Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record. In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.
This lets the audio data be transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and player pianos, for encoding and reproducing instrumental music. Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation also by mechanical devices. Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a hydropowered organ that played interchangeable cylinders. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."
The Banū Mūsā brothers invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the 1560s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved. In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, music boxes. A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb; the fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music; the most sophisticated of the piano rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music.
This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. A 1908 U. S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced; the first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Parisian inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857, they consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a vibrating stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it. An 1860 phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune, a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in 2008 by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file.
On April 30, 1877, French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. Though no trace of a working paleophone was found, Cros is remembered as the earliest inventor of a sound recording and reproduction machine; the first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878. The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s; the development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated simi
The lead vocalist in popular music is the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent in a performance where multiple voices may be heard. The lead singer either sets against the ensemble as the dominant sound. In vocal group performances, notably in soul and gospel music, early rock and roll, the lead singer takes the main vocal part, with a chorus provided by other band members as backing vocalists. In rock music, the lead singer or solo singer is the front man or front woman, who may play one or more instruments and is seen as the leader or spokesman of the band by the public; as an example in rock music, Freddie Mercury was the lead singer of Queen. In soul music, Smokey Robinson was the lead singer of The Miracles, it is uncertain when the term "lead vocals" was first used, but it may have emerged in the late 1930s, when rich vocal interplay with multiple voices where one or more voices may dominate began to impact on North American popular music, dominated by solo vocals.
The practice of using a lead singer in vocal groups, has a longer history: an early form is the "call and response" found in work songs and spirituals sung by African-American slaves. Songs of the late nineteenth century used a leading solo voice, followed by a choral response by other singers; as the style developed through early commercial recordings and performances in the early 20th century, the role of the lead vocalist became more established, although popular groups of the 1930s and 1940s such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers used different lead singers on different songs rather than keeping the same lead singer throughout. By the 1950s, singers such as Sam Cooke and Clyde McPhatter took on more defined roles as lead singers, by the end of the decade credited group names changed to reflect the leading roles of the main vocalists, with examples such as Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers and Dion & the Belmonts. Academic David Horn has written:The influence of US rhythm and blues recordings may well be a crucial one in the assimilation of the format of lead singer plus backing group into the guitar-based British'beat' groups of the 1960s, in US groups such as The Beach Boys.
From these various points - including Motown - it went on to become a standard device in much rock and pop music. In some bands - most famously, The Beatles - the role of lead singer alternated, while in others - for example, Herman's Hermits - one lead singer dominated. There are as many styles of lead singer as there are styles and genres of music. However, the lead singer of a group or band is the main focus of audiences' attention; the lead vocalist of band is sometimes called the "front man" or "front woman," as the most visible performer in a group. While most bands have a singular lead singer, many others have dual lead singers, or other member of the band that sing lead on particular songs. While the lead singer defines the group's image and personality to the general public, this is not always the case. In modern rock music, the lead singer is but not always the band's leader and spokesperson. While lead singers or spokespersons for any musical ensembles can be called a front man, the term is used widely in rock music.
Since the position has an expanded role from simple lead vocalists, there have been cases in which the front man for a band is someone other than the lead vocalist. For example, while the lead vocalist for the band Fall Out Boy is guitarist Patrick Stump, the bassist and lyricist, Pete Wentz, is called the front man, both in the media and by the band members themselves, since he represents the band in most interviews and contributes most to the band's image in the popular media. Another example is Angus Young of AC/DC, the band's lead guitarist, co-leader with his brother Malcolm Young. In many bands, such as The Who, Led Zeppelin, Living Colour, The Stone Roses and Oasis, the lead guitarist may share spokesman responsibilities with the lead singer; this is derived from that guitarist's specific role as a co-songwriter, co-founder and/or co-vocalist. In some cases, there are two frontmen, such as Alice in Chains, with singer Layne Staley sharing vocal duties with guitarist Jerry Cantrell, or Underoath, with singers Spencer Chamberlain and Aaron Gillespie sharing vocal duties.
Another example is Blink-182, in which vocal duties are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Tom DeLonge. Hoppus carries out most media either by himself or together with DeLonge, while the band's other member, drummer Travis Barker remains quiet. Linkin Park had two vocalists as well, Mike Shinoda and Chester Bennington, both considered as frontmen. Another example is the thrash metal band Metallica, in which James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich share the spokesperson duties for being both founders and the only members who have never left the band. List of lead vocalists
Nazareth are a Scottish hard rock band formed in 1968, that had several hits in the United Kingdom, as well as in several other West European countries in the early 1970s, established an international audience with their 1975 album Hair of the Dog, which featured their hits "Hair of the Dog" and a cover of the ballad "Love Hurts". The band continues to tour. Nazareth formed in December 1968 in Dunfermline, from the remaining members of semi-professional local group The Shadettes by vocalist Dan McCafferty, guitarist Manny Charlton, bassist Pete Agnew, drummer Darrell Sweet, they were inspired by The Rolling Stones. Nazareth took their name from Nazareth, cited in the first line of The Band's classic song "The Weight"; the band moved to London, England in 1970 and released their eponymous debut album in 1971. After getting some attention with their second album Exercises, released in 1972, Nazareth supported Deep Purple on tour, issued the Roger Glover-produced Razamanaz, in early 1973; this collection spawned two UK Top Ten hits, "Broken Down Angel" and "Bad Bad Boy".
