The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
Periglaciation describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures. "Periglacial" suggests an environment located on the margin of past glaciers. However and thaw cycles influence landscapes outside areas of past glaciation. Therefore, periglacial environments are anywhere that freezing and thawing modify the landscape in a significant manner. Tundra is a common ecological community in periglacial areas. Periglaciation became a distinct subject within the study of geology after Walery Łoziński, a Polish geologist, introduced the term in 1909. Łoziński drew upon the early work of Johan Gunnar Andersson. According to Alfred Jahn, his introduction of his work at the 1910 International Geological Congress held in Stockholm caused significant discussion. In the field trip to Svalbard that followed the congress participants were able to observe the phenomena reported by Łoziński, directly.
Łoziński published his contribution to the congress in 1912. From 1950 to 1970, periglacial geomorphology developed chiefly as a subdiscipline of climatic geomorphology, current in Europe at the time; the journal Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, established in 1954 by Jan Dylik, was important for the consolidation of the discipline. Albeit the definition of what a periglacial zone is not clear-cut, a conservative estimate is that a quarter of Earth's land surface has periglacial conditions. Beyond this quarter an additional quarter or fifth or Earth's land surface had periglacial conditions at some time during the Pleistocene. In the northern hemisphere larger swathes of northern Asia and northern North America are periglaciated. In Europe parts of Fennoscandia, northern European Russia and Svalbard. In addition Alpine areas in the non-arctic northern hemisphere might be subject to periglaciation. A major outlier in the northern hemisphere is the Tibetan Plateau that stands out by its size and low-latitude location.
In the southern hemisphere parts of the Andes, the ice-free areas of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands are periglaciated. Since Carl Troll introduced the concept of periglacial climate in 1944 there have various attempts to classify the diversity of periglacial climates. Hugh M. French’s classification recognizes six climate types existing in the present: High Arctic climates Continental climates Alpine climates Climate of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau Climates of low annual temperature range Climate of dry unglaciated areas of Antarctica Latitude – temperatures tend to be higher towards the equator. Periglacial environments tend to be found in higher latitudes. Since there is more land at these latitudes in the north, most of this effect is seen in the northern hemisphere. However, in lower latitudes, the direct effect of the sun's radiation is greater so the freeze-thaw effect is seen but permafrost is much less widespread. Altitude – Air temperature drops by 1 °C for every 100 m rise above sea level.
This means that on mountain ranges, modern periglacial conditions are found nearer the Equator than they are lower down. Ocean Currents – Cold surface currents from polar regions, reduce mean average temperatures in places where they exert their effect so that ice caps and periglacial conditions will show nearer to the Equator as in Labrador for example. Conversely, warm surface currents from tropical seas increases mean temperatures; the cold conditions are found only in more northerly places. This is apparent in western North America, affected by the North Pacific current. In the same way but more markedly, the Gulf Stream affects Western Europe. Continentality – Away from the moderating influence of the ocean, seasonal temperature variation is more extreme and freeze-thaw goes deeper. In the centres of Canada and Siberia, the permafrost typical of periglaciation goes deeper and extends further towards the Equator. Solifluction associated with freeze-thaw extends into somewhat lower latitudes than on western coasts.
Periglaciation results in a variety of ground conditions but those involving irregular, mixed deposits created by ice wedges, gelifluction, frost creep and rockfalls. Periglacial environments trend towards stable geomorphologies. Coombe and head deposits – Coombe deposits are chalk deposits found below chalk escarpments in Southern England. Head deposits are more common below outcrops of granite on Dartmoor. Patterned Ground – Patterned ground occurs where stones form circles and stripes. Local topography affects. A process called. Solifluction lobes – Solifluction lobes are formed when waterlogged soil slips down a slope due to gravity forming U shaped lobes. Blockfields or Felsenmeer – Blockfields are areas covered by large angular blocks, traditionally believed to have been created by freeze-thaw action. A good example of a blockfield can be found in Wales. Blockfields are common in the unglaciated parts of the Appalachian Mountains in the northeastern United States, such as at the River of Rocks or Hickory Run Boulder Field, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania.
