Harold and Maude
Harold and Maude is a 1971 American romantic black comedy drama directed by Hal Ashby and released by Paramount Pictures. It incorporates elements of dark existentialist drama; the plot revolves around the exploits of a young man named Harold Chasen, intrigued with death. Harold drifts away from the life that his detached mother prescribes for him, develops a strong friendship, a romantic relationship, with a 79-year-old woman named Maude who teaches Harold about living life to its fullest and that life is the most precious gift of all; the film was based on a screenplay written by Colin Higgins and published as a novel in 1971. Filming locations in the San Francisco Bay Area included both Holy Cross Cemetery and Golden Gate National Cemetery, the ruins of the Sutro Baths. Critically and commercially unsuccessful when released, the film developed a cult following and in 1983 began making a profit; the film is ranked number 45 on the American Film Institute's list of 100 Funniest Movies of all Time and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1997, for being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
The Criterion Collection special-edition Blu-ray and DVD were released June 12, 2012. Harold Chasen is a young man obsessed with death, he stages elaborate fake suicides, attends funerals, drives a hearse, all to the chagrin of his socialite mother. His mother sets up appointments with a psychoanalyst, but the analyst is befuddled by the case and fails to get Harold to talk about his real emotions. At another stranger's funeral service, Harold meets Maude, a 79-year-old woman who shares Harold's hobby of attending funerals, he is entranced by her quirky outlook on life, bright and excessively carefree in contrast with his morbidity. The pair form a bond and Maude shows Harold the pleasures of art and music, teaches him how to " the most of his time on earth". Meanwhile, Harold's mother is determined, against Harold's wishes. One by one, Harold frightens and horrifies each of his appointed dates, by appearing to commit gruesome acts such as self-immolation, self-mutilation and seppuku, she tries enlisting him in the military instead, but he deters his recruiting officer uncle by staging a scene in which Maude poses as a pacifist protester and Harold murders her out of militaristic fanaticism.
When Harold and Maude are talking at her home he tells her, without prompting, the motive for his fake suicides: When he was at boarding school, he accidentally caused an explosion in his chemistry lab, leading police to assume his death. Harold returned home just in time to witness his mother react to the news of his death with a ludicrously dramatized faint; as he reaches this part of the story, Harold bursts into tears and says, "I decided I enjoyed being dead." As they become closer, their friendship soon blossoms into a romance and Harold announces that he will marry Maude, resulting in disgusted outbursts from his family and priest. Maude's 80th birthday arrives, Harold throws a surprise party for her; as the couple dance, Maude tells Harold that she "couldn't imagine a lovelier farewell." Confused, he questions Maude as to her meaning and she reveals that she has taken an overdose of sleeping pills and will be dead by morning. She restates her firm belief. Harold dies. In the final sequence, Harold's car is seen going off a seaside cliff but after the crash, the final shot reveals Harold standing calmly atop the cliff, holding his banjo.
After gazing down at the wreckage, he dances away, picking out on his banjo Cat Stevens' song "If You Want to Sing Out, Sing Out". Ruth Gordon as Dame Marjorie "Maude" Chardin, a 79-year-old free spirit who wears her hair in braids. Maude believes in living each day to its fullest, "trying something new every day", her view of life is so joyful that, true to the film's motif, it crosses a blurred, shifting line into a carefree attitude toward death as well. We know little of her past, but learn that as a young woman she lived in pre-war Vienna, was once married and has a Nazi concentration camp tattoo on one arm. Bud Cort as Harold Parker Chasen, an 18-year-old man, obsessed with death, he attends funerals of strangers and stages elaborate fake suicides. Through meeting and falling in love with Maude, he discovers joy in living for the first time. Vivian Pickles as Mrs. Chasen, Harold's opulently wealthy mother, is controlling and incapable of affection. Hoping to force him into respectability, Mrs. Chasen replaces Harold's beloved hearse with a Jaguar and sets up several blind dates, or more "bride interviews" with young women.
