Alexander Jackson Davis
Alexander Jackson Davis, or A. J. Davis, was an American architect, known for his association with the Gothic Revival style. Davis was born in New York City and studied at the American Academy of Fine Arts, the New-York Drawing Association, from the Antique casts of the National Academy of Design. Dropping out of school, he became a respectable lithographer and from 1826 he worked as a draftsman for Josiah R. Brady, a New York architect, an early exponent of the Gothic revival style: Brady's Gothic 1824 St. Luke's Episcopal Church is the oldest surviving structure in Rochester, New York. Davis made a first independent career as an architectural illustrator in the 1820s, but his friends painter John Trumbull, convinced him to turn his hand to designing buildings. Picturesque siting and contrasts remained essential to his work when he was building in a Classical style. In 1826, Davis went to work in the office of Ithiel Town and Martin E. Thompson, the most prestigious architectural firm of the Greek Revival.
From 1829, in partnership with Town, Davis formed the first recognizably modern architectural office and designed many late Classical buildings, including some of public prominence. In Washington, Davis designed the Executive Department offices and with Robert Mills the first Patent Office building, he designed the Custom House of New York City. Bridgeport City Hall, constructed in 1853 and 1854, is a government building Davis designed in the Classical style. A series of consultations over state capitols followed, none built as Davis planned: the Indiana State House, elicited calls for his advice and designs in building other state capitols in the 1830s: North Carolina's, the Illinois State Capitol attributed to the Springfield, Illinois architect John F. Rague, at work on the Iowa State Capitol at the same time, in 1839, the committee responsible for commissioning a design for the Ohio Statehouse asked his advice; the resulting capitol in Columbus, Ohio attributed to the Hudson River School painter Thomas Cole consulting with Davis and Ithiel Town, has a stark Greek Doric order colonnade across a recessed entrance, flanked by recessed window bays that continue the rhythm of the central portico, all under a unique drum capped by a low saucer dome.
With Town's partner James Dakin, he designed the noble colossal Corinthian order of the Greek Revival "Colonnade Row" on New York's Lafayette Street, the first apartments designed for the prosperous American middle class. He continued in partnership with Town until shortly before Town's death in 1844. In 1831, he was elected an associate member of the National Academy. From 1835, Davis began work on his own on Rural Residences, his only publication, the first pattern book for picturesque residences in a domesticated Gothic Revival taste, which could be executed in carpentry, containing the first of the Italianate style "Tuscan" villas, flat-roofed with wide overhanging eaves and picturesque corner towers; the Panic of 1837 cut short his plans for a series of like volumes, but Davis soon formed a partnership with Andrew Jackson Downing, illustrating his read books. Additions to Vesper Cliff were built in 1834; the 1840s and 1850s were Davis's two most fruitful decades as a designer of country houses.
His villa "Lyndhurst" at Tarrytown, New York, is his single most famous house. Many of his villas were built in the scenic Hudson River Valley— where his style informed the vernacular Hudson River Bracketed that gave Edith Wharton a title for a novel —but Davis sent plans and specifications to clients as far afield as Indiana, he designed Blandwood, the 1846 home of Governor John Motley Morehead that stands as America's earliest Italianate Tuscan Villa. Innovative interior features, including his designs for mantels and sideboards, were widely imitated in the trade. Other influential interior details include pocket shutters at windows, bay windows, mirrored surfaces to reflect natural light; the Greek Revival style William Walsh House was built at Albany, New York, Gothic Revival style Belmead was built near Powhatan, Virginia, in 1845. Two smaller but well known structures designed by Davis include one built for John Cox Stevens in 1845; this building, fondly called "Station 10", still can be found in Newport.
