V Festival referred to as V Fest or VF, was an annual music festival held in England during the third weekend in August. The event was held at two parks which shared the same bill; the sites were located at Hylands Park in Weston Park in South Staffordshire. It was announced by Richard Branson on 30 October 2017 that V Festival would be discontinued but that a new festival would replace it. In 2018, a new festival called "Rize" was held in on the same weekend as the "V Festival" but only at Hylands Park; the "V" represented the Virgin Group, with the event being sponsored by Virgin Media. It was televised by Channel 4 from 1997 to 2013, predominantly on their sister channel 4 Music, it was televised by MTV from 2014 to 2015, the 2016 edition of the festival was televised by Channel 5. The idea for V came in 1996 when Pulp's front man Jarvis Cocker said that he would love to play two outdoor venues in two days. Pulp's promoters got together and came up with the idea of putting the gig into Victoria Park Warrington and Hylands Park Chelmsford giving fans in both the North and South a chance to see the band.
Came the idea of adding more bands to the bill, putting on a second stage and letting people camp for the weekend. In the end Victoria Park was just too small for camping. So in August 1996 there was one day of artists in Victoria Park and 2 days at Hylands Park with camping; the northern leg of V97 was switched to Temple Newsam, Leeds to provide room for camping and three stages. In 1999 the Northern leg of the festival was moved to Weston Park in Staffordshire, has remained there since, it had been held at Temple Newsam in Leeds, before being replaced by Carling's Leeds Festival. The festival took the name of the current year, with the first festival being named "V96". Since 2003 it has been known as the V Festival, its weekend format, low queuing times and professional organisation have given it a loyal audience. The festival sold out in record time in 2006. Mel C, N. E. R. D. have all performed at the festival, both Razorlight and Faithless performed in 2006. V showcases a mix of British and international musicians, from up-and-coming bands such as Coldplay in 2000 and the Kaiser Chiefs in 2003 and 2008, glam rockers El Presidente in 2005, to veteran crooner Tony Christie.
Girls Aloud performed at the 2006 show, received rave reviews for their performance. V97 was the first V Festival; this was audio-only, had about 30,000 unique listeners. The first V festival took place on Saturday 17 and Sunday 18 August 1996, had two stages and one tent. V stage: Pulp, Paul Weller, The Charlatans, Lightning Seeds, Gary Numan, Shed Seven, Incognito, Jonathan Richman, The Mike Flowers Pops, Edge Park 2nd Stage: Elastica, Heavy Stereo, Fluffy, The Cardigans, Super Furry Animals, The Wannadies, Kula Shaker, Gorkys Zygotic Mynci, Tiger, Orbital Dance Arena: Tricky, The Aloof, Lamb, Mad Professor, Alan Hale & Helen Welch This year introduced the NME stage. V Stage: Blur, The Prodigy, Kula Shaker, Dodgy, Foo Fighters, Placebo, Fluke, Teenage Fanclub, Apollo 440, The Supernaturals, Linoleum NME Stage: Ash, The Bluetones, Gene, The Divine Comedy, Monaco, Echo & the Bunnymen, Geneva, Silver Sun, Veruca Salt, Hurricane#1, AC Acoustics, The Driven, Radish Virgin High Energy Tent: The Chemical Brothers, Daft Punk, Propellerheads, Death in Vegas, Sneaker Pimps, GusGus, Jimi Tenor, Finley Quaye, Bentley Rhythm Ace, Carl Cox, Trademark V Stage: The Verve, The Charlatans, The Seahorses, Green Day, Robbie Williams, The Lightning Seeds, Iggy Pop, Chumbawamba, Marion, Whale, Young Offenders, Headswim NME Stage: Underworld, Fun Lovin' Criminals, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Ian Brown, Catatonia, PJ Harvey, Saint Etienne, Morcheeba, Lo Fidelity Allstars, Gomez, The Dandy Warhols, The Montrose Avenue, Midget, One Lady Owner, The Smiles Dance Tent: James Brown, All Saints, Roni Size, K-Gee, Björn Again, Roachford, 67y, Karen Ramirez, Regular Fries, DJ Norman Jay, Tin Star, Dean Thatcher, Boom Boom Satellites, Disque Blu, Cuba V Stage: Manic Street Preachers, The Beautiful South, Placebo, Happy Mondays, The Levellers, Faithless, The Cardigans, Eagle-Eye Cherry, Afro Celt Sound System, The Saw Doctors, Melanie C NME Stage: James Brown, Massive Attack, Super Furry Animals, Mercury Rev, Shed Seven, DJ Shadow, Gay Dad, dEUS, Red Snapper, A, Death in Vegas, Dot Allison, Eve 6, Liz Horman, YY29, One Lady Owner JJB Arena Stage: Orbital, Finley Quaye, lan brown Lamb, Rae & Christian, Sneaker Pimps, The Egg, Groove Armada, Richie Hawtin, Luke Slater, Regular Fries, ManCHILD, Archive Reebox Arena: Paul Oakenfold, DJ Sneak, Dave Ralph, Derek Carter, Dope Smugglaz, Justin Robertson, Dave Angel, Jumpin Jack Frost, Andy Wetheral, Layo, Mr. C, Matthew B Richard Ashcroft goes solo and Travis unveil their cover of Britney Spears' "...