Cyril Cusack as Glaucus, the sculptor who makes an ice statue of Maude and lends them his tools to transport a tree. Charles Tyner as General Victor Ball, Harold's uncle who lost an arm in the war and now pulls a hidden cord to make his wire prosthetic "salute". At Mrs. Chasen's request, he attempts to prepare Harold to join the armed forces; the effort is thwarted by a planned stunt. Eric Christmas as the Priest George Wood as Harold's Psychiatrist Ellen Geer as Sunshine Doré, an actress, Harold's third blind date, she mimics his suicide. Judy Engles as Candy Gulf, Harold's first blind date, whom he scares off by setting himself on fire. Shari Summers as Edith Phern, Harold's second blind date, whom he dissuades by pretending to cut off his hand. Tom Skerritt (credited a
Dead man's switch
A dead man's switch is a switch, designed to be activated if the human operator becomes incapacitated, such as through death, loss of consciousness, or being bodily removed from control. Applied to switches on a vehicle or machine, it has since come to be used to describe other intangible uses like in computer software; these switches are used as a form of fail-safe where they stop a machine with no operator from dangerous action or incapacitate a device as a result of accident, malfunction, or misuse. They are common in such applications in locomotives, aircraft refuelling, freight elevators, lawn mowers, personal watercraft, outboard motors, snowblowers, tread machines, amusement rides, many medical imaging devices. On some machines, these switches bring the machines back to a safe state, such as reducing the throttle to idle or applying brakes while leaving the machines still running and ready to resume normal operation once control is reestablished. Dead man's switches are not always used to prevent harm.
These switches can be used as a fail-deadly. A spring-operated switch can be used to complete a circuit when it is no longer held down; this means that a dead man's switch may be used to activate a harmful device, such as a bomb or IED. The user holds down a switch of some sort in their hand; the device will activate when the switch is released, so that if the user is knocked out or killed while holding the switch, the bomb will detonate. The Special Weapons Emergency Separation System is an application of this concept in the field of nuclear weapons. A more extreme version is Russia's Dead Hand program, which allows for automatic launch of nuclear missiles should a number of conditions be met if all Russian leadership were to be killed. A similar concept is the handwritten letters of last resort from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to the commanding officers of the four British ballistic missile submarines, they contain orders on what action to take if the British government is destroyed in a nuclear attack.
After a prime minister leaves office the letters are destroyed unopened. This concept has been employed with computer data, where sensitive information has been encrypted and released to the public, the "switch" is the release of the decryption key, as with WikiLeaks' "insurance files". Interest in dead-man's controls increased with the introduction of electric trams and electrified rapid transit trains; the first widespread use came with the introduction of the mass-produced Birney One-Man Safety Car, though dead-man equipment was rare on US streetcars until the successful PCC streetcar, which had a left-foot operated dead-man's pedal in conjunction with the right-foot operated brake and power pedals. This layout has continued to be used on some modern trams around the world. In conventional steam railroad trains, there was always a second person with the engineer, the fireman, who could always bring the train to a stop if necessary. For many decades this practice continued on electric and diesel locomotives though a single person could theoretically operate them.
With modern urban and suburban railway systems, the driver is alone in an enclosed cab. Automatic devices were beginning to be deployed on newer installations of the New York City Subway system in the early 20th century; the Malbone Street Wreck on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit system in 1918, though not caused by driver incapacitation, did spur the need for universal deployment of such devices to halt trains in the event of the operator's disability. According to a Manhattan borough historian, there have been at least three instances where the dead-man's switch was used – in 1927, 1940, 2010; the status and operation of both vigilance and dead-man's switch may be recorded on the train's event recorder. Many dead man's switches are mounted in the control handle of a vehicle or machine and engage if the operator loses their grip. Handle switches are still used on modern trains. Pneumatically or electrically linked dead-man's controls involve simple modifications of the controller handle, the device that regulates traction power.