Davis built a similar pavilion for his colleague and fellow NYYC founder, John Clarkson Jay, on Jay's Long Island Sound waterfront property in Rye, New York, in 1849. Although this building was taken down in the 1950s, the original setting and garden where it was once located is part of a National Historic Landmark site and open to the public. Inspired in part by friend Andrew Jackson Downing, Davis constructed several Gothic Revival cottage-style homes in Central New York, including the 1852-completed Reuel E. Smith House, included in the National Register of Historic Places. In 1851, Davis completed Winyah Park, one of eighteen or more Italianate houses he designed in the 1850s. Winyah was built for Richard Lathers, who had studied architecture with Davis in New York in the 1830s, it was situated on Lathers's estate in the town of New Rochelle in New York. For this design Davis won the first architectural prize at the New York World's Fair of 1853–54
Richard Morris Hunt
Richard Morris Hunt was an American architect of the nineteenth century and an eminent figure in the history of American architecture. He helped sculpt the face of New York City with his designs for the 1902 entrance façade and Great Hall of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty, many Fifth Avenue mansions now lost to the wrecking ball. Hunt is renowned for his Biltmore Estate, America's largest private house, near Asheville, North Carolina, for his elaborate summer cottages in Newport, Rhode Island, which set a new standard of ostentation for the social elite and the newly-minted millionaires of the Gilded Age. Hunt was born at Vermont into the prominent Hunt family, his father, Jonathan Hunt, was a lawyer and U. S. congressman, whose own father, Jonathan Hunt, was lieutenant governor of Vermont. Hunt's mother, Jane Maria Leavitt, was the daughter of Thaddeus Leavitt, Jr. a merchant, a member of the influential Leavitt family of Suffield, Connecticut. Richard Morris Hunt was named for Lieut.
Richard Morris, an officer in the U. S. Navy, a son of Hunt's aunt, whose husband Lewis Richard Morris was a U. S. Congressman from Vermont and the nephew of Gouverneur Morris, author of large parts of the U. S. Constitution. Hunt was the brother of the Boston painter William Morris Hunt, the photographer and lawyer Leavitt Hunt. Following the death of his father at Washington, D. C. in 1832 at the age of 44, Hunt's mother moved her family to New Haven in 1837 to New York, in the spring of 1838 to Boston. There, Hunt enrolled in the Boston Latin School, while his brother William enrolled in Harvard College. However, in the summer of 1842, William left Harvard, transferring to a school in Stockbridge, while Richard was sent to school in Sandwich, Massachusetts. In October 1843, out of concern for William's health, Mrs. Hunt and her five children sailed from New York to Europe settling in Rome. There, Hunt studied art, but was encouraged by his mother and brother William to pursue architecture. In May 1844, Hunt enrolled in Mr. Briquet's boarding school in Geneva, the following year, while continuing to board with Mr. Briquet, arranged to study with the Geneva architect Samuel Darier.
In October 1846, Hunt entered the Paris atelier of the architect Hector Lefuel, while studying for the entrance examinations of the École des Beaux-Arts. According to the historian David McCullough, "Hunt was the first American to be admitted to the school of architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts – the finest school of architecture in the world – and the subsequent importance of his influence on the architecture of his own country can hardly be overstated."In 1853, Hunt's mentor Lefuel was placed in charge of the ambitious project of completing the Louvre, following the death of the project's architect Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti. Lefuel engaged Hunt to help supervise the work, to help design the Pavillon de la Bibliothèque, prominently situated opposite the Palais-Royal. Hunt would regale the sixteen-year-old future architect Louis Sullivan with stories of his work on the New Louvre in Lefuel's atelier libre. Hunt spent Christmas 1855 after which he returned to the United States. In March 1856, he accepted a position with the architect Thomas Ustick Walter helping Walter with the renovation and expansion of the U.
S. Capitol, the following year moved to New York to establish his own practice. Hunt's first substantial project was the Tenth Street Studio Building, where he rented a space, where in 1858 he founded the first American architectural school, beginning with a small group of students, including George B. Post, William Robert Ware, Henry Van Brunt and Frank Furness. Ware, influenced by Hunt, went on to found America's first two university programs in architecture: at MIT in 1866, at Columbia in 1881. Hunt's first New York project, a pair of houses on 37th Street for Thomas P. Rossiter and his father-in-law Dr. Eleazer Parmly, required Hunt to sue Parmly for non-payment of the supervisory portion of his services; the jury awarded Hunt a 2-1/2% commission, at the time the minimum fee charged by architects. According to the editors of Engineering Magazine, writing in 1896, the case, "helped to establish a uniform system of charges by percentage."It was in these early years that Hunt suffered his greatest professional setback, the rejection of his formal, classical proposal for the "Scholars' Gate", the entrance to New York's Central Park at 60th Street and Fifth Avenue.
