Point Loma, San Diego
Point Loma is a seaside community within the city of San Diego, California. Geographically it is a hilly peninsula, bordered on the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, the east by the San Diego Bay and Old Town, the north by the San Diego River. Together with the Silver Strand / Coronado peninsula, the Point Loma peninsula defines San Diego Bay and separates it from the Pacific Ocean; the term "Point Loma" is used to describe both the peninsula. Point Loma has an estimated population of 47,981, according to the 2010 Census; the Peninsula Planning Area, which includes most of Point Loma, comprises 4,400 acres. Point Loma is important as the landing place of the first European expedition to come ashore in present-day California; the peninsula has been described as "where California began". Today, Point Loma houses two major military bases, a national cemetery, a national monument, a university, in addition to residential and commercial areas. Loma is the Spanish word for hill; the original name of the peninsula was La Punta de la Loma de San Diego, translated as Hill Point of San Diego.
This was anglicized to Point Loma. There were no permanent indigenous settlements on Point Loma because of a lack of fresh water. Kumeyaay people did visit Ocean Beach periodically to harvest mussels, clams and lobsters. Point Loma was discovered by Europeans on September 28, 1542 when Portuguese navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo departed from Mexico and led an expedition for the Spanish crown to explore the west coast of what is now the United States. Cabrillo described San Diego Bay as "a good enclosed port". Historians believe he docked his flagship on Point Loma's east shore at Ballast Point; this was the first landing by a European in present-day California, so that Point Loma has been described as "where California began". More than 200 years were to pass before a permanent European settlement was established in San Diego in 1769. Mission San Diego itself was in the San Diego River valley, but its port was a bayside beach in Point Loma called La Playa; the historic La Playa Trail, the oldest European trail on the West Coast, led from the Mission and Presidio to La Playa, where ships anchored and unloaded their cargoes via small boats.
Part of the route became present-day Rosecrans Street. In his book Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. describes how sailors in the 1830s camped on the beach at La Playa, accumulated cattle hides for export, hunted for wood and jackrabbits in the hills of Point Loma. The beach at La Playa continued to serve as San Diego's "port" until the establishment of New Town in the 1870s. Ballast Point got its name from the practice of ships discarding their ballast there on arriving in San Diego Bay and taking on ballast as they left for the open ocean. Fort Guijarros was constructed at Ballast Point in 1797. Ballast Point and La Playa are now on the grounds of Naval Base Point Loma; the longtime association of San Diego with the U. S. military began in Point Loma. The southern portion of the Point Loma peninsula was set aside for military purposes as early as 1852. Over the next several decades the Army set up a series of coastal artillery batteries and named the area Fort Rosecrans. Significant U.
S. Navy presence in San Diego began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma; the Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego was commissioned in 1921 and the San Diego Naval Training Center in 1923, both in Point Loma. During World War II the entire southern portion of the peninsula was closed to civilians and used for military purposes, including a battery of coast artillery. Following the war the area retained multiple Navy commands, including a submarine base and a Naval Electronics Laboratory. Other portions of Fort Rosecrans became Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery and Cabrillo National Monument. Following the death in 1891 of Helena Blavatsky its founder, Katherine Tingley moved the headquarters of the Theosophical Society to "Lomaland", a hilltop campus in Point Loma overlooking the ocean; the facility with its unusual architecture and more unusual lifestyles became an important source of music and culture for residents of San Diego between 1900 and 1920. Producing most of its own food, the Society experimented with planting trees and crops such as eucalyptus and avocado, giving that barren part of Point Loma its current wooded character.
The Lomaland site is now the campus of Point Loma Nazarene University. During the 1920s there was a dirt airstrip known as Dutch Flats in what is now the Midway neighborhood of Point Loma; that is where Charles Lindbergh first tested and flew his airplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, built in San Diego by the Ryan Aeronautical Company. A U. S. Post Office now located on the site contains several historic plaques commemorating Dutch Flats and Lindbergh. Due to the prevailing sea-breezes and long north-south ridge, Point Loma was a well-known gliding site during 1929-1935. William Hawley Bowlus the Superintendent of Construction on the Spirit of St. Louis and resident of Point Loma built the first American sailplane the Bowlus SP-1 and flew that aircraft along the west side of Point Loma to establish new American endurance records. Bowlus used other refined designs to soar for over 9 hours near the Cabrillo National Monument, one of Bowlus' students Jack C. Barstow soared over Point Loma for over 15 hours in 1930 to establish an unofficial world record for soaring endurance.