If pressure is not maintained on the controller, the train's emergency brakes are applied. The controller handle is a horizontal bar, rotated to apply the required power for the train. Attached to the bottom of the handle is a rod that when pushed down contacts a solenoid or switch inside the control housing; the handle springs up if pressure is removed, releasing the rod's contact with the internal switch cutting power and applying the brakes. Though there are ways that this type of dead-man's control could conceivably fail, they have proven reliable. On some earlier equipment, pressure was not maintained on the entire controller, but on a large button protruding from the controller handle; this button had to be pressed continuously with the palm of the hand so that the button was flush with the top of the handle. Another method used with some lever-type controllers, which are rotated rather than pushed or pulled, requires that the handle on the lever be turned through 90 degrees and held in that position while the train is in operation.
Some dead-man's controls require the motorman to hold it in the mid-position rather than apply full pressure. In modern New York City Subway trains, for example, the dead man's switch is incorporated into the train's speed control. On the R142A car, the train operator must continually hold the lever in place in order for the trai
Ned Thomas Beatty is a retired American actor. He has appeared in more than 160 films and has been nominated for an Academy Award, two Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award; these nominations stemmed from his performances in films and television series, such as Network, Friendly Fire, Hear My Song, Toy Story 3. He has had great commercial success in roles such as the executive Bobby Trippe in Deliverance, Tennessee lawyer Delbert Reese in Nashville, investigator Martin Dardis in All the President's Men, undercover federal agent Bob Sweet in Silver Streak, the priest, Father Edwards in Exorcist II: The Heretic, Lex Luthor's bumbling henchman Otis in Superman and Superman II, as a millionaire's right-hand man in The Toy, Pavel Borisov in The Fourth Protocol, TV presenter Ernest Weller in Repossessed, Rudy Ruettiger's father in Rudy, attorney McNair in Just Cause, Dexter Wilkins in Life, the simple sheriff in Where the Red Fern Grows, the corrupt Senator Charles F. Meachum in Shooter, United States Congressman Doc Long in Charlie Wilson's War and in animated films as the voice of Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear in Toy Story 3 and Tortoise John in Rango.
Beatty was born in Kentucky, to Margaret and Charles William Beatty. He has Mary Margaret. In 1947, young Ned began singing in gospel and barbershop quartets in St. Matthews, at his local church, he received a scholarship to sing in the a cappella choir at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1956, he made his stage debut at age 19, appearing in Wilderness Road, an outdoor-historical pageant located in Berea, Kentucky. During his first ten years of theater, he worked at the Barter Theater in Abingdon, the State Theatre of Virginia. Returning to Kentucky, he worked in the Louisville area through the mid-1960s, at the Clarksville Little Theater and the newly founded Actors Theater of Louisville, his time at the latter included a run as Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman in 1966. In 1972, Beatty made his film debut as Bobby Trippe in Deliverance, starring Jon Voight and Burt Reynolds, set in northern Georgia. Beatty's character is forced to strip at gunpoint by two mountain men who humiliate and rape him, a scene so unprecedented and shocking that it is still referenced as a screen milestone.
In 1972, he appeared in The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean, a western with Paul Newman. In 1973, Beatty made The Thief Who Came to The Last American Hero and White Lightning; the latter film reunited Beatty with Burt Reynolds. He appeared in an episode of the TV series The Waltons that year, as well as the TV-movie The Marcus-Nelson Murders, the pilot for the series Kojak; the next year, 1974, he appeared in the television miniseries The Execution of Private Slovik and in the two-part episode of The Rockford Files, "Profit and Loss". In 1975, he made W. W. and the Dixie Dancekings and Nashville, as well as appearing as Colonel Hollister in the 1975 M*A*S*H episode, "Dear Peggy". He appeared in the NBC-TV movie Attack on Terror: The FBI vs. the Ku Klux Klan as Deputy Sheriff Ollie Thompson. Ned made an appearance on Gunsmoke in "The Hiders" episode in 1975. Beatty received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor category for the acclaimed film Network, portraying a television network's bombastic but shrewd chairman of the board who convinces the mad Howard Beale character that corporation-led global dehumanization is not only inevitable, but is a good thing.