According to Central Park historian Sarah Cedar Miller, the influential Central Park commissioner Andrew Haswell Green supported Hunt's design, but when the park commissioners adopted it, the park's designers, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux protested and resigned their positions with the Central Park project. Hunt's scheme was rejected, Olmsted and Vaux rejoined the project. Hunt's extroverted personality, a factor in his successful career, is well-documented. After meeting Hunt in 1869 the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in his journal of "one remarkable person new to me, Richard Hunt the architect, his conversation was spirited beyond any I remember, loaded with matter, expressed with the vigour and fury of a member of the Harvard boat or ball club relating the adventures of one of their matches. Hunt was said to be popular with his workmen, legend has it that during a final walk-through of the William K. Vanderbilt house on Fifth Avenue, Hunt discovered a mysterious tent-like object in one of the ballrooms.
Investigating, he found it covering a life-sized statue of h
Winslow Homer was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art. Self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial illustrator, he subsequently took up oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by the weight and density he exploited from the medium. He worked extensively in watercolor, creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre chronicling his working vacations. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1836, Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer, both from long lines of New Englanders, his mother was Homer's first teacher. She and her son had a close relationship throughout their lives. Homer took on many of her traits, including her quiet, strong-willed, sociable nature. Homer had a happy childhood, growing up in then-rural Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was an average student. Homer's father was a volatile, restless businessman, always looking to "make a killing".
When Homer was thirteen, Charles gave up the hardware store business to seek a fortune in the California gold rush. When that failed, Charles left his family and went to Europe to raise capital for other get-rich-quick schemes that didn't materialize. After Homer's high school graduation, his father saw a newspaper advertisement and arranged for an apprenticeship. Homer's apprenticeship at the age of 19 to J. H. Bufford, a Boston commercial lithographer, was a formative but "treadmill experience", he worked repetitively on other commercial work for two years. By 1857, his freelance career was underway after he turned down an offer to join the staff of Harper's Weekly. "From the time I took my nose off that lithographic stone", Homer stated, "I have had no master, never shall have any."Homer's career as an illustrator lasted nearly twenty years. He contributed illustrations of Boston life and rural New England life to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly at a time when the market for illustrations was growing and fads and fashions were changing quickly.
His early works commercial wood engravings of urban and country social scenes, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, lively figure groupings—qualities that remained important throughout his career. His quick success was due to this strong understanding of graphic design and to the adaptability of his designs to wood engraving. Before moving to New York in 1859, Homer lived in Massachusetts with his family, his uncle's Belmont mansion, the 1853 Homer House, was the inspiration for a number of his early illustrations and paintings, including several of his 1860s croquet pictures. The Homer House, owned by the Belmont Woman's Club, is open for public tours. In 1859, he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, the artistic and publishing capital of the United States; until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, studied with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of painting. In only about a year of self-training, Homer was producing excellent oil work.
His mother tried to raise family funds to send him to Europe for further study but instead Harper's sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War, where he sketched battle scenes and camp life, the quiet moments as well as the chaotic ones. His initial sketches were of the camp and army of the famous Union officer, Major General George B. McClellan, at the banks of the Potomac River in October 1861. Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they mark Homer's expanding skills from illustrator to painter. Like with his urban scenes, Homer illustrated women during wartime, showed the effects of the war on the home front; the war work was exhausting. Back at his studio, Homer re-focus his artistic vision, he set to work on a series of war-related paintings based on his sketches, among them Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, Sweet Home, Prisoners from the Front. He exhibited paintings of these subjects every year at the National Academy of Design from 1863 to 1866. Home, Sweet Home was shown at the National Academy to particular critical acclaim.