Other landforms include: Bratschen Palsa Pingo Rock glacier Thermokarst Many areas of periglaciation have low precipitation—otherwise, they would be glaciated—and low evapotranspiration. Which makes their average river discharge rates low. However, rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean adjacent to northern Canada and Siberia are prone to erosion resulting from earlier thawing of snow pack in the upper, more southerly reaches of their drainage basins, which leads to flooding downstream, owing to obstructing river ice in the still-
Silverpit crater is a buried sub-sea structure under the North Sea off the coast of the island of Great Britain. The 20 km crater-like form, named after the Silver Pit — a nearby sea-floor valley recognized by generations of fishermen — was discovered during the routine analysis of seismic data collected during exploration for gas in the Southern North Sea Sedimentary Basin, its meteor impact origin was first proposed and reported in 2002. If correct, it would be the first impact crater identified near Great Britain, its age was proposed to lie somewhere in a 29-million year interval between 74 – 45 million years. However, the interpretation is controversial and other authors have disputed its extraterrestrial origin. An alternative origin has been proposed in which the feature was created by withdrawal of rock support by salt mobility; the crater-like structure was discovered by petroleum geoscientists Simon Philip Allen. Analyzing seismic data for a region 130 km off the Humber estuary, Allen noticed an unusual set of concentric rings.
Thinking they resembled a meteor-strike but lacking experience in impact structures, he hung an image of them on the wall of his office, hoping someone else might be able to shed light on the mystery. Stewart, who had long predicted that a crater would be found on 3D seismic data, saw the image and suggested it might be an impact feature; the discovery of the crater and the impact hypothesis were reported in the journal Nature in 2002. Silverpit crater is named after the Silver Pit fishing grounds; the name is given by fishermen to a large elongated depression in the bed of the North Sea, thought to be an old river valley formed while the sea level was lower during the Ice Age. The structure lies below a layer of sediment up to 1,500 m thick, which forms the bed of the North Sea at a depth of about 40 m. Stewart and Allen's studies suggest that at the time of its formation, the area was under 50 to 300 m of water. Only three years before the announcement of the discovery of the Silverpit crater, it had been suggested that seismic data from the North Sea would have a good chance of containing evidence of an impact crater: given the rate of crater formation on the Earth and the size of the North Sea, the expected number of impact craters would be one.
The origin of the crater is being hotly debated by the Geoscience community with alternate theories of salt withdrawal and pull-apart basin proposed, raising doubts as to Silverpit's categorization as an impact structure. Other mechanisms for producing a crater were considered and rejected by Allen and Stewart when they discovered the crater. Volcanism was excluded because there were no magnetic anomalies in the crater, which would be expected if eruptions had occurred there. Withdrawal of salt deposits below the crater, known to be a mechanism for the formation of some craters, was ruled out because the Triassic and Permian layers of rock beneath the crater appeared to be undisturbed. Another strong indication that an impact had created the crater was the presence of a central peak - something that Stewart & Allen contend is difficult to form except through a meteorite impact. Analysis of regional 2D seismic lines and 3D seismic volumes by John Underhill, a geologist at the University of Edinburgh, led to the counterproposal that withdrawal of Upper Permian salt at depth was in fact a better explanation.
Underhill found that all layers of rock down to the Permian are synclinically folded, that sediments of Tertiary age at the crater onlap its sides and thicken into its axis, suggesting that the salt was moving while Tertiary sediments were being laid down. In 2007, Underhill continued to present evidence that he argues does not support the impact hypothesis. After analyzing seismic data over a wide region, he proposed that Silverpit was just one of many similar features related to the withdrawal of the Permian-age Zechstein salt; this result was presented at the April 2007 annual meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Underhill focused his research attention upon understanding why the salt moves where it does when it does and why the so-called crater took the form that it did. This led him to publish a peer-review article in the journal, Petroleum Geoscience in August 2009 in which he outlined the evidence for an intrusion-related salt withdrawal cause for the feature's formation.
In October 2009, an open debate of the notion that "the Silverpit Crater was formed by meteor impact" was held at the Geological Society of London. Simon Stewart gave the case for John Underhill presented the case against; the outcome was overwhelming support for Underhill's alternative genesis through melt-induced salt withdrawal. Silverpit crater is about 3 km wide at the top Cretaceous level. Unusually for a terrestrial crater, it is surrounded by a set of concentric rings, which extend to about 10 km radius from the centre; these rings give the crater a somewhat similar appearance to Valhalla crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto, other craters on Europa. Multi-ringed craters tend to be much larger than Silverpit, so, if the impact hypothesis is correct, the origin of Silverpit's rings is subject to debate. A complicating factor is that all known impact craters are on land, despite the fact that two-thirds of impacting objects will land in oceans and seas, so the results of impacts on water are much less well established than those of impacts on land.