Neither Beatty nor William Holden, who shared the lead role with Finch, won an Oscar. The other three acting awards besides best supporting actor were swept by Network performers: Best Actor for Peter Finch, Best Actress for Faye Dunaway, Best Supporting Actress for Beatrice Straight. In 1976, he appeared in All the President's Men, Silver Streak and Mikey and Nicky. In 1977, he returned to work with John Boorman in Exorcist II: The Heretic, starring Linda Blair, appeared in "The Final Chapter", the first episode of the television series Quinn Martin's Tales of the Unexpected. During 1977-78, he starred in the sitcom Szysznyk on CBS. In 1978, Beatty appeared in a drama aboard a submarine starring Charlton Heston; the film is significant chiefly for being the screen debut of Christopher Reeve, Beatty's future costar. That year, Beatty was cast by Richard Donner to portray Lex Luthor's inept henchman Otis in Superman: The Movie, as he would in the 1980 sequel, where we see his character being left behind in prison.
He received a second nomination for Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Special for the television series Friendly Fire. In 1979, he was seen in Wise Blood, directed by John Huston, 1941, directed by Steven Spielberg. In 1980, Beatty appeared in Ronald Neame's 1980 American film Hopscotch with Walter Matthau. In 1981, Beatty appeared in the comedy/science fiction film The Incredible Shrinking Woman, directed by Joel Schumacher and starring Lily Tomlin. In 1982, Beatty returned to work with Richard Pryor in the comedy The Toy. Beatty worked with Burt Reynolds again in the auto-racing farce Stroker Ace. In the middle of the 1980s, Beatty appeared in the comedy film Restless Natives, directed by Michael Hoffman. By the end of the 1980s, Beatty appeared in another comedy film, as the academic "Dean Martin" in Back to School, starrin
Thriller film known as suspense film or suspense thriller, is a broad film genre that involves excitement and suspense in the audience. The suspense element, found in most films' plots, is exploited by the filmmaker in this genre. Tension is created by delaying what the audience sees as inevitable, is built through situations that are menacing or where escape seems impossible; the cover-up of important information from the viewer, fight and chase scenes are common methods. Life is threatened in thriller film, such as when the protagonist does not realize that they are entering a dangerous situation. Thriller films' characters conflict with each other or with an outside force, which can sometimes be abstract; the protagonist is set against a problem, such as an escape, a mission, or a mystery. Thriller films are hybridized with other genres. Thriller films share a close relationship with horror films, both eliciting tension. In plots about crime, thriller films focus less on the criminal or the detective and more on generating suspense.
Common themes include, political conspiracy and romantic triangles leading to murder. In 2001, the American Film Institute made its selection of the top 100 greatest American "heart-pounding" and "adrenaline-inducing" films of all time; the 400 nominated films had to be American-made films whose thrills have "enlivened and enriched America's film heritage". AFI asked jurors to consider "the total adrenaline-inducing impact of a film's artistry and craft". One of the earliest thriller films was Harold Lloyd's comedy Safety Last!, with a character performing a daredevil stunt on the side of a skyscraper. Alfred Hitchcock's first thriller was his third silent film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, a suspenseful Jack the Ripper story, his next thriller was Blackmail and Britain's first sound film. His notable 1930s thrillers include The Man Who Knew Too Much, The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes, the latter two ranked among the greatest British films of the 20th century. One of the earliest spy films was Fritz Lang's Spies, the director's first independent production, with an anarchist international conspirator and criminal spy character named Haghi, pursued by good-guy Agent No. 326 —this film would be an inspiration for the future James Bond films.
