Temple is a small village in the parish of Blisland on Bodmin Moor in Cornwall, England, UK. The village is bypassed by the A30 road. Temple derives its name from the hospice founded by Knights Templars who built a refuge for pilgrims and travellers, en route to the Holy Land, in the 12th century. On the suppression of the Templars it passed into the hands of the Knights Hospitallers, who held it until the religious houses were suppressed by Henry VIII. In 1901 it was a curacy of Warleggan and in 1934, the parish of Temple was incorporated into Blisland parish. Temple Church is a Grade II* listed building built c.1120 on land owned by the Knights Templar. It became famous as a place; this came to an end in 1744. By the mid-19th century, it had become a ruin and a final service was held on 29 January 1882, in front of a ″large congregation″ led by the Reverend J Brown, it was rebuilt in the following year. The church is dedicated to St Catherine; the church contains several references to its links with the Knights Templar, including a cross pattée in the east window and a depiction of a mounted knight in the north window of the church tower.
Arthur Langdon recorded the existence of eight stone crosses in the parish, including two cross slabs, all in the churchyard. Several of these crosses were subsequently incorporated into a stone outbuilding on the south side of the church. Media related to Temple, Cornwall at Wikimedia Commons GENUKI entry for Temple The History of Temple Church Temple Church About the Church
Newquay is a town in the south west of England, in the United Kingdom. It is a civil parish, seaside resort, regional centre for aerospace industries, future spaceport and a fishing port on the North Atlantic coast of Cornwall 12 miles north of Truro and 20 miles west of Bodmin; the town is bounded to the south by the River Gannel and its associated salt marsh, to the north-east by the Porth Valley. The western edge of the town meets the Atlantic at Fistral Bay; the town has been expanding inland since the former fishing village of New Quay began to grow in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 2001, the census recorded a permanent population of 19,562, increasing to 20,342 at the 2011 census. Recent estimates suggest that the total for the wider Newquay area would rise to 27,862 by 2018 and 30,341 in 2019. There are some pre-historic burial mounds and an embankment on the area now known as The Barrowfields, 400 m from Trevelgue. There were once up to fifteen barrows. Excavations here have revealed charred cooking pots and a coarse pottery burial urn containing remains of a Bronze Age chieftain, buried here up to 3,500 years ago.
In 1987, evidence of a Bronze Age village was found at Trethellan Farm, a site that overlooks the River Gannel. The first signs of settlement in the Newquay region consist of a late Iron Age hill fort/industrial centre which exploited the nearby abundant resources and the superior natural defences provided by Trevelgue Head, it is claimed that occupation of the site was continuous from the 3rd century BC to the 5th or 6th century AD. The curve of the headland around what is now Newquay Harbour provided natural protection from bad weather and a small fishing village grew up in the area; when the village was first occupied is unknown but it is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, although a parcel of land was recorded at Treninnick, now part of suburban Newquay. Treninnick was part of the manor of Coswarth and consisted of one virgate with five sheep. Crantock is the only other recognisable name in the Newquay area recorded in Domesday. By the 15th century, a village referred to as “Keye” existed around the present harbour, near “Tewynblustri”.
"Towan" means dune or sand hill in Cornish. Some sources have suggested in the past that it meant boats, but this claim is not supported by modern authorities and is dismissed by Padel in his dictionary of Cornish place names; the name Towan Blystra, although quoted as the Cornish equivalent of Newquay, was the name of a separate settlement some 200m away from the harbour. There is no record of ‘Newquay’ as a name being rendered in Cornish; the anchorage was exposed to winds from the north east and in 1439 the local burgesses applied to Edmund Lacey, Bishop of Exeter for leave and funds raised through the mechanism of an indulgence, to build a "New quay" from which the town derives its name. The new quay itself did not appear until the early 17th century; the first national British census of 1801 recorded around 1,300 inhabitants in the settlement. The construction of the current harbour started in 1832.. A mansion called the Tower was built for the Molesworth family in 1835: it included a castellated tower and a private chapel as they were practising Roman Catholics and no church for that denomination existed in the area.
The Tower became the golf club house. After the arrival of passenger trains in 1876, the village around the port of Newquay started to grow more quickly. Several major hotels were built around the turn of the 19th century, including the Victoria in East Street, the Atlantic and the Headland, while many others were created around this period by converting former large houses, built by wealthy visitors as holiday homes along Narrowcliff; until the end of the 19th century, the port was famous for pilchards and there is a "Huer's Hut" above the harbour from which a huer would cry "Hevva!" to call out the fishing fleet when pilchard shoals were spotted. The town's present insignia includes four pilchards, while its motto Ro An Mor is Cornish for'from the sea'; the real pilchards now only survive in limited stocks, but a small fleet still catches the local edible crabs and lobsters. The arms of the former urban district council of Newquay were Or on a saltire Azure four herrings respectant Argent.