The best known landmark in Point Loma is the Old Point Loma lighthouse
Imperial Beach, California
Imperial Beach is a residential beach city in San Diego County, with a population of 26,324 at the 2010 census. The city is the West Coast of the United States, it is in the South Bay area of San Diego County, 14.1 miles south of downtown San Diego and 5 miles northwest of downtown Tijuana, Mexico. Imperial Beach is located at 32°34′42″N 117°7′2″W making it the most southwesterly city in the continental United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.5 square miles. 4.2 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. The city occupies the extreme southwest corner of the continental United States: bordered by Playas de Tijuana, Mexico to the south, Coronado and the San Diego Bay to the north, San Diego to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Imperial Beach is located in San Diego County, the fifth most-populous county in the United States and part of the San Diego Metropolitan Area, the 17th largest metropolitan area in the United States with over 3 million people.
It is part of the San Diego – Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest bi-national metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico with over 5 million people. Founded in June 1887, the city takes its name from Imperial County, California, a desert climate 100 miles east. Farmers and land owners from the Imperial Valley came to the area in the late 1880s seeking cooler weather during summer months. In March 1887, over 2,000 laborers descended upon nearby Coronado, California to construct the Hotel del Coronado, the largest resort in the world at the time. A large number of the workers stayed in Imperial Beach and some would make it their permanent homestead; the city would incorporate in 1956, operating its own Mayor-council government providing city fire department service and policing by the San Diego County Sheriff's Department. The city has a warm semi-arid climate, with summer temperatures in the upper 70s and winter temperatures in the 60s; because of the comfortable year round temperatures many homes in Imperial Beach are built without air conditioning.
Imperial Beach remains 10 degrees cooler than inland areas of San Diego County in the summer, 10 degrees warmer in the winter. The city is or sunny 323 days of the year, with the wettest months in winter; the Farmer's Almanac ranks the area within the Top 10 Best Weather Cities in America. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography operates a weather reporting station at the middle of the Imperial Beach Pier for sky condition, humidity, pressure and water temperature data. Imperial Beach employs a year-round lifeguard staff. Beach volleyball and body boarding are popular in Imperial Beach with activities concentrated north and south of the Imperial Beach Pier and the Boca Rio beach break, one of San Diego County's best surf spots. San Diego Magazine identifies the Boca Rio beach break as the second best surfing location in the county, second only to Black's Beach and the Scripps Canyon area near La Jolla; the area around Imperial Beach Pier known as Pier Plaza showcases plaques placed on surfboard benches that tell the story of how the city's big waves influenced surfing from 1937 to the 1950s.
Nearby Border Field State Park signifies the southernmost beach on the west coast of the United States and allows beachgoers in America to speak through the fence with beachgoers in Mexico, where the beach is called Playas de Tijuana. The city connects to nearby Coronado, California by way of the Silver Strand, a narrow, 7 mile long isthmus. Silver Strand State Beach, a popular beach for camping, bird watching, bicycling, is located in the middle of the isthmus and includes both bay and ocean beaches; the San Diego County summer tourist season brings many visitors to the city's beaches each year. For 31 years, Imperial Beach played home to the U. S. Open Sandcastle competition, the largest sand castle competition in the United States, drawing in 325,000 people; the city held the final sand castle competition in August 2011, bringing an end to the annual event and tradition. The city holds the beach front classic car show every summer and an annual dog-surfing contest; the Imperial Beach Farmer's Market, the only beachfront farmer's market in San Diego County, operates from Pier Plaza every Friday afternoon and offering local fruits and community art.