The German film M, directed by Fritz Lang, starred Peter Lorre as a criminal deviant who preys on children. Hitchcock continued his suspense-thrillers, directing Foreign Correspondent, the Oscar-winning Rebecca, Suspicion and Shadow of a Doubt, Hitchcock's own personal favorite. Notable non-Hitchcock films of the 1940s include The Spiral Sorry, Wrong Number. In the late 1940s, Hitchcock added Technicolor to his thrillers, now with exotic locales. Hitchcock's first Technicolor film was Rope, he reached the zenith of his career with a succession of classic films such as, Strangers on a Train, Dial M For Murder with Ray Milland, Rear Window and Vertigo. Non-Hitchcock thrillers of the 1950s include The Night of the Hunter —Charles Laughton's only film as director—and Orson Welles's crime thriller Touch of Evil. Director Michael Powell's Peeping Tom featured Carl Boehm as a psychopathic cameraman. After Hitchcock's classic films of the 1950s, he produced Psycho about a lonely, mother-fixated motel owner and taxidermist.
J. Lee Thompson's Cape Fear, with Robert Mitchum, had a menacing ex-con seeking revenge. A famous thriller at the time of its release was Wait Until Dark by director Terence Young, with Audrey Hepburn as a victimized blind woman in her Manhattan apartment; the 1970s saw an increase of violence in the thriller genre, beginning with Canadian director Ted Kotcheff's Wake in Fright, which completely overlapped with the horror genre, Frenzy, Hitchcock's first British film in two decades, given an R rating for its vicious and explicit strangulation scene. One of the first films about a fan's being disturbingly obsessed with their idol was Clint Eastwood's directorial debut, Play Misty for Me, about a California disc jockey pursued by a disturbed female listener. John Boorman's Deliverance followed the perilous fate of four Southern businessmen during a weekend's trip. In Francis Ford Coppola's The Conversation, a bugging-device expert systematically uncovered a covert murder while he himself was being spied upon.
Alan Pakula's The Parallax View told of a conspiracy, led by the Parallax Corporation, surrounding the assassination of a presidential-candidate US Senator, witnessed by investigative reporter Joseph Frady. Peter Hyam's science fiction thriller Capricorn One proposed a government conspiracy to fake the first mission to Mars. Brian De Palma had themes of guilt, voyeurism and obsession in his films, as well as such plot elements as killing off a main character early on, switching points of view, dream-like sequences, his notable films include Sisters. In the early 1990s, thrillers had recurring elements of obsession and trapped protagonists who must find a way to escape the clutches of the villain—these devices influenced a number of thrillers in the following years. Rob Reiner's Misery, based on a book by Stephen King, featured Kath
The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings
The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings is a 1976 sports comedy film about a team of enterprising ex-Negro League baseball players in the era of racial segregation. Loosely based upon William Brashler's novel of the same name, it starred Billy Dee Williams, James Earl Jones and Richard Pryor. Directed by John Badham, the movie was produced by Berry Gordy for Motown Productions and Rob Cohen for Universal Pictures, released by Universal on July 16, 1976; the film was a box office success. The film has gained a cult following. Tired of being treated like a slave by team owner Sallison Potter, charismatic star pitcher Bingo Long steals a bunch of Negro League players away from their teams, including catcher/slugger Leon Carter and Charlie Snow, a player forever scheming to break into the segregated Major League Baseball of the 1930s by masquerading as first a Cuban a Native American, they take to the road, barnstorming through small Midwestern towns, playing the local teams to make ends meet.