Baby One More Time" which they had played at Glastonbury Festival in June 2000. V Stage: Travis, Richard Ashcroft, Macy Gray, Paul Weller, Ocean Colour Scene, All Saints, Cypress Hill, Barenaked Ladies, Brand New Heavies, The Bootleg Beatles, Björn Again, Andreas Johnson, Toploader MTV Stage: Supergrass, Mansun, Beth Orton, Bloodhound Gang, Joe Strummer
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Radiohead are an English rock band formed in Abingdon-on-Thames in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke, brothers Jonny Greenwood and Colin Greenwood, Ed O'Brien and Philip Selway, they have worked with producer Nigel Godrich and cover artist Stanley Donwood since 1994. After signing to EMI in 1991, Radiohead released their debut single "Creep" in 1992, it became a worldwide hit after the release of Pablo Honey. Their popularity and critical standing rose in the United Kingdom with the release of their second album, The Bends. Radiohead's third album, OK Computer, brought them international fame; the group's next albums Kid A and Amnesiac, recorded marked a dramatic change in style, incorporating influences from experimental electronic music, 20th-century classical music and jazz. Kid A divided listeners but was named the best album of the decade by Rolling Stone and The Times. Radiohead's sixth album, Hail to the Thief, mixed rock and electronic music with lyrics inspired by the War on Terror, was the band's final album for EMI.
Their subsequent releases have pioneered alternative release platforms such as pay-what-you-want and BitTorrent. Their eighth album, The King of Limbs, an exploration of rhythm, was developed using extensive looping and sampling. A Moon Shaped Pool prominently featured Jonny Greenwood's orchestral arrangements. Radiohead had sold more than 30 million albums worldwide by 2011, their work places in both listener polls and critics' lists of the best music of the 1990s and 2000s. In 2005, they were ranked 73rd in Rolling Stone's list of "The Greatest Artists of All Time". In 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted Radiohead the second-best artist of the 2000s, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019. The members of Radiohead met while attending Abingdon School, an independent school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. Guitarist and singer Thom Yorke and bassist Colin Greenwood were in the same year, guitarist Ed O'Brien and drummer Philip Selway the year above, multi-instrumentalist Jonny Greenwood, brother of Colin, two years below.
In 1985, they formed On a Friday, the name referring to the band's usual rehearsal day in the school's music room. Jonny was the last to join, first on harmonica and keyboards, but soon became the lead guitarist. According to Colin, the band members picked their instruments because they wanted to play music together, rather than through an interest in the particular instrument: "It was more of a collective angle, if you could contribute by having someone else play your instrument, cool." At one point, On a Friday featured a saxophone section. The band disliked the school's strict atmosphere—the headmaster once charged them for using a rehearsal room on a Sunday—and found solace in the school's music department, they credited their music teacher for introducing them to jazz, film scores, postwar avant-garde music, 20th-century classical music. Oxfordshire and the Thames Valley had an active independent music scene in the late 1980s, but it centred on shoegazing bands such as Ride and Slowdive.
Although all but Jonny had left Abingdon by 1987 to attend university, On a Friday continued to rehearse on weekends and holidays. At the University of Exeter, Yorke played with the band Headless Chickens, performing songs including future Radiohead material, he met artist Stanley Donwood, who created artwork for Radiohead. In 1991, On a Friday regrouped, sharing a house on the corner of Magdalen Road and Ridgefield Road, Oxford; as On a Friday continued to perform in Oxford, including more performances at the Jericho Tavern, record labels and producers became interested. Chris Hufford, Slowdive's producer and co-owner of Oxford's Courtyard Studios, attended an early On a Friday concert at the Jericho Tavern. Impressed, he and his partner Bryce Edge became On a Friday's managers. In late 1991, after a chance meeting between Colin and EMI A&R representative Keith Wozencroft at Our Price, the record shop where Colin worked, On a Friday band signed a six-album recording contract with EMI. At the label's request, the band changed their name.
