspective. Iuchi was concerned there would be no place for a 2D shooter in an arcade space, advancing more towards large and specialized 3D game machines. In the face of these concerns about commercial viability, the team felt they had a good concept and pushed forth.
Iuchi thought arcade developers of the era were not innovating enough and only settling for rehashes of old ideas. He thought shooting games at the time were most in the style of Toaplan-developed vertical shooters, but he remembered in the past when developers like Konami and Irem had distinct
Light Crusader is an action-adventure game developed by Treasure and published by Sega for their Sega Genesis console in 1995. It was ported to Microsoft Windows in 2010, it is similar in gameplay to Landstalker: The Treasures of King Nole, blending role-playing video game, action-adventure and platform video game elements in much the same way. The game is played from an isometric viewpoint. Players can execute simple sword slashes as well as using the four magic elements, move jump, push objects. Gameplay is a mix of action, puzzle solving, platforming for the most part, with the usual role-playing staples like towns, shops and spellcasting; the player controls Sir David as he travels through an assortment of dungeons, battling creatures such as'slime', solving puzzles to advance and saving those who were kidnapped. An evil wizard named, he decides to reawaken the evil demon Ramiah to get revenge. Sir David is offered to come over to Green Row after his journey, he was waiting to return. However, the king informs David.
The king tells him to search for the missing people. By the end of the game, David confronts both Ramiah. Roke tells David that he does not need the life of the missing people to revive Ramiah and that his own life should be enough. Upon Ramiah's defeat, Roke dies and the missing people come back. Mean Machines Sega praised the graphics and unique mixture of gameplay elements, they criticized that the game is too easy and dull, compared it unfavorably to Beyond Oasis for longevity, but nonetheless gave it a positive assessment, calling it "A superlative arcade adventure with great playability." The four reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly praised the graphics, but all but one of them gave the game an overall negative assessment, saying that the perspective hinders visibility, the combat is clunky, the lack of story makes the game less involving and creates difficulty figuring out where to go next, there is too much of an emphasis on puzzles. A reviewer for Next Generation said that the game design reflected Treasure's experience with action games, but that the non-action elements such as the puzzles and storyline are overly shallow, the isometric perspective creates control difficulties.
He concluded, "Light Crusader is still one of the more exciting and graphically pleasing Genesis titles that has come out but this is by no means a RPG." GamePro's The Unknown Gamer commented that the graphics and music are impressive in parts, but that the game is less challenging and complex than most RPGs, that the player character maneuvers poorly, "with nowhere near the range or fluidity of movement of Ali in Beyond Oasis." However, he concluded, "In the end, Light Crusader gets a passing grade because of some cool bosses and interesting puzzle challenges."
Silpheed is a video game developed by Game Arts and designed by Takeshi Miyaji. It made its debut on the Japanese PC-8801 in 1986, was ported to the Fujitsu FM-7 and MS-DOS formats soon after, it was remade for the Sega CD and has a sequel called Silpheed: The Lost Planet for the PlayStation 2. Silpheed is the name of the spacecraft. Like many shooter games, the story involves using the Silpheed as Earth's last effort to save itself from destruction by a powerful enemy invasion; the original 1986 PC-88 version used 3D polygonal graphics on top of a tilted third-person backdrop. The 1993 Sega CD version used pre-rendered computer animation as a full motion video background, a technique used by the Namco System 21 arcade game Galaxian 3 and the Sega CD version of Starblade; the original Silpheed game was created for the PC-8801, released on December 5, 1986. Another version for the FM-7 was released on March 3, 1988. In the same year, the game was brought to the United States for the first time by Sierra On-Line who ported the game to PCs and other platforms.
