Hornsea is a small seaside resort, town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The settlement dates to at least the medieval period. The town was expanded in the Victorian era with the coming of the Hull, the civil parish encompasses Hornsea town, the natural lake, Hornsea Mere, as well as the lost or deserted villages of Hornsea Beck, Northorpe and Southorpe. Structures of note with the parish include the parish church of St Nicholas, Bettisons Folly, Hornsea Mere. In the First World War the Mere was briefly the site of RNAS Hornsea, during the Second World War the town and beach was heavily fortified against invasion. Hornsea Pottery was established in Hornsea c. 1950 and closed in 2000, modern Hornsea still functions as a coastal resort, and has large caravan sites to the north and south. The civil parish of Hornsea is located on the Holderness coast approximately 16 miles northeast of Hull. The parish is bounded by the parishes of Atwick to the north, Seaton to the west, Hatfield and Mappleton to the south. The civil parish contains the town of Hornsea, and a suburb of Hornsea Bridge or Hornsea Burton south of the former railway line. Excluding the town and its suburbs there are no other habitations of note in the parish, the remainder of the parish to the is low lying farm land divided into fields. Most of the parish lies at between 33 and 66 feet above sea level, with the highest points in the parish under 98 feet. The B1242 road runs north parallel with the coast through the parish. Additionally a foot and cycle path, the Hornsea Rail Trail, Hornsea Mere is a lake of around 1.24 by 0.62 miles which outflows towards the sea by the Stream Dike Drain – the drain also separates Hornsea from the Hornsea Bridge suburb. According to the 2011 UK census, Hornsea parish had a population of 8,432, Hornsea is in the Parliamentary constituency of Beverley and Holderness. The underlying geology is primarily Boulder Clay, high points in the area are formed of gravel. The topsoils are fine and loamy, whilst the rock beneath the clay is classed as Flamborough Chalk from the Upper Cretaceous period. Historically large stones in the boulder clay were removed for use in road construction – this activity had been prohibited at Hornsea by the board of trade by 1885, sands and clays were also used locally in building, though better quality materials were found elsewhere. Borings suggest the chalk probably lies at around 60 to 70 feet under the sand, gravel and clay beds at Hornsea, though possibly deeper
Escher Wyss & Cie.
Escher Wyss & Cie. also known as Escher Wyss AG, was a Swiss industrial company with a focus on engineering and turbine construction. The company was headquartered in the Zürich quarter of Escher Wyss, the company was founded, as Escher Wyss & Cie. in 1805 by Hans Caspar Escher and Salomon von Wyss. After 1860, under the direction of Hans Zoelly, the company concentrated on hydraulic systems, steam engines, between 1904 and 1929 steam turbines were produced for thermal power plants, ships and locomotives. The company also manufactured the hydraulic systems of hydroelectric plants, the company remained in existence until it was taken over in 1969 by Sulzer AG. Two Lake Lucerne paddle steamers Unterwalden and Gallia Propellers for the Hispano Aviación HA-1112 Barsanti-Matteucci engine
The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. The Swiss Alps comprise almost all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn, the other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history, the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. The Alps cover 65% of Switzerlands total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. The glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, the Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss Plateau and north of the national border. The limit between the Alps and the runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun. The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps, the Swiss Prealps are mainly made of limestone and they generally do not exceed 2,500 metres. The Alpine cantons are Valais, Bern, Graubünden, Uri, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Vaud, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg, Lucerne and Zug. The countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are, France, Italy, Austria, the Alps are usually divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass. The western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps, the Pennine, Bernese and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain respectively 38,9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres, Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is mainly drained by the Ticino. The rivers on the empty into the Mediterranean, North and Black Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are, Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock, between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The European watershed lies in fact only partially on the main chain, Switzerland possesses 6% of Europes fresh water, and is sometimes referred to as the water tower of Europe. Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs. Some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, the melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km² large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the area above 2000 m and 3000 m
Fort William, Highland