The South Bay Drive-in, the county's only ocean view drive-in theatre, is located just outside Imperial Beach off Coronado Avenue. Imperial Beach is home to Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, a National Estuarine Research Reserve, Border Field State Park; the estuary, located off Seacoast Drive and Imperial Beach Boulevard, is home to many endangered birds and wildlife. This estuary marks the place where the fresh water Tijuana River enters the salt water Pacific Ocean, it is the largest salt water marsh in Southern California. Imperial Beach has undergone a significant makeover in the last ten years to become more visitor-friendly and commercially viable. In 2004, the City of Imperial Beach began implementing a community redevelopment plan to improve the commercial corridor along Palm Avenue and Seacoast Drive. However, aside from a few smaller hotels, Imperial Beach remains a residential city with little hotel or motel accommodation for visitors. Future plans for the city allow for construction of additional hotels along the beach areas of Seacoast Drive.
On September, 13, 2010, after many years of planning, demolition offic
United States Navy SEALs
The United States Navy Sea and Land Teams abbreviated as Navy SEALs, are the U. S. Navy's a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command. Among the SEALs' main functions are conducting small-unit maritime military operations that originate from, return to, a river, swamp, delta, or coastline; the SEALs are trained to operate in all environments. As of 2017, all active SEALs are male and members of the U. S. Navy; the CIA's secretive and elite Special Operations Group recruits operators from SEAL Teams, with joint operations going back to the MACV-SOG during the Vietnam War. This cooperation still exists today, as evidenced by military operations in Afghanistan; the modern day U. S. Navy SEALs can trace their roots to World War II; the United States Navy recognized the need for the covert reconnaissance of landing beaches and coastal defenses. As a result, the Amphibious Scout and Raider School was established in 1942 at Florida; the Scouts and Raiders were formed in September of that year, just nine months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, from the Observer Group, a joint U.
S. Army-Marine-Navy unit. Recognizing the need for a beach reconnaissance force, a select group of Army and Navy personnel assembled at Amphibious Training Base Little Creek, Virginia on August 15, 1942 to begin Amphibious Scouts and Raiders training; the Scouts and Raiders mission was to identify and reconnoiter the objective beach, maintain a position on the designated beach prior to a landing, guide the assault waves to the landing beach. The first group included Phil H. Bucklew, the "Father of Naval Special Warfare," after whom the Naval Special Warfare Center building is named. Commissioned in October 1942, this group saw combat in November 1942 during Operation Torch on the North African Coast. Scouts and Raiders supported landings in Sicily, Anzio and southern France. A second group of Scouts and Raiders, code-named Special Service Unit No. 1, was established on 7 July 1943, as a combined operations force. The first mission, in September 1943, was at Finschhafen in Papua New Guinea. Operations were at Gasmata, Cape Gloucester, the east and south coasts of New Britain, all without any loss of personnel.
Conflicts arose over operational matters, all non-Navy personnel were reassigned. The unit, renamed 7th Amphibious Scouts, received a new mission, to go ashore with the assault boats, buoy channels, erect markers for the incoming craft, handle casualties, take offshore soundings, clear beach obstacles and maintain voice communications linking the troops ashore, incoming boats and nearby ships; the 7th Amphibious Scouts conducted operations in the Pacific for the duration of the conflict, participating in more than 40 landings. The third and final Scouts and Raiders organization operated in China. Scouts and Raiders were deployed to fight with the Sino-American Cooperative Organization, or SACO. To help bolster the work of SACO, Admiral Ernest J. King ordered that 120 officers and 900 men be trained for "Amphibious Raider" at the Scout and Raider school at Fort Pierce, Florida, they formed the core of what was envisioned as a "guerrilla amphibious organization of Americans and Chinese operating from coastal waters and rivers employing small steamboats and sampans."
While most Amphibious Raider forces remained at Camp Knox in Calcutta, three of the groups saw active service. They conducted a survey of the upper Yangtze River in the spring of 1945 and, disguised as coolies, conducted a detailed three-month survey of the Chinese coast from Shanghai to Kitchioh Wan, near Hong Kong. In September 1942, 17 Navy salvage personnel arrived at ATB Little Creek, Virginia for a week long course in demolitions, explosive cable cutting and commando raiding techniques. On November 10, 1942, the first combat demolition unit cut cable and net barriers across the Wadi Sebou River during Operation Torch in North Africa; this enabled USS Dallas to traverse the water and insert U. S. Rangers who captured the Port Lyautey airdrome. In early May 1943, a two-phase "Naval Demolition Project" was directed by the Chief of Naval Operations "to meet a present and urgent requirement"; the first phase began at Amphibious Training Base Solomons, Maryland with the establishment of Operational Naval Demolition Unit No. 1.