Radiohead recorded their debut release, the Drill EP, with Chris Hufford and Bryce Edge at Courtyard Studios. Released in May 1992, its chart performance was poor; the band enlisted Paul Kolderie and Sean Slade, who had worked with US indie bands Pixies and Dinosaur Jr. to produce their debut album, recorded in an Oxford studio in 1992. With the release of the "Creep" single that year, Radiohead began to receive attention in the British music press, not all of it favourable. Radiohead released their debut album, Pablo Honey, in February 1993, it stalled at number 22 in the UK charts, as "Creep" and its follow-up s
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Rush was a Canadian rock band made up of Geddy Lee, Alex Lifeson, Neil Peart. Formed in 1968, the band went through several configurations until arriving at its longest and most popular line-up when Peart replaced original drummer John Rutsey in July 1974, two weeks before the group's first tour of the United States. Rush is known for its musicianship, complex compositions, eclectic lyrical motifs drawing on science fiction and philosophy; the band's musical style has changed several times over the years, from a blues-inspired hard rock beginning moving into progressive rock, including a period marked by heavy use of synthesizers. In the early 1990s, Rush returned to a guitar-driven hard rock sound, which continued for the rest of their career. Rush announced plans to cease large-scale touring at the end of 2015. After nearly three years of an uncertain future, Lifeson reluctantly announced in January 2018 that the band had dissolved. According to the RIAA, Rush ranks 86th with sales of 25 million units in the U.
S. Although total worldwide album sales are not calculated by any single entity, several industry sources estimated Rush's total worldwide album sales at over 40 million units as of 2017; the group has been awarded 24 gold, 14 platinum, 3 multi-platinum albums. Rush has received nominations for seven Grammy Awards; the band has won several Juno Awards, won an International Achievement Award at the 2009 SOCAN Awards, was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. Over their careers, the members of Rush have been acknowledged as some of the most proficient players on their respective instruments, with each band member winning numerous awards in magazine readers' polls; the original line-up formed in the neighbourhood of Willowdale in Toronto, Ontario, by guitarist Alex Lifeson and front man Jeff Jones, drummer John Rutsey on September 18, 1968. Within a couple of weeks of forming, before their second performance and lead vocalist Jones left the band and was replaced by Geddy Lee, a schoolmate of Lifeson.
Their first gigs took place at the Coff-Inn, a youth centre in the basement of St. Theodore of Canterbury Anglican Church in North York. After several line-up reformations, Rush's official incarnation formed in May 1971 consisting of Lee and Rutsey; the name "Rush" was suggested by Bill. The band was managed by local Toronto resident Ray Danniels, a frequent attendee of Rush's early shows. After gaining stability in the line-up and honing their skills on the local bar and high school dance circuit, the band members released their first single "Not Fade Away", a cover of the Buddy Holly song, in 1973. Side B contained an original composition, "You Can't Fight It", credited to Rutsey; the single generated little reaction and, because of record company indifference, the band formed their own independent label, Moon Records. With the assistance of Danniels and the newly enlisted engineer Terry Brown, the band released its self-titled debut album in 1974, considered derivative of Led Zeppelin. Rush had limited local popularity until the album was picked up by WMMS, a radio station in Cleveland, Ohio.
Donna Halper, a music director and DJ working at the station, selected "Working Man" for her regular playlist. The song's blue-collar theme resonated with hard rock fans, this newfound popularity led to the album being re-released by Mercury Records in the U. S. After the release of the debut album, Rutsey left the band due to health difficulties stemming from diabetes and his distaste for touring, his last performance with the band was on July 1974, at Centennial Hall in London, Ontario. Rush selected Neil Peart as Rutsey's replacement. Peart joined the band on July 29, 1974, two weeks before the group's first US tour, they performed their first concert together, opening for Uriah Heep and Manfred Mann with an attendance of over 11,000 people at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 14. In addition to becoming the band's drummer, Peart assumed the role of principal lyricist from Lee, who had little interest in writing, despite having penned the lyrics of the band's first album.
Lee and Lifeson focused on the instrumental aspects of Rush. Fly by Night, Rush's first album after recruiting Peart, saw the inclusion of the band's first epic mini-tale "By-Tor and the Snow Dog", replete with complex arrangements and a multi-section format. Lyrical themes underwent dramatic changes because of Peart's love for fantasy and science-fiction literature. Despite these many differences, some of the music and songs still mirrored the blues style found on Rush's debut; the band followed Fly by Night with Caress of Steel, a five-track album featuring two extended multi-chapter songs, "The Necromancer" and "The Fountain of Lamneth". Some critics said Caress of Steel was unfocused and an audacious move for the band because of the placement of two back-to-back protracted songs, as well as a heavier reliance on atmospherics and story-telling, a large deviation from Fly by Night. Intended to be the band's break-through album, Caress of Steel sold below expectations and the promotional tour consisted of smaller venues, which led to the moniker the "Down the Tubes Tour".
In light of these events, Rush's record label tried to pressure the members into moulding their next album in a more commercially friendly and accessible fashion. Despite this, the album was the band's first taste of commercial success and their fir