Fort William is the second largest settlement in the Highlands of Scotland with around 10,000 inhabitants – and the largest town, only the city of Inverness is larger. Fort William is a major tourist centre, with Glen Coe just to the south, Aonach Mòr to the east and Glenfinnan to the west and it is a centre for hillwalking and climbing due to its proximity to Ben Nevis and many other Munro mountains. It is also known for its downhill mountain bike track. It is the start/end of both the West Highland Way and the Great Glen Way, around 726 people can speak Gaelic. Questions over the towns English name are various, the post-Glorious Revolution fort was named Fort William after William of Orange, and the settlement that grew around it was called Maryburgh, after his wife. This settlement was later renamed Gordonsburgh, and then Duncansburgh before being renamed Fort William, given these origins, there have been various suggestions over the years to rename the town. These proposals have led to nothing, questions over the towns Gaelic name are also quite interesting. The Gaelic name for the town is An Gearasdan, this is an adaptation of the French term garnison, French loanwords that took root during the Norman ascendancy in the British Isles and the Auld Alliance are far more common in the Scots language than in Gaelic. Historically, this area of Lochaber was strongly Clan Cameron country, the nearby settlement of Inverlochy was the main settlement in the area before the building of the fort, and was also site of the Battle of Inverlochy. In the Jacobite rising known as the Forty-Five, Fort William was besieged for two weeks by the Jacobites, from 20 March to 3 April 1746. However, although the Jacobites had captured both of the forts in the chain of three Great Glen fortifications they failed to take Fort William. During the Second World War, Fort William was the home of HMS St Christopher which was a base for Royal Navy Coastal Forces. More on the history of the town and the region can be found in the West Highland Museum on the High Street, on 2 June 2006, a fire destroyed McTavishs Restaurant in Fort William High Street along with the two shops which were part of the building. The restaurant had been open since the 1970s and prior to that the building had been Frasers Cafe since the 1920s, development work began in 2012 on new hotel accommodation and street-level shops and these opened in 2014. A Waterfront development was proposed by the Council, but there was no overwhelming support for this in the town, the development would have included a hotel, some shops and some housing, but it was stated early in 2008 that it was unlikely to be completed before 2020. It was announced in April 2010 that the project had been abandoned and they join in the intertidal zone and briefly become one river before discharging to the sea. The town and its suburbs are surrounded by picturesque mountains and it is also on the shore of Loch Eil. It is close to Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles, Glen Nevis, when the railway opened to Fort William on 7 August 1894, the station was given prime position at the south end of the town
New Zealand Division
The New Zealand Division was an infantry division of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force raised for service in the First World War. It was commanded by Major General Andrew Hamilton Russell for the duration of the war, the division saw service on the Western Front in France and Belgium, fighting in major battles at the Somme, Messines and Broodseinde Ridge throughout 1916 and 1917. All were notable successes for the New Zealanders but the division suffered a defeat at Passchendaele on 12 October 1917. In early 1918, the division helped blunt the German Spring Offensive at the Somme, during the Hundred Days Offensive that followed, it was one of the lead divisions of the Third Army and advanced 100 kilometres in 75 days. The divisions last major engagement of the war was at Le Quesnoy in early November 1918, during the latter stages of the war, the New Zealand Division was one of the strongest divisions of the Dominion serving on the Western Front. After the armistice, it served on occupation duties in Germany before being disbanded in 1919, by October 1914, there were sufficient volunteers to form two brigades, the New Zealand Infantry Brigade and the New Zealand Mounted Brigade. In December 1915, the much depleted New Zealand and Australian Division was evacuated from Gallipoli, although there were concerns that the Turks might attack the canal, it was envisaged that the division would soon be called upon to serve elsewhere. Commanded by Major General Andrew Hamilton Russell, it was replenished with reinforcements from Australia and New Zealand and began a program of intensive training. Since the deployment of the body of the NZEF, the numbers of volunteers had steadily increased to the point that they could no longer be integrated into either of the two existing brigades. The New Zealand Division officially came into being at Moascar, Egypt, on 1 March 1916, Russell, a well regarded senior officer of the Territorial Force who had performed well during the Gallipoli Campaign, was appointed the commander of the new formation. The former New Zealand Infantry Brigade was to be the first of three brigades of the division. The 1st Brigade was commanded by Brigadier General Francis Earl Johnston, the 2nd Brigade was formed from reinforcements currently in Egypt, this was commanded by another Gallipoli veteran, Brigadier General William Garnett Braithwaite. The third infantry brigade, known as the Rifle Brigade, was commanded by Brigadier General Harry Fulton, there were also three brigades of field artillery and one of howitzers. In total, the division had some 15,000 men in its ranks, along with the Australian 1st and 2nd Divisions, the New Zealand Division was to form part of I ANZAC Corps, under the command of Godley. In early March, the New Zealand Division assumed responsibility for the section of the Suez Canal guarded by the 2nd Division, after three weeks of sentry duty, the New Zealand Division returned to its Moascar base before it too was shipped to France in early April. The Armentières front line was regarded by the Allies as a sector where new units could undergo familiarisation without being called upon for intensive offensive operations. Nevertheless, it was not an introduction to the front for the New Zealanders. On arriving in their sector, they found the arrangements to be poor and immediately set about improving the trenches