Six officers and eighteen enlisted men reported from the Seabee's NTC Camp Peary dynamiting and demolition school, for a four-week course. Those Seabees, lead by Lieutenant Fred Wise CEC, were sent to participate in the invasion of Sicily. At that time Lieutenant Commander Draper L. Kauffman, "The Father of Naval Combat Demolition," was selected to set up a school for Naval Demolitions and direct the entire Project; the first six classes graduated from "Area E" at NTC Camp Peary. LCDR Kauffman's needs out-grew "Area E" and on 6 June 1943 he established NCDU training at Fort Pierce. Most of Kauffman's volunteers enlisted seabees. Training commenced with a gruelling week designed to filter out under-performing candidates. By April 1944, a total of 34 NCDUs were deployed to England in preparation for Operation Overlord, the amphibious landing at Normandy. On 6 June 1944, under heavy five, the NCDUs at Omaha Beach managed to blow eight complete gaps and two partial gaps in the German defenses; the NCDUs suffered 31 killed and 60 wounded, a casualty rate of 52%.
Meanwhile, the NCDUs at Utah Beach met less intense enemy fire. They cleared 700 yards of beach another 900 yards by the afternoon. Casualties at Utah Beach were lighter with six killed and eleven wounded. During Oper
Coronado is a resort city located in San Diego County, across the San Diego Bay from downtown San Diego. It was founded in the 1880s, its population was 24,697 at the 2010 census, up from 24,100 at the 2000 census. Coronado lies on an island connected to the mainland by a tombolo called the Silver Strand. In 1602 the explorer Sebastian Vizcaino drew its first map. In 2012 Dr. Stephen Leatherman, Director of the Laboratory for Coastal Research, ranked Coronado Beach as the best beach in the United States. Coronado is Spanish for "crowned one," and thus it is nicknamed The Crown City. Three ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city, including USS Coronado. Coronado was incorporated as a town on December 11, 1890; the land was purchased by Elisha Spurr Babcock, along with Hampton L. Story, Jacob Gruendike, their intention was to create a resort community, in 1886, the Coronado Beach Company was organized. By 1888, they had built the Hotel del Coronado, the city became a major resort destination.
They built a schoolhouse, formed athletic and baseball clubs. In 1900, a tourist/vacation area just south of the Hotel del Coronado was established by John D. Spreckels and named Tent City. Spreckels became the Hotel's Owner. Over the years the tents gave way to cottages, the last of, torn down in late 1940 or early 1941. In the 1910s, Coronado had streetcars running on Orange Avenue; these streetcars became a fixture of the city until their retirement in 1939. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.7 square miles. Geographically, Coronado is a peninsula or a "tied island". Coronado is connected to the mainland by a strip of land called the Silver Strand; the Silver Strand and North Island, form San Diego Bay. Since recorded history, Coronado was separated from North Island by a shallow inlet of water called the Spanish Bight; the development of North Island by the United States Navy prior to and during World War II led to the filling of the bight by July 1944, combining the land areas into a single body.
The Navy still operates Naval Air Station North Island on Coronado. On the southern side of the town is Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, a training center for Navy SEALs and Special warfare combatant-craft crewmen. Both facilities are part of the larger Naval Base Coronado complex. Coronado has increased in size due to dredge material being dumped on its shoreline and through the natural accumulation of sand; the "Country Club" area on the northwest side of Coronado, the "Glorietta" area and golf course on the southeast side of Coronado, most of the Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, most of the Strand Naval Housing, most of the Coronado Cays were built on dirt dredged from San Diego Bay. On New Year's Day 1937, during the Great Depression, the gambling ship SS Monte Carlo, known for "drinks and dolls," was shipwrecked on the beach about a quarter mile south of the Hotel del Coronado. In 1969, the San Diego–Coronado Bridge was opened, allowing much faster transit between the cities than bay ferries or driving via State Route 75 along the Silver Strand.