During this time, he continued to sell his illustrations to periodicals such as Our Young Folks and Frank Leslie's Chimney Corner. After the war, Homer turned his attention to scenes of childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times, both his own and the nation as a whole, his Crossing the Pasture in the collection of the Amon Carter Museum of American Art depicts two boys who idealize brotherhood with the hope of a united future after the war that pitted brother against brother. Homer was interested in postwar subject matter that conveyed the silent tension between two communities seeking to understand their future, his oil painting A Visit from the Old Mistress shows an encounter between a group of four freed slaves and their former mistress. The formal equivalence between the standing figures suggests the balance that the nation hoped to find in the difficult years of Reconstruction. Homer composed this painting from sketches. Near the beginning of his painting career, the 27-year-old Homer demonstrated a maturity
NYU Violets is the nickname of the sports teams and other competitive teams at New York University. The school colors are white. Although known as the Violets, the school mascot is a bobcat; the Violets compete as a member of NCAA Division III in the University Athletic Association conference. The university sponsors 23 varsity sports, as well as intramural sports. For more than a century, NYU athletes have worn violet and white colors in competition, the root of the nickname Violets. In the 1980s, after using a student dressed as a violet for a mascot, the school instead adopted the bobcat as its mascot, from the abbreviation being used by NYU's Bobst Library computerized catalog. NYU long offered a full athletic program, was in fact a pioneer in the area of intercollegiate sports; when NYU began playing college football in 1873 it was one of the first football teams established in the United States. Additionally, the current governing body for collegiate sports, the NCAA, was formed as the direct result of a meeting convened in New York City by NYU Chancellor Henry MacCracken in December 1905 to improve the safety of football.
However, in a process somewhat similar to what occurred with NYU's current conference rival Chicago Maroons, athletics were deemphasized at NYU over the passing decades. The school terminated its intercollegiate football program in 1953. In 1971 the basketball program was abruptly dropped. In 1981, at the urging of president John Brademas, NYU removed its remaining sports from NCAA Division I to Division III. Still, NYU maintains a significant history of athletic success. Intercollegiate sports at NYU had moments of importance beyond anything shown by a scoreboard. In the 1940 season, before a football game between NYU and Missouri in Columbia, Missouri, 2,000 NYU students protested against the "gentlemen's agreement" to exclude African-American athletes. At the time, it was the largest protest against this practice. Since beginning play in 1873, NYU football has had many football players earn recognition for their achievements, most notably 1928 All-American and future Hall-of-Famer Ken Strong.
The Violets played their games at Ohio Field, which still exists on NYU's former University Heights campus at Bronx Community College. The most successful football coach in NYU history was Chick Meehan, who coached the team to seven successful seasons from 1925 to 1931. In 1939, head coach Mal Stevens led NYU to a 5–1 start and the program's only appearance in the AP Poll, before fading to a 5–4 final record. Additionally, the model for the Heisman Trophy is based on 1930s NYU football star Ed Smith. Despite some shining moments, Time magazine characterized NYU's overall football history as "lean" in 1942, NYU permanently dropped the sport as a varsity program after the 1952 season. While a member of Division I, the Violets' men's basketball program achieved far greater success than the school's football team, its best NCAA tournament result was finishing as national runner-up to Oklahoma State in the 1945 NCAA tournament, with future NBA Hall of Famer Dolph Schayes playing for NYU. NYU returned to the Final Four in 1960, losing to Ohio State, whose roster featured legends Jerry Lucas and John Havlicek.
NYU was more successful in the years before the advent of the NIT tournament or the NCAA tournament. In 1920 NYU won the Amateur Athletic Union national championship tournament, led by the Helms Athletic Foundation Player of the Year, Howard Cann, the 19–1 NYU team of 1935 was named by the Helms Foundation and the Premo-Porretta Power Poll as the best team in the nation; the Violets' most recent post-season accomplishment as a Division I school was finishing as the runner-up to BYU in the 1966 National Invitation Tournament. NYU maintained a nationally ranked basketball team through the sixties with such stars as Barry Kramer and Satch Sanders going to the NBA; the Violets played most of their games in Madison Square Garden, most notably their duels with UCLA led by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, but games against less exalted local opponents like Fordham were played in the field house on the NYU campus in University Heights. NYU continues to compete at the Division I level in fencing, the program boasts 30 national championships.