The storyline is that in the future a terrorist named Xacalite has stolen "planetary buster" missiles and a battleship named Gloire and the fleet is not close enough to Earth to get there before Xacalite destroys it, so the supercomputer Yggdrassil orders the experimental SA-08 Silpheed fighter to be used to destroy Gloire. In 1989, Dragon gave the PC/MS-DOS version of the game 5 out of 5 stars, concluding that "Silpheed is addictive colorful, requires hours of enjoyable practice to master." Computer Gaming World gave the same version a positive review, praising the original music for the game. The British gaming magazine ACE gave the game a score of 905 out of 1000. Compute! called Silpheed "classic arcade fun with a little more depth than you'll find in many action-oriented games", but criticized the simple sound effects. The Sega CD port of Silpheed places polygon ships over a pre-rendered video background; the game's story concerns a space war campaign when terrorists—led by a man named Xacalite—hack into the mother computer of Earth, granting them control over all the space weaponry of the solar system.
The Earth's only hope is a small fleet outside the computer's reach, provided with a squadron of SA-77 Silpheed dogfighters. In the ending credits sequence of this version there are cinematic animations of scenes depicting the fighters flying through stages in the game. In 1989, Dragon gave the PC/MS-DOS version of the game 5 out of 5 stars, concluding that "Silpheed is addictive colorful, requires hours of enjoyable practice to master." Computer Gaming World gave the same version a positive review, praising the original music for the game. The British gaming magazine ACE gave the game a score of 905 out of 1000. Compute! called Silpheed "classic arcade fun with a little more depth than you'll find in many action-oriented games", but criticized the simple sound effects. The four reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly gave the Sega CD version scores of 9, 7, 7 and 7 out of 10, they said it is a "rather mundane" and "simple shooter" but the "game play is solid" and the backgrounds are "some of the most stunning visuals in a video game."
However, they criticized the unimpressive bosses, mediocre powerups and the lack of interaction with the backgrounds as the game's biggest problems. Mega placed the game at #5 in their Top Mega-CD Games of All Time, MegaTech magazine said the game was "undoubtedly one of the best games yet for the Mega-CD"; this version of the game was a bestseller in Japan. A sequel was released, Silpheed: The Lost Planet, for the PlayStation 2 in 2000, it was developed by Game Arts alongside Treasure. A space combat simulator game was released by Square Enix in 2006 for the Xbox 360 titled Project Sylpheed, it is not directly tied into the Silpheed storyline, but was instead billed as a spiritual successor. In 2012, an app for Android, called "Silpheed Alternative: Menace from beyond the stars" was made considered as a spiritual successor. Like Project Sylpheed, it is a three-dimensional game. Game Arts pages: PC88/FM-77, Mega CD Silpheed computer versions at MobyGames Silpheed Mega-CD version at MobyGames Silpheed at MusicBrainz Silpheed can be played for free in the browser at the Internet Archive
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Gun Beat is an unreleased action-racing video game under development by Treasure for the Sega NAOMI arcade platform. The game was revealed in February 1999 at an arcade trade show in Japan alongside several other games to promote Sega's new arcade board. Gun Beat was not playable; the demo reel was well received by critics who felt the game carried the same quirky characteristics and quality artwork of previous Treasure offerings. Development on the game was ceased indefinitely in May 2000 with little explanation. Treasure hatched the initial idea for Gun Beat; the team looked to Wacky Races for inspiration to develop a disjointed and slapstick action-racing game. The game features players racing against each other while having the ability to fire shots capable of slowing down rival players and destroying traps and enemies littered across the race course, it supports up to four players competing across locally connected cabinets. Gun Beat was billed as an "action-racing" game for arcades; the goal of the game is to complete a race while destroying obstacles on the course.
There are three modes: a single-player race, a score attack mode, a versus mode. In the versus mode, up to four players can compete across four arcade cabinets linked locally to each other; each player can choose one of four characters: Carmine, Squad-Man, Cunyanya. Carmine drives a hover bike, Mirabelle rides a witch's broom, Squad-Man is a biped robot that can fly and run, Cunyanya is a young boy riding atop a giant Siberian flying squirrel; each character can only be picked by one player, each has its own unique characteristics such as handling, shot power, etc.. Only three stage concepts were shown: a city, a snowy mountain, ancient ruins. Player can use various shot types to destroy enemies and traps obstructing the course, slow down rival players. There are power-ups on the courses. Other than the standard shot there is a Magical Shot and the Beat Gun; the Magical Shot fires many projectiles at a wide range, the Beat Gun is short range but powerful and can destroy enemies and obstacles unaffected by standard bullets.