The city seems unable to alleviate the congestion along Highways 75 and 284 as traffic flows to and from San Diego and North Island.. Traffic during rush hour and throughout the summer flows at a slow pace. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Coronado has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that the City of Coronado had a population of 24,697. The racial makeup of Coronado was 20,074 White, 1,678 African American, 201 Native American, 925 Asian, 101 Pacific Islander, 762 from other races, 956 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,354 persons; as of the 2000 census, there were 24,100 people, 7,734 households, 4,934 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,121.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,494 housing units at an average density of 1,229.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.40% White, 5.15% African American, 0.66% Native American, 3.72% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 3.14% from other races, 2.63% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.83% of the population. There were 7,734 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 16.0% under the age of 18, 20.2% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 139.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 149.1 males. 48.2 % of those age 25 and over have higher. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city is $91,748, the median income for a family is $119,205. Real estate in the city of Coronado is expensive.
According to a recent county-wide zip code chart published in The San Diego Union-Tribune in August 2006, the median cost of a single-family home within the city's zip code of 92118 was $1,605,000. In 2010, Forbes.com fou
A tombolo, from the Italian tombolo, derived from the Latin tumulus, meaning'mound', sometimes translated as ayre, is a deposition landform in which an island is attached to the mainland by a narrow piece of land such as a spit or bar. Once attached, the island is known as a tied island. A tombolo is a sandy isthmus. Several islands tied together by bars which rise above the water level are called a tombolo cluster. Two or more tombolos may form an enclosure that can fill with sediment; the shoreline moves toward the island due to accretion of sand in the lee of the island where wave energy and longshore drift are reduced and therefore deposition of sand occurs. True tombolos are formed by wave diffraction; as waves near an island, they are slowed by the shallow water surrounding it. These waves bend around the island to the opposite side as they approach; the wave pattern created by this water movement causes a convergence of longshore drift on the opposite side of the island. The beach sediments that are moving by lateral transport on the lee side of the island will accumulate there, conforming to the shape of the wave pattern.
In other words, the waves sweep sediment together from both sides. When enough sediment has built up, the beach shoreline, known as a spit, will connect with an island and form a tombolo. In the case of longshore drift from one single or a dominant direction, like at Chesil Beach or Spurn Head, the flow of material is along the coast in a movement, not determined by the now tied island, such as Portland, which it has reached. In this and similar cases, while the strip of beach material connected to the Island may be technically called a tombolo because it links the island to the land, it is better thought of in terms of its formation – as a spit or otherwise. Tombolos are more prone to natural fluctuations of profile and area as a result of tidal and weather events than a normal beach is; because of this susceptibility to weathering, tombolos are sometimes made more sturdy through the construction of roads or parking lots. The sediments that make up a tombolo are coarser towards the finer towards the surface.
It is easy to see this pattern when the waves are destructive and wash away finer grained material at the top, revealing coarser sands and cobbles as the base. Sea level rise may contribute to accretion, as material is pushed up with rising sea levels; this is the case with Chesil Beach, notable because the shingle ridge is parallel rather than at right angles to the coast. Tombolos demonstrate the sensitivity of shorelines. A small piece of land, such as an island, can change the way that waves move, leading to different deposition of sediments. Ayre Bar Causeway Cuspate Foreland Isthmus Tied island Shoal Geology. About.com's page on tombolos Tombolo in Sainte-Marie, Martinique further reading on Detached breakwaters fom Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee in Belgium further reading on coastal structures fom Prof. Leo van Rijn in Holland
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Mission Beach, San Diego
Mission Beach is a community built on a sandbar between the Pacific Ocean and Mission Bay. It is part of the city of California. Mission Beach spans nearly two miles of ocean front, it is bounded by the San Diego River estuary on the south, Mission Bay Park on the east, the community of Pacific Beach on the north. A boardwalk runs along bay sides of the community; the main artery through Mission Beach is Mission Boulevard. The community is divided into South Mission, a peninsula, North Mission. At the south end of the beach a jetty, with grass, parking and a walk, extends into the ocean. Many residential structures in Mission Beach were built in the 1930s and'40s as summer cottages and some date as early as the 1920s; the rare airplane bungalow on Manhattan Court was built in 1924. Because of problems to work out with developing on sand, Mission Beach developed than the neighboring communities of Ocean Beach to the south and Pacific Beach to the north; as a result of a new official subdivision in 1914, encouraged by land sales in those next-door communities and a new wooden bridge linking Mission Beach with Ocean Beach, John D. Spreckels offered small lots for sale.