The university's men's fencing team won the most NCAA Division I championships or co-championships prior to the NCAA's establishment of coed team competition in 1990. NYU men won 12 NCAA titles between 1947 and 1976, plus an additional eight titles prior to NCAA sponsorship. Gilbert Eisner, a future national champion, went undefeated in the three years of 1959, 1960, 1961, won the NCAA épée championship in 1960 while fencing for NYU. In 1960, future Olympian Eugene Glazer won the NCAA National Championship in foil. Singer Neil Diamond was a member of the 1960 NCAA men's championship team. Herb Cohen, a future Olympian, went undefeated in 1961 and won both the NCAA foil championship and the NCAA saber championship, in 1962 won his second straight NCAA Championship in foil, while being named national Fencer of the Year. In 1965, Howard Goodman was the NCAA saber champion. In 1967, future Olympian George Masin won the NCAA epee championship. Martin Lang, a future Olympic fencer, was 55-5 for the team, graduating in 1972.
Risto Hurme, a future Olympian, won the NCAA epee championship in 1973, 1974, 1975. In 1977, future Olympian Hans Wieselgren won the NCAA epee championship; the women's fencing team has been national champions ten times, winning the NIWFA's Mildred St
Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
The Elmer Holmes Bobst Library referred to as Bobst Library or Bobst, is the main library at New York University in Manhattan, New York City. The library is located at 70 Washington Square South between LaGuardia Place and the Schwartz pedestrian plaza, across from the southeast corner of Washington Square Park. Opened on September 12, 1973, Bobst Library is named after its benefactor, Elmer Holmes Bobst who gave US$11.5 million toward its completion. Bobst – a philanthropist who made his money in the pharmaceutical industry, a confidant of U. S. President Richard Nixon – was a long-time trustee at New York University; the library, built in 1972, is the university's largest library and one of the largest academic libraries in the U. S. Designed by Philip Johnson and Richard Foster, the 12-story, 425,000 square feet structure is the flagship of an eleven-library, 5.9 million-volume system. Before its construction, the library was the subject of community protests led by Greenwich Village activists Jane Jacobs, Ruth Wittenberg, Verna Small.
Those opposed to the library project claimed it was too big for its building site, that the tall building would cast a large shadow over neighboring Washington Square Park, obstructing sunlight from public spaces. The library houses more than 3.3 million volumes, 20,000 journals, over 3.5 million microforms. The library is visited by more than 6,500 users per day, circulates one million books annually. Gifts from Mamdouha S. Bobst and Kevin Brine made possible a significant renovation of Bobst Library's Mezzanine, First Floor and two Lower Levels, completed in 2005; the library provided text computer terminals for catalog search in the library until the terminals were replaced by PCs with Internet access in 2008. The library houses several distinct special collections departments, including the Fales Library, the Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Archives, the University Archives of NYU. On the north side, on floors, are large, double-height study rooms featuring floor-to-ceiling windows overlooking Washington Square Park.
In late 2003, the library was the site of two suicides. In separate incidents, students jumped from the open-air crosswalks inside the library and fell to the stereogram-patterned marble floor below. After the second suicide, the university installed Plexiglas barricades on each level and along the stairways to prevent further jumping. In 2009, a third student jumped to his death from the tenth floor scaling the plexiglas barricade; the library has since added floor-to-ceiling metal barriers to prevent future suicide attempts. The barrier is made of randomly perforated aluminum screens that evoke the zeros and ones of a digital waterfall. In 2003, the library was in the news when a homeless student took up permanent residence at the library because he could not afford student housing; this student received the nickname Bobst Boy and was profiled by the Washington Square News, the university's daily student newspaper. Reaction amongst the student body was mixed; some students cited his case as an example of the university's inability to meet its students' financial need.