One of the opposing players, ` Esquire' Joe Calloway, is so good. Bingo's team becomes so outlandishly entertaining and successful, it begins to cut into the attendance of the established Negro League teams. Bingo's nemesis Potter is forced to propose a winner-take-all game: if Bingo's team can beat a bunch of all-stars, it can join the league, but if it loses, the players will return to their old teams. Potter has two of his goons kidnap Leon prior to the game as insurance, but he escapes and is key to his side's victory; as it turns out, there is a Major League scout in the audience. After the game, he offers Esquire Joe the chance to break the color barrier. Leon glumly foresees the decline of the Negro League as more players follow Esquire Joe's lead, but Bingo the optimist, cheers him up by describing the wild promotional stunts he intends to stage to bring in the paying customers. Billy Dee Williams as Bingo Long James Earl Jones as Leon Carter Richard Pryor as Charlie Snow, "Carlos Nevada" and "Chief Takahoma" Stan Shaw as "Esquire Joe" Joseph Vanderbilt Calloway Tony Burton as Issac, an All-Star Rico Dawson as Willie Lee Shively, an All-Star Sam "Birmingham" Brison as Louis Keystone, an All-Star Jophery Brown as Emory "Champ" Chambers, an All-Star Leon Wagner as Fat Sam Popper, an All-Star John McCurry as Walter Murchman, an All-Star DeWayne Jessie as Rainbow, the All-Stars' batboy Ted Ross as Sallison Potter, Bingo's nemesis and owner of the Ebony Aces Mabel King as Bertha Dewitt, another Negro League team owner Ken Foree as Honey, one of Potter's henchmen Carl Gordon as Mack, another one of Potter's goons Some characters and situations are loosely based upon real-life people and incidents.
Badham grew up in Birmingham and was familiar with the Birmingham Black Barons, who shared Rickwood Field with the white Birmingham Barons. Bingo Long is based on former Black Baron Leroy "Satchel" Paige. Early in his career, Paige would call in his outfield while leading in the ninth inning against an amateur or semi-pro team and strike out the side. Bingo did a similar stunt in this movie. Leon Carter is a Josh Gibson-like power hitter playing the same position. "Esquire" Joe Calloway is an amalgam of Willie Mays and Jackie Robinson. The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings were loosely based on the Indianapolis Clowns and other barnstorming Negro baseball teams, who engaged in Harlem Globetrotters-like clowning routines. Luther Williams Field in Macon, Georgia was used for filming as the Negro League ballpark. Luther Williams Field was home to the Macon Music, a minor league team in the independent South Coast League. Additional ballpark scenes were shot at Morgan Field in Macon, a Pony and Colt League Youth Baseball field, Grayson Stadium in Savannah, home of the Savannah Sand Gnats of the Class A South Atlantic League, Wallace Field in Crawford County, Georgia.
Exterior scenes set in St. Louis residential neighborhoods were filmed in Savannah. Scenes set in rural communities were filmed in Talbotton and various small towns around Macon, including Monticello, Georgia; some ballplayers were played by actual former athletes, including former members of the Indianapolis Clowns, who performed various stunts shown in the film. Steven Spielberg wanted to have a hand in producing the movie until the success of his film Jaws got his full attention; the film gained positive reviews upon release, has continued to be well received in recent years. The movie holds an 87% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 15 critics; the film was nominated for the American Film Institute's 2008 AFI's 10 Top 10 in the sports film category. The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings on IMDb The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings at Rotten Tomatoes
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Richard Dawson Kiel was an American actor and voice artist. Standing 7 ft 1 1⁄2 in tall, he was known for his role as Jaws in the James Bond franchise, portraying the character in The Spy Who Loved Me and Moonraker, his next-most recognized role is the eloquent Mr. Larson in Happy Gilmore. Other notable films include The Longest Yard, Silver Streak, Force 10 from Navarone, Pale Rider and Tangled. Kiel was born in Michigan, his towering height was a result of a hormonal condition. Before becoming an actor, Kiel worked in numerous jobs, including a nightclub bouncer and a cemetery plot salesman. From 1963 to 1965, Kiel worked as a night-school math instructor in California. Kiel made his acting debut in the Laramie episode "Street of Hate"; this led to him appearing in numerous television shows throughout the 1960s and 1970s such as I Dream of Jeannie, Honey West, Gilligan's Island, The Monkees, Daniel Boone, Emergency!, Starsky & Hutch, Land of the Lost, The Fall Guy, Simon & Simon and "Kolchak: The Night Stalker".