As a result, Mission Beach is the most densely developed residential community in San Diego with a land use designation across the majority of its land area of 36 dwelling units per acre. It has the smallest lots in the city, ranging from 1,250 square feet to 2,400 square feet. Few have been consolidated to form larger lots. Many of the structures within the community have been redeveloped into two-story homes; the wooden bridge to Ocean Beach was closed to traffic in 1950 and demolished in 1951. Attractions near Mission Beach include SeaWorld in Mission Bay Park and the historic amusement park Belmont Park in South Mission Beach. Belmont Park was built as the Mission Beach Amusement Center by John D. Spreckels in 1925 to stimulate real estate sales and to promote his electric railway. Belmont Park now features the original wooden Giant Dipper Roller Coaster as well as newer rides such as the FlowRider at Wave House, Vertical Plunge, Krazy Kars, Tilt-a-Whirl, Liberty Carousel, Crazy Submarine, The Beach Blaster, The Chaos.
Designed by architect Frank Walter Stevenson, The Mission Beach Plunge in Belmont Park, a 60-foot -by-175-foot saltwater swimming pool, opened in May 1925 as the Natatorium. The Plunge building enclosing the pool was styled after the Spanish Renaissance architecture of San Diego's Balboa Park structures; the changing rooms appear in the Tom Cruise film Top Gun. Celebrities who once swam at the Plunge include Johnny Weissmuller; the roof of the building rolled open to make it both an outdoor pool. The Mission Beach Plunge and the Giant Dipper are the only remaining attractions left from Spreckels' original park; the Plunge has been closed since 2014 due to disrepair. Plans to demolish and rebuild the Plunge were approved in January 2016, with work to be completed in 2018. Nearby east of SeaWorld, is an unlined landfill. From 1957 to 1962 large amounts of industrial waste, including millions of gallons of chromic, nitric and hydrochloric acids, dichromate and carbon tetrachloride, were deposited into this landfill.
No remediation efforts have occurred. Mission Beach offers opportunities to participate in sunbathing, surfing, skateboarding, Frisbee tossing, other outdoor activities. A local skating club, "Skate This!," performs for free on weekends, executing trick skating and dancing on both rollerblades and traditional skates. It is a well known, popular location for engaging in sports, including beach volleyball and basketball, with courts available for both. There is a public recreation center on Santa Clara Place on the bay side of Mission Beach. At the south end of Belmont Park is the Wave House Athletic Club, a full-service beachside fitness center, complete with cardio equipment, fitness classes, aquatic classes in the Plunge, beach Bootcamps. Mission Beach includes Mariner's Point, the original site of the over-the-line softball-on-the-beach tournament. Thong bikinis are technically illegal on Mission Beach, but lifeguards and local police do not enforce the ban on such swimwear; the consumption of alcoholic beverages on the beach is illegal as of April 2008.
Nudity is not allowed. Many beachgoers are local college and university students, but both tourists and permanent residents of the beach and other areas are frequent visitors to the beach. Weekly and monthly rentals are available during the summer months. Mission Beach has many well-known bars. Most bars in the neighborhood are relaxed, beach-style gathering places; some of the more popular venues are Guava Beach, The Sandbar Sports Grill, The Beachcomber, The Pennant in South Mission, The Coaster Saloon and the Wave House. David C. Copley, former publisher of San Diego Union-Tribune newspaper Mike Gotch, former San Diego City Councilman and California state assemblyman Jeanne Lenhart, California Senior Olympian, amateur volleyball player, senior pageant winner Cathy Scott, true crime author List of beaches in San Diego County City of San Diego Beaches Department Mission Beach Volleyball Belmont Park Wave House