Three churches were built early in the twentieth century, including the present day parish church of St Michael the Archangel, consecrated in 1911. Growth of the town eastwards soon reached the area around the railway station: Station Road became Cliff Road around 1930, the houses beyond, along Narrowcliff, were converted into hotels. Narrowcliff was known for a while as Narrowcliff Promenade, Narrowcliff Road. On some pre-war maps it is spelt Narrowcliffe. At the time of the First World War the last buildings at the edge of the town were a little further along present-day Narrowcliff, including the Hotel Edgcumbe. Post-war development saw new houses and streets built in the Chester Road area, accompanied by ribbon development along the country lane which led to St Columb Minor, some 2 miles away; this thoroughfare was modernised and named Henver Road some time in the 1930s. Development continued in this direction until the Second World War, by which time much of Henver Road had houses on both sides, with considerable infilling taki
John Passmore Edwards
John Passmore Edwards M. P. was a British journalist, newspaper owner and philanthropist, a Member of Parliament. According to his autobiography Passmore Edwards was born in Blackwater, a small village between Redruth and Truro in Cornwall, England, he had three brothers, William and James. His father was a carpenter by trade, his mother's maiden name was Passmore, she had been born in Newton Abbot, Devon. He reported that in his youth there were few books available to him, they were theological in nature. At age twelve, the first book he managed to purchase for himself was Newton's Opticks, he declared that he "was just as wise at the end as I was at the beginning of reading it", he became the Manchester representative of the London Sentinel, a weekly newspaper opposed to the Corn Law. He was a Liberal Member of Parliament for Salisbury, he became the editor of a leading London newspaper The Echo, which he had bought in 1876. His publishing ventures had been failures for a time, but his 1862 purchase of Building News led to profitability.
He sold two thirds of his share in The Echo to Andrew Carnegie to follow a political and social agenda. However, they disagreed and he bought it back and restored his editor in 1886; the paper closed in 1905. He was a delegate to the Peace Congresses in Brussels and Frankfurt, he stood as an Independent candidate for Truro in the General Election of 1868. He did not win this seat but in 1880 he gained the parliamentary seat of Salisbury. However, he soon became a bit sceptical about the quality of professional politics and the inability of politicians to represent the interests of their constituents, he twice refused knighthood, his opposition to the Second Boer War made him somewhat unpopular. A lifelong champion of the working classes, Passmore Edwards is remembered as a generous benefactor. Over the space of 14 years, 70 major buildings were established as a direct result of his bequests; these included hospitals, 11 drinking fountains, 32 marble busts, 24 libraries, convalescence homes and art galleries and the Passmore Edwards Settlement in Tavistock Place.
He was a generous donor to the Workers' Educational Association. Many of Passmore Edwards' buildings were designed by the architect Maurice Bingham Adams, the editor of one of his journals, Building News. In 1898 Passmore Edwards donated to the Essex Local and Educational Museum of Natural History, named the Passmore Edwards Museum, he gave money to many hospitals including Tilbury Hospital next to Tilbury Dock Essex, where he built a ward, named after him. Wards in Wembley Cottage Hospital and Willesden General were named after him, he donated his earnings to a Fountain in Hoxton Square, London. This fountain is frequented by the local community and is considered a historical landmark in an area that finds itself becoming more and more detached from its history. Upon reading John Passmore Edward's plaque, the community believe he would smile on and embrace knowing that what he left behind was being used for the enjoyment of like minded individuals. Passmore Edwards was a leading Freemason, a founder in 1906 of the Standard Chapter of Improvement, which sought to simplify and unify the incoherent rituals of the Holy Royal Arch degree.
Many of the buildings that he paid for are still in use for their original purpose. A bust of Passmore Edwards by Sir George Frampton was rescued from the basement of Hoxton Library and unveiled in May 2007 at the Passmore Edwards Library in St. Ives, Cornwall; as well as London libraries such as at East Dulwich and Edmonton, he gave the public library buildings in Devon at Newton Abbot and in Cornwall at Bodmin, Falmouth, Liskeard, Redruth, St Ives and Truro. The Passmore Edwards Public Library in Shepherd's Bush, London, is now the home of the Bush Theatre, which moved there in October 2011; the Passmore Edwards Public Library in Borough Road, has been refubrished by London South Bank University and houses the University's apprenticeships and a coffee shop. The Epilepsy Society's main administrative build is Passmore Edwards House, a Grade II listed building. Baynes, Peter John Passmore Edwards 1823-1911: an account of his life and works, P. A. Baynes ISBN 0-9526231-0-2 Best, R. S; the life and good works of John Passmore Edwards, with pen and ink illustrations by C. M. Pellow and a list of Buildings, sponsored by Edwards, their architects and opening dates, with an appendix on the architect Silvanus Trevail, [, who designed nine of them.