In 2016, several student organizations sent a list of demands to the NYU Board of Trustees. One of these demands called for a name-change due to Elmer Holmes Bobst's alleged history of antisemitism. New York University Libraries website Avery Fisher Center for Music and Media Fales Library and Special Collections The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives New York University Archives 175 Facts about NYU Bobst Library Podcasts
Campus of New York University
The urban campus of New York University is located in Manhattan, is around Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village, is in MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn. NYU is one of the top three largest landowners in New York City. Most of NYU's buildings on the main campus are scattered across a square area bounded by Houston Street to the south, Broadway to the east, 14th Street to the north, Sixth Avenue to the west. Most of NYU's main buildings, including the Silver Center, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, the Kimmel Center, surround Washington Square Park. Since the late 1970s, the central part of NYU is its Washington Square campus in the heart of Greenwich Village. Despite being public property, expanding the Fifth Avenue axis into Washington Square Park, the Washington Square Arch is the unofficial symbol of NYU; until 2008, NYU's commencement ceremony was held in Washington Square Park. However, due to space constraints, ceremonies are now held at the Yankee Stadium. Important facilities at Washington Square are the Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, designed by Philip Johnson and Richard Foster, who designed several other structures, such as Tisch Hall, Meyer Hall, the Hagop Kevorkian Center.
When designing these buildings Johnson and Foster set up a master plan for a complete redesign of the NYU Washington Square campus. However, it was never implemented. Other historic buildings include the Silver Center. Just a block south of Washington Square is NYU's Washington Square Village, housing graduate students and junior and senior faculty residences in the Silver Towers, designed by I. M. Pei, where an enlargement of Picasso's sculpture Bust of Sylvette is displayed; the contractors of the Old University Building used prisoners from Sing Sing to cut the marble. This hiring was the catalyst for the famous Stonecutter's Riot; the old University Building was subject to several ghost stories. It was believed that the building was haunted by a young artist resident who had died in one of the building's turrets; the spirit was said to pace through the staircases. In 1880, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that "the structure has an evil repute with the servant girls of the neighborhood...
They have a notion that deep in subcellars lie corpses and other dreadful things." The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire on March 25, 1911, took place in the Brown Building of Science which today is part of the NYU campus. More than a hundred garment workers, most young women and girls, died or jumped to their deaths after a fire broke out whilst all exit doors were locked; the fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. In the 1990s, NYU became a "Two Square" university by building a second community around Union Square, about a 10-minute walk from Washington Square. NYU's Union Square community consists of the upperclassmen residence halls of Carlyle Court, Palladium Residence Hall, University Hall, Alumni Hall, Coral Towers, Thirteenth Street Hall, Third North Residence Hall. NYU operates several theaters and performance facilities that are used by the university's music conservatory and Tisch School of the Arts but external productions.
The largest performance accommodations at NYU are the Skirball Center for Performing Arts at 566 LaGuardia Place, just south of Washington Square South. The Skirball Center hosted important speeches on foreign policy by John Kerry and Al Gore as well as the recording of the season finale of The Apprentice 3. Well-known is NYU's Provincetown Playhouse on MacDougal Street, where Eugene O'Neill among many others launched his career and the Frederick Loewe Theatre. Catalyst to many careers in music was the famous nightclub The Bottom Line, found on the corner of West 4th and Mercer Streets. Despite the objections of many supporters, this club was evicted by NYU after being unable to meet for several months the increased rent payments; the Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, built between 1967 and 1972, is the largest library at NYU and one of the largest academic libraries in the U. S. Designed by Philip Johnson and Richard Foster, the 12-story, 425,000 square feet structure sits on the southern edge of Washington Square Park and is the flagship of an eight-library, 4.5 million volume system that provides students and faculty members with access to the world's scholarship and serves as a center for the University's intellectual life.
Bobst Library contains more than 3.3 million volumes, 20,000 journals, more than 3.5 million microforms. The library is visited by more than 6,500 users each day, circulates one million books annually. In addition to its regular collection it houses a number of special collections and archives, including the Archives of Irish America and the Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Archives; the floor of the library, when viewed from above, was designed to appear three-dimensional. In late 2003, Bobst Library was the site of two suicidal incidents. Two students jumped from the open-air crosswalks inside the library onto the marble floor below; the students di