Due to size, Kiel was cast in villainous roles. He appeared as the towering — and lethal — assistant Voltaire to Dr. Miguelito Loveless in first-season episodes of The Wild, Wild West. In the Man from U. N. C. L. E. Episode "The Vulcan Affair", Kiel appeared as a guard in Vulcan's plant and he portrayed Merry in "The Hong Kong Shilling Affair". In 1967 he played a monster in an episode of The Monkees, he appeared in an episode of “Wild, Wild West” titled "The Night of the Simian Terror" as Dimas, the outcast son of a wealthy family, banished because of birth defects that distorted his body and affected his mind. The episode first aired February 16, 1968; this episode is significant because it allowed Kiel the opportunity to act rather than just look intimidating. In 1977 Kiel and Arnold Schwarzenegger were both considered for playing the Hulk in The Incredible Hulk. After Schwarzenegger was turned down due to his height, Kiel started filming the pilot. However, the producers decided they wanted a more muscular Hulk rather than the towering Kiel so he was dismissed.
Kiel said he did not mind losing the part because as he could only see out of one eye, he reacted badly to the contact lenses he had to wear for the role. He found the green makeup unpleasant and difficult to remove, his scenes were reshot with Lou Ferrigno. Kiel broke into films in the early 1960s with Eegah, featured on Elvira's Movie Macabre and Mystery Science Theater 3000, as were The Phantom Planet and The Human Duplicators, he produced, co-wrote, starred in The Giant of Thunder Mountain. He had a brief non-speaking appearance leaving a gym in the Jerry Lewis movie The Nutty Professor; the James Bond-film producers spotted Kiel in Barbary Coast, thought he was ideal for the role of Jaws in The Spy Who Loved Me. He was one of the few Bond-villains to appear in two Bond-films appearing in Moonraker. However, as he suffered from acrophobia, a stunt double was used during the cable car stunt scenes because Kiel refused to be filmed on the top of a cable car more than 2,000 feet above the ground.
He reprised his role of Jaws in the video game called James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing, supplying his voice and likeness. This was his second outing as a metal-toothed villain because he had played Reace in the 1976 comedy-thriller film Silver Streak, a year before being cast in it; the Spy Who Loved Me. Kiel played in the 1985 film Pale Rider. Acting as the main antagonist's henchman, He redeems his character's status by saving the hero from a gunshot to the back. Although earlier roles had offered him little dialogue, his role in Happy Gilmore was quite the opposite; as Mr. Larson, Happy Gilmore's former employer, Kiel exchanges several one-liners with both Adam Sandler's Happy and Christopher McDonald's Shooter. Kiel took a quieter profile after Happy Gilmore's release, but left semi-retirement to record a role for Tangled. In the acclaimed animated Disney film, he portrayed Vlad, a soft-hearted thug who collects ceramic unicorns. Kiel's first marriage was to Faye Daniels in 1960, they divorced in the early 1970s.
He married Diane Rogers. They had nine grandchildren, he co-authored. Kiel was a born-again Christian, his website states. In 1992, Kiel suffered a severe head injury in a car accident, he was subsequently forced to walk with a cane to support himself. Kiel used a scooter or wheelchair. On September 10, 2014, three days short of his 75th birthday, Kiel died at St. Agnes Medical Center in Fresno, California, of a heart attack caused by coronary artery disease. John Aasen Ted Cassidy William Engesser Neil Fingleton André the Giant The Great Khali Rondo Hatton Henry Hite Lock Martin Carel Struycken Richard Kiel on IMDb Richard Kiel at Find a Grave