There is a Magical Turbo gauge that when filled up, can boost the player through the course for five seconds, destroying any enemies or obstacles in their path. The gauge increases if the player decreases if they are hit themselves. Attacks become more powerful as a race goes on, so it is possible for players to overtake each other towards the end of the race; some of the enemies are larger and treated more like bosses. All enemy models are segmented into different appendages, with one segment being the "core". If an enemy's core is destroyed, the whole enemy is defeated, the player gets a bonus based on how many other segments were remaining. Shots can be chained into combos for bonus points as well. In addition, players earn bonuses based on their rank and remaining time at the end of race, how many obstacles they destroyed; each course has checkpoints. If time runs out, it is game over. Gun Beat was to be Treasure's second arcade game after Radiant Silvergun and their first for the Sega NAOMI arcade board.
The idea for the game came. Their idea could not be realized with current hardware, so the NAOMI board arrived at an opportune time. Sega's new arcade board allowed them to develop the race tracks as they envisioned them, with four player models along with enemies moving smoothly across a polygonal race track; the initial concept was to make a disjointed and slapstick racing game in the likeness of Wacky Races. They held a concept from the beginning to make it unlike previous Treasure games. Once they established the racing elements, they added action, which at first was only punching and kicking. A programmer thought of using shooting mechanics instead. Music was being composed by Norio Hanzawa, who had written music for some of Treasure's previous games; the characters and artwork were designed by staff artist Kiyotaka Ohashi. The team decided on four characters because any more would cause frame rate slowdown, any less was deemed too lonely; the characters were designed to appear from different works, wearing different clothes and using different vehicles.
The character Carmine was designed as an ideal Treasure hero, a stark contrast from the other more fantastical characters. Mirabelle was given a long skirt. Squad-Man's design was based on "Treasure Man", a character that appeared in Mega Drive Magazine comics. Gun Beat was revealed on 17 February 1999 at the AOU Amusement Expo at the Makuhari Messe convention center in Tokyo, it was not playable at the trade show. Sega was demonstrating it alongside several other games to promote their NAOMI arcade board including Crazy Taxi, Zombie Revenge, F355 Challenge among others; the game was only 10% complete at the time, no release date was revealed. Treasure did not confirm whether a Dreamcast port was in development or not, but with the track record of NAOMI games being ported to the Dreamcast, critics expected Gun Beat to follow in kind. Critics shared their thoughts based on the gameplay video shown at the 1999 AOU trade event. IGN wrote that it looked "brilliant", described it as "bizarre" and "very silly".
They compared the gameplay to Bomberman Fantasy Race, but believed Gun Beat would surpass it with better graphics, larger characters, faster speed, quirky qualities characteristic of Treasure. They compared the flashy explosion effects
Tiny Toon Adventures: Buster's Bad Dream
Tiny Toon Adventures: Buster's Bad Dream is the second Tiny Toon Adventures-related game released on the Nintendo Game Boy Advance. It was developed by Treasure Co.. Ltd and published by Swing! Entertainment Media AG. In 2005, a North American version of the game began popping up on eBay and at small retailers, published by Treasure-regular Conspiracy Entertainment as Tiny Toon Adventures: Scary Dreams. Aside from the title screens and legal information, it was unchanged from the European version of the game. According to information on the box, copies of the game appear to have been produced in 2002 and shelved between and the time it surfaced. Only a few copies of this version made it to the market. Another game, Astro Boy: Omega Factor, used some gameplay ideas from this game regarding the way enemies could be knocked into each other. Buster Bunny is having bad dreams and he aims to stop them; this game features a "partner system". The side-scrolling action features a unique take on allowing combos and more.
The partners include: Babs Bunny Plucky Duck Hamton J. Pig Dizzy Devil Shirley the Loon Fifi La Fume Li'l Sneezer Tiny Toon Adventures: Buster's Bad Dream at MobyGames