Compare the Chesapeake Bay impact crater the most studied marine impact zone. One possibility is that after the impact excavated a bowl-shaped depression, soft material surrounding it slumped
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be as long as 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water and served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water, their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. They presently appear as dry valleys, seabed depressions, as areas filled with sediment. If they are filled with sediment, their lower layers are filled with glacial, glaciofluvial or glaciolacustrine sediment, supplemented by upper layers of temperate infill, they can be found in areas covered by glacial ice sheets including Africa, North America, Europe and offshore in the North Sea, the Atlantic and in waters near Antarctica. Tunnel valleys appear in the technical literature under several terms, including tunnel channels, subglacial valleys, snake coils and linear incisions.
Understanding tunnel valleys is important because: They serve as a marker for areas with the potential for effective oil exploration in Africa Their bedrock boundaries and glacial infill makes them effective aquifers in many regions Soil engineers must accommodate the variations which they exhibit when boring tunnels and establishing foundations They provide one of several signatures marking the edge of former glaciationsTunnel valleys play a useful role in identifying oil rich areas in Arabia and North Africa. The Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian materials there contain a 20 m thick, carbon-rich layer of black shale. 30% of the world's oil is found in these shale deposits. Although the origin of these deposits is still under study, it has been established that the shale overlies glacial and glacio-marine sediment deposited ~445 million years before the present by the Hirnantian glaciation; the shale has been linked to glacial meltwater nutrient enrichment of the shallow marine environment.
Hence the presence of tunnel valleys is an indicator of the presence of oil in these areas. Tunnel valleys represent a substantial fraction of all melt-water drainage from glaciers. Melt-water drainage influences the flow of glacial ice, important in understanding of the duration of glacial–interglacial periods and aids in identifying glacial cyclicity, a problem, important to palaeoenvironmental investigations. Tunnel valleys are eroded into bedrock and filled with glacial debris of varying sizes; this configuration makes them excellent at storing water. Hence they serve an important role as aquifers across much of Northern Europe and the United States. Examples include Oak Ridges Moraine Aquifer, Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, Mahomet Aquifer, the Saginaw Lobe Aquifer, the Corning Aquifer. Tunnel valleys have been observed as open valleys and as or buried valleys. If buried they may be or filled with glacial outwash or other debris; the valleys may be incised in bedrock, silt, or clay.
A part of a tunnel valley may go uphill: water can flow uphill if it is under pressure in an enclosed pipe: for example in Doggerland are some infilled tunnel valleys that flowed from north to south across the hollow of the Outer Silver Pit. They vary in channel width, they vary in depth/altitude along their course. They have steep sides which are asymmetric. Tunnel valleys include straight individual segments parallel to and independent of one another. Tunnel valley courses may be periodically interrupted; the below-grade sections run 5–30 km in length. The upstream portion – that section furthest into the glacier – consists of a branching system forming a network, similar to the anastomostic branching patterns of the upper reaches of a river, they exhibit the largest cross-sectional area in the center of the course and terminate over a short distance in elevated outwash fans at the ice-margin. Tunnel valleys are found to cross the regional gradient – as a result they may be crosscut by modern stream networks.
In one example, tributaries of the Kalamazoo River cut at nearly right angles across buried tunnel channel filled with ice and debris. They terminate at a recessional moraine. Tunnel valleys from successive glaciations may crosscut one another. Tunnel valleys run along parallel courses, they originate in and run through regions which include clear evidence of glacial erosion through abrasion and may exhibit striations and roche moutonnée. Depositional forms such as terminal moraines and outwash fans are found at their terminal end. In Michigan tunnel valley channels have been observed to diverge with an average spacing between the channels of 6 km and a standard deviation of 2.7 km. Tunnel valley channels start or stop abruptly
Spurn is a narrow sand tidal island located off the tip of the coast of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England that reaches into the North Sea and forms the north bank of the mouth of the Humber Estuary. Prior to a severe storm in February 2017, which damaged part of the sandbank, Spurn was a spit with a semi-permanent connection to the mainland. A storm in 2013 made the road down to the end of Spurn impassable to vehicles at high tide; the island is over 3 miles long half the width of the estuary at that point, as little as 50 yards wide in places. The southernmost tip is known as Spurn Head or Spurn Point and is the home to an RNLI lifeboat station and two disused lighthouses, it forms part of the civil parish of Easington. Spurn Head covers 450 acres of foreshore, it has been owned since 1960 by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust and is a designated national nature reserve, heritage coast and is part of the Humber Flats and Coast Special Protection Area. Spurn Head was known to classical authors, such as Ptolemy as Ocelum Promontorium.