Dyllansow Truran ISBN 0-907566-18-9 Burrage, E. H. J Passmore Edwards, philanthropist Edwards, J. Passmore A few footprints Evans, Dean, "Funding the Ladder: the Passmore Edwards legacy", 2011 ISBN 978-1-903427-66-8 Ewing, The Passmore Edwards Public Libraries in London: A Study in Patronage and the Development of a Typology, unpublished thesis MacDonald, J. J. Passmore Edwards Institutions, Strand Newspaper Company John Passmore Edwards 1823-1911 His life and Philanthropic works Whitechapel Ghosts from Jewish Quarterly. Passmore Edwards Institute in Hayle, Cornwall - Website - includes portrait. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Passmore Edwards search under "Passmore Edwards"
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Luxulyan spelt Luxullian or Luxulian, is a village and civil parish in mid Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village lies six miles south of Bodmin; the population of the parish was 1,371 in the 2001 census. This had risen to 1,381 at the 2011 census. Luxulyan parish lies in an area of china clay quarries on the St Austell granite batholith and numerous small granite domes are dotted around the parish. Luxulyan Quarry, a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest to the north of the village, exposes examples of this rock. Luxulyanite, a rare type of Cornish granite is found in the area and was used for the Duke of Wellington's sarcophagus in St Paul's Cathedral. Luxulyan is best known for Luxulyan Valley, a steep sided and thickly wooded stretch of the valley of the River Par that contains a major concentration of early 19th century industrial remains, including a combined Aqueduct and Viaduct; the valley was designated a World Heritage Site in 2006. One of the southern branches of the Saints' Way long-distance footpath runs through the parish.
Other villages in Luxulyan parish include the Churchtown, Treskilling, Higher Menadue, Bodwen. The Atlantic Coast Line from Par to Newquay runs up the Luxulyan Valley and there is a station at Luxulyan. A bus service connects the village with St Austell. St Sulien, or Sulian, was abbot here during the sixth century; the church in the village may have been dedicated to him but it is now dedicated to Saints Ciricius and Julitta. There are roads in Luxulyan named after all three saints. Sulien is a Welsh variant of the given name "Julian," but has been interpreted as being derived from the Welsh sul, meaning "sun" + geni, meaning "born," Sulien being the name of a Celtic solar deity. In the early 1980s Luxulyan was the site of a six-month occupation of farmland by much of the village population, with many groups and individuals from across Cornwall helping, to prevent test drilling by the Central Electricity Generating Board investigating the area as a potential nuclear power station site. Luxulyan has benefited from increased tourism.
Arthur Langdon recorded three Cornish crosses and one cross base in the parish. One cross is in the churchyard. Another cross is at the third at Trevellan; the cross base is at Trevellan Lane End. Andrew Langdon does not mention the cross at Methrose. Trevellan Cross was removed from the hedge and erected at Lockengate in 1903; the parish church Norman, was rebuilt in granite in the 15th century. It is dedicated to St Julitta; the tower is without buttresses or pinnacles and the south porch has battlements and a handsome tunnel-vault. It still has the Norman font and the east window is a monument to Silvanus Trevail, d. 1903. Near the church is a holy well; the Blackmoor Stannary, centred at nearby Hensbarrow Beacon, kept. Methrose is a farmhouse of the early 16th century; the service end is of two storeys and the parlour wing was attributed by Charles Henderson to Nicholas Kendall. The remains of an Iron-Age hillfort known as Prideaux Castle are located in the southern portion of the parish near the border with St Blazey.
In 1864 a dispute arose over silver and gold coins, from the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, King James and King Charles I, which were found in the parish churchyard. The Duchy of Cornwall had asserted its right to them as treasure trove, but the Solicitor to the Treasury questioned this, asking for copy documents under which "the claim of the Duchy was founded." The Duchy sent copies of the Charters of its creation and correspondence stating that, as the Coroner is the officer responsible for treasure trove, the Duke has the right of appointing the Coroner within Cornwall, the treasure trove belonged to the Duchy. It argued that the 3rd Duchy Charter "expressly prohibits any such Minister of the Crown acting within Cornwall." In response the Government Attorney and Solicitor General advised that the Treasury back down as could not hold an Inquest of Treasure within the Duchy of Cornwall and that they could not execute any writs because of the exclusion of all Ministers of the Crown from entering any lands of the Duchy.
Notable people from Luxulyan include William O'Bryan, the Methodist preacher and founder of the Bryanites or Bible Christians, Silvanus Trevail, the architect. Both were born in the parish. Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Luxulyan