This was followed by Loud'N' Proud in late 1973, which contained another hit single with a cover of Joni Mitchell's song "This Flight Tonight". Came another album Rampant, in 1974, successful although its only single, "Shanghai'd in Shanghai", narrowly missed the British Top 40. A non-album song, again a cover version, this time of Tomorrow's "My White Bicycle", was a UK Top 20 entry in 1975. Hair of the Dog was released in April 1975 and was produced by Manny Charlton, ending Roger Glover's association with the band; the title track of that album became a staple of 1970s rock radio. The American version of the album included a song recorded by The Everly Brothers, the melodic Boudleaux Bryant-penned ballad "Love Hurts", released as a hit single in the UK and in the US, where it went platinum; the track became. And was a top 10 hit in nine other countries, reaching number 1 in six of them; the song was on the Norwegian chart for 60 weeks. In 1979, second guitarist Zal Cleminson was added to the line-up, remaining for two albums, No Mean City and Malice in Wonderland, contributing numerous compositions.
Malice in Wonderland contained the single "Holiday". In 1981, they contributed the song "Crazy" to the soundtrack to Heavy Metal. Various Nazareth line-ups continued to make studio albums and tour throughout the 1980s and 1990s, although their popularity had declined such that some albums no longer received either a UK or a US release, they remained popular in Europe Germany, where "Dream On" became a hit single. In 1991, Billy Rankin returned to replace Manny Charlton on the No Jive album, remaining with the band until 1994. A tribute came in 1993 when Guns N' Roses covered Nazareth's "Hair of the Dog" on "The Spaghetti Incident?", consolation after they turned down Axl Rose's request for the group to play at his wedding. Rankin departed again in 1994, but with Jimmy Murrison and keyboard player Ronnie Leahy, Nazareth maintained a live following in Europe and the US. Nazareth continued touring after Rankin's departure, with Jimmy Murrison and keyboard player Ronnie Leahy. While on tour in 1999, original drummer Darrell Sweet died at age 51 of a heart attack.
He was replaced by bassist Pete Agnew's son Lee for editions of the band. On 4 August 2006, John Locke, the former keyboardist of the band, died from cancer at the age of 62. In February 2008, The Newz was released on Edel Entertainment; the release of the album coincided with Nazareth's fortieth anniversary tour, which started on 25 January in Sweden and visited most of Europe, finished on 4 November 2008 in Norway. A follow up album, Big Dogz, was released on 15 April 2011. Nazareth announced McCafferty's retirement from the band due to ill health on 28 August 2013, leaving Pete Agnew as the sole remaining original member of the band. On 22 February 2014, it was announced that Scottish singer Linton Osborne was chosen as McCafferty's replacement, with the former singer's blessing. In December 2014, Nazareth announced the cancellation of several shows, postponement of their UK tour, due to Osborne contracting a virus that left him unable to perform. In a post on his Facebook page 16 January 2015, Osborne announced his departure from the band.
On 13 February 2015, the band announced that Carl Sentance of Persian Risk, Geezer Butler Band, Krokus, was their new lead vocalist. Music of Scotland List of Scottish musicians List of 1970s one-hit wonders in the United States List of performers on Top of the Pops Official website Nazareth discography at Discogs
Michael Des Barres
Michael Philip Des Barres, the 26th Marquis Des Barres, is an English actor and rock singer. He is known for playing the recurring role of Murdoc on the television show MacGyver and for replacing Robert Palmer in the band Power Station, fronting the band at the 1985 Live Aid concert; the only child of Marquis Philip and Marquise Irene Des Barres, Michael Philip Des Barres was born and brought up in Hove, Sussex. He attended Repton School, a boarding school in Derbyshire, went on to attend the Corona Academy drama school in London and appeared in several plays. Des Barres formed his first teenage band, the Orange Illusion, with Nicholas Young, Darryl Read, Kit Williams, whilst they were all attending Corona Academy Stage School studying to be actors; the lineup, despite being broken up by the school's agent Hazel Malone, all went on to do greater things individually. Des Barres formed Silverhead in England in 1972, they recorded two albums, toured the US, Japan before disbanding in 1974. After moving to Los Angeles, he formed the band Detective in 1975.
They recorded two albums that were released on Led Zeppelin's Swan Song Records label, before breaking up in 1978. A solo album, I'm Only Human, followed in 1980, with a solo tour of the US and UK; the album was produced by Mike Chapman. His musicians at this time were the session band Zoo Drive featuring John Goodsall, Paul Delph, Doug Lunn, Ric Parnell. On the recording and in significant gigs Nigel Harrison replaced Doug Lunn on bass, he was part of the band Chequered Past from 1982 to 1985, which included Steve Jones from Sex Pistols, Clem Burke and Nigel Harrison from Blondie, Tony Sales of Todd Rundgren and Tin Machine fame. In 1983, he wrote and recorded the song "Obsession" together with Holly Knight, which became a No. 6 Billboard Top 40 hit when covered by Animotion in 1985. Des Barres met the members of Duran Duran when Chequered Past opened for a few shows during their 1984 tour. In 1985, when Robert Palmer withdrew from the Duran Duran side project Power Station just before their American summer tour, Des Barres was chosen to take his place as lead vocalist.
He performed live with them for several months before they disbanded, including a set broadcast to millions at the 1985 Live Aid charity concert in Philadelphia. Des Barres' friendship with actor Don Johnson got Power Station a guest appearance on Johnson's TV show Miami Vice, he wrote one song with the band, "We Fight For Love" which appears on the soundtrack to the film Commando. He released a second solo album called Somebody Up There Likes Me in 1986, which featured contributions by former bandmates Steve Jones and Andy Taylor. Although focusing more on his acting career in the following years, Des Barres continued to write music and perform live with various bands in the Los Angeles area. In 1996 - 1997, he played in Vince Lightning and the Spectaculars, which included Stray Cats drummer Slim Jim Phantom. From 1998 - 2000, he had a band called The Usual Susspects with Mick Rossi. In 2001, Des Barres formed Down Boy together with Paul McCartney's guitarist Brian Ray. In 2006 - 2007, he fronted a 10-piece soul band called Free Love Foundation.
In 2011, he formed The Michael Des Barres Band, which included Jebin Bruni, David Goodstein, Paul Ill, Eric Schermerhorn. On 5 November 2013 The Michael Des Barres Band released a live album, Hot n Sticky Live, recorded at the Viper Room in Los Angeles in November 2012; the album is available as high quality mp3 downloads. On 7 April 2015 Des Barres released The Key to the Universe. Produced by Bob Rose at The Forum Music Village in Rome, the album reunites Des Barres with Nigel Harrison on bass and guitar, in addition to Clive Deamer on drums, Dani Robinson on guitar. Des Barres has appeared in over 100 different TV shows and 30 movies in his career, he first started acting at 8 years old as'The Nux Bar Kid' on posters all over England. He appeared in the 1966 film starring Drop Dead Darling, his first credited film role was as a supporting cast member in the classic 1967 film To Sir, with Love, playing an East End pupil who always wears dark sunglasses indoors and out, followed by a few other minor roles before he decided to pursue a career in music instead.
He concentrated his energies on acting again and was cast in Ghoulies as cult leader Malcolm Graves, Nightflyers as a charismatic empath. He worked opposite Clint Eastwood in 1989's Pink Cadillac, his other film roles have included Midnight Cabaret, Under Siege, Waxwork II: Lost in Time, A Simple Twist of Fate, Sugar Town. He appeared in the 2004 film Catch That Kid and had a brief part in David Lynch's classic 2001 film Mulholland Drive. On television, besides the role of Murdoc in MacGyver, Des Barres was a lead cast member of The New WKRP in Cincinnati during the 1991-92 season, as part of a husband-and-wife morning team, he had appeared on the original WKRP in Cincinnati as the lead singer of a punk band, Scum of the Earth. During this same time, he played a gay man in two episodes of Roseanne, he played one of Darlene's baby's doctors on one of the final episodes of the series. Some of his dozens of television appearances include Seinfeld, Renegade, ALF, Nip/Tuck, Just Shoot Me!, Hart To Hart, My Sister Sam, Lois & Clark (which reunited him with another M
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Blutaparon vermiculare, with common names silverhead, silverweed and samphire, is a species of plant in the Amaranthaceae family, native to Central America and the southeastern United States. It is an edible perennial plant that sometimes grows as an annual
Osibisa is an Afrobeat band, founded in London in 1969 by four expatriate African and three Caribbean musicians. Their music is a fusion of African, jazz, rock, R&B. Osibisa were the most successful and longest lived of the African-heritage bands in London, alongside such contemporaries as Assagai, Chris McGregor's Brotherhood of Breath, Demon Fuzz, Noir, were responsible for the establishment of world music as a marketable genre. In Ghana in the 1950s, Teddy Osei, Sol Amarfio, Mamon Shareef, Farhan Freere played in a highlife band called The Star Gazers, they left to form The Comets, with Osei's brother Mac Tontoh on trumpet, scored a hit in West Africa with their 1958 song "Pete Pete." In 1962 Osei moved to London to study music on a scholarship from the Ghanaian government. In 1964 he formed Cat's Paw, an early "world music" band that combined highlife and soul. In 1969 he persuaded Amarfio and Tontoh to join him in London, Osibisa was born. Joining them in the first incarnation were Grenadian Spartacus R.
The band spent much of the 1970s touring the world, playing to large audiences in Japan, Australia and Africa. During this time Paul Golly and Ghanaians Daku Adams "Potato" and Kiki Gyan were members of the band. In 1980 Osibisa performed at a special Zimbabwean independence celebration, in 1983 were filmed onstage at the Marquee Club in London. Changes in the music industry however meant declining sales for the band, a series of label changes resulted; the band returned to Ghana to set up a recording studio and theatre complex to help younger highlife musicians. In the 1990s their music was anthologised in many CD collections, most of them unauthorised and paying no royalties whatsoever to the band. In 1996 Osei reformed the band, many of their past releases began coming out on CD; the revitalised band remains active, although Osei has cut back his touring schedule due to the effects of a stroke. Osibisa had an energetic performance in India, at the November Fest 2010 on 28 November 2010 at the Corporation Kalaiarangam in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
The name Osibisa was described in lyrics, album notes and interviews as meaning "criss-cross rhythms that explode with happiness" but it comes from "osibisaba" the Fante word for highlife. Their style influenced many of the emerging African musicians of the time and now, as Ace Ghanaian hip-hop music producer Hammer of The Last Two stated that his debut production, Obrafour's Pae Mu Ka album, the highest selling hiplife album to date was inspired by a single song by Osibisa, he had the chance to work with Kiki Gyan a few days before his death. Their first two albums featured artwork by famed progressive-rock artist Roger Dean, depicting flying elephants which became the symbol for the band; the third album, features a cover by Mati Klarwein, famed for his covers for Santana and Miles Davis. Osibirock features "Negro Attacked by a Jaguar" by Henri Rousseau. Playing on the original flying elephants theme, the Ultimate Collection set features elephants with tank turrets for heads. In 2009, their Osee Yee album featured the flying elephants once more, this time painted by Freyja Dean.
Roger Dean's logo for the band continues to be used on every release. One major controversy surrounding the death of legendary keyboardist Kiki Djan, was made public by his daughter Vanessa Sullivan Djan in an interview she granted a local newspaper RazzPaper. In the interview she stated "“They betrayed him! If I’m your friend and I’m into some form of immorality and you watch me go on with it till I crush, a form of betrayal! Kiki wrote many songs when he was part of Osibisa but they never gave him credit for that; that was another betrayal.”. Teddy Osei, who refuted the reports said in an interview with Let’s Talk Entertainment on JoyNews on MultiTV, the group took care of Kiki, who joined the band at age 18, until his death in 2004.” Saxophone: Teddy Osei Trumpet: Mac Tontoh, Colin Graham, Kenny Wellington Flute – Abdul Loughty Lasisi Amao Trombone: Abdul Remiola Percussion, congas: Kofi Ayivor, Nii Tagoe, Darko Adams'Daku' Potato, Dinesh Pandit Drums: Solomon "Sol" Amarfio, KB, Frank Tontoh, Remi Kabaka, Robert Fordjour Keyboards: Robert Bailey, Bessa Simons, Kwame Yeboah, Chris Jerome, Emmanuel Rentzos, Errol Reid, Kiki Gyan, Jean Rousell Guitars: Kari Bannerman, Gregg Kofi Brown, Wendell "Dell" Richardson, Tony Etoria, Paul Golly, Gordon Hunte, Kwame Yeboah, Jake Solo, Robert Abia Moore, Winston Delandro Bass guitar: Spartacus R, Mike Odumosu, Fred Coker, Victor Mensah, Herman Asafo-Agyei, Gregg Kofi Brown, Jean-Karl Dikoto Mandengue, Abia Moore Vocals: Gregg Kofi Brown, Teddy Osei, Emmanuel Rentzos, Wendell Richardson, Pamela Carter, Desiree Heslop The original line-up consisted of Teddy Osei, Mac Tontoh, Sol Amarfio, all three from Ghana, Loughty Lassisi Amao, from Nigeria, Robert Bailey, from Trinidad, Spartacus R, from Grenada, Wendell Richardson.
The first to exit was Spartacus R, replaced numerous time