In the Middle Ages, Spurn Head was home to the port of Ravenspurn, where Henry of Bolingbroke landed in 1399 on his return to dethrone Richard II. It was where Sir Martin De La See led the local resistance against Edward IV's landing on 14 March 1471, as he was returning from his six months' exile in the Netherlands. An earlier village, closer to the point of Spurn Head, was Ravenser Odd. Along with many other villages on the Holderness coast and Ravenser Odd were lost to the encroachments of the sea, as Spurn Head, due to erosion and deposition of its sand, migrated westward; the lifeboat station at Spurn Head was built in 1810. Owing to the remote location, houses for the lifeboat crew and their families were added a few years later; the station is now one of only a few in the UK which has full-time paid staff. By the 1870s a room in the high lighthouse was being used as a chapel for the small residential community on Spurn Head, serving'the keepers, coast-guardsmen and fishermen who live at the Point'.
During the First World War two coastal artillery 9.2-inch batteries were added at either end of Spurn Head, with 4-inch and 4.7-inch quick firing guns in between. The emplacements can be seen, the northern ones are interesting as coastal erosion has toppled them onto the beach, revealing the size of the concrete foundations well; as well as a road, the peninsula used to have a railway, parts of which can still be seen. Unusual'sail bogies' were used as well as more conventional light railway equipment. Following a tidal surge in December 2013 the roadway is unsafe, access to Spurn Point is on foot only, with a warning not to attempt this when exceptionally high tides are due. Plans to build a new visitor centre for the reserve were unveiled in September 2014 by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust. Planning consent for the initial plans was refused by East Riding of Yorkshire Council in July 2016 but revised plans were approved in January 2017; these plans face local opposition because of the perceived feeling of commercialisation of the reserve by YWT, with plans to build extensive car park facilities, no longer free.
The new visitor centre was opened on 20 March 2018. On or around 20 February 2017 the Spurn Head spit was damaged in a storm, destroying the tarmac road to Spurn Head, afterwards flooded across at each high tide. Since this storm, Spurn has now become a tidal island, as the narrowest part of the sandbank connection to the mainland is flooded with each high tide; the spit is made up from sand and shingle and boulder clay eroded from the Holderness coastline washed down the coastline from Flamborough Head. Material is washed down the coast by longshore drift and accumulates to form the long, narrow embankment in the sheltered waters inside the mouth of the Humber Estuary, it is maintained by plants Marram grass. Waves carry material along the peninsula to the tip; when the sea cuts across it permanently, everything beyond the breach is swept away, only to reform as a new spit pointing further south. This cycle of destruction and reconstruction occurs every 250 years. More Dr. John Pethick of Hull University put forward a different theory to explain the formation of Spurn Head.
He suggests that the spit head has been a permanent feature since the end of the last ice age, having developed on an underwater glacial moraine. As the ice sheets melted, sea level rose and longshore drift caused a spit to form between this and other islands along the moraine. Under normal circumstances, the sea washes over the neck of the spit taking sand from the seaward side and redepositing it on the landward side. Over time, the whole spit, length intact, slips back – with the spit-head remaining on its glacial foundation; this process has now been affected by the protection of the spit put in place during the Victorian era. This protection halted the wash-over process and resulted in the spit being more exposed due to the rest of the coast moving back 110 yards since the'protection' was constructed; the now crumbling defences will not be replaced and the spit will continue to move westwards at a rate of 2.2 yards per year, keeping pace with the coastal erosion further north. The second of the Six Studies in English Folk Song composed in 1926 by Ralph Vaughan Williams, the Andante sostenuto in E flat "
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate