Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Real estate development
Real estate developers are the people and companies who coordinate all of these activities, converting ideas from paper to real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers manage the construction process, developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, imagine and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers usually take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards, sometimes property developers will only undertake part of the process. For example, some developers source a property and get the plans and permits approved before selling the property with the plans and permits to a builder at a premium price. Developers work with different counterparts along each step of this process, including architects, city planners, surveyors, contractors, leasing agents. In the Town and Country Planning context in the United Kingdom, development is defined in the Town, there is no specific credential required, nor license necessary, for a person or company to call himself a real estate developer. A real estate developer is not a designation, there are no schools or associations who recognize or protect the term as a trademark.
Some real estate developers, often involved in marketing properties through traditional real estate channels. Licensed contractors who follow blueprints designed by licensed architects and licensed engineers and this definition is clarified by the remainder of s55 and the inclusion of the Generally Permitted Development Order 1995 and the Use Classes Order 1987. No single path leads automatically to success in real estate development, developers come from a variety of disciplines— construction, urban planning, architecture and accounting, among others. Recent specialized programs that award a Master of Real Estate Development degree are available, the graduate programs in real estate development are the most comprehensive education in the real estate industry. Other formal education includes a Master of Science in Real Estate, a development team can be put together in one of several ways. At one extreme, a company might include many services. At the other end of the spectrum, a development company might consist of one principal, assembling a team of professionals to address the environmental, private and political issues inherent in a complex development project is critical. A developers success depends on the ability to coordinate and lead the completion of a series of interrelated activities efficiently, the general contractor of the project hires subcontractors to put the architectural plans into action.
Purchasing unused land for a development is sometimes called speculative development. Subdivision of land is the mechanism by which communities are developed. Technically, subdivision describes the legal and physical steps a developer must take to convert raw land into developed land, after subdivision is complete, the developer usually markets the land to a home builder or other end user, for such uses as a warehouse or shopping center
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
When used as an adjective, the term office may refer to business-related tasks. In legal writing, a company or organization has offices in any place that it has a presence, even if that presence consists of, for example. In modern terms an office usually refers to the location where white-collar workers are employed, as per James Stephenson, Office is that part of business enterprise which is devoted to the direction and co-ordination of its various activities. Offices in classical antiquity were often part of a complex or a large temple. The High Middle Ages saw the rise of the chancery, which was usually the place where most government letters were written. With the growth of large, complex organizations in the 18th century, the first purpose-built office spaces were constructed. The time and motion study, pioneered in manufacturing by F. W. Taylor led to the “Modern Efficiency Desk” with a top and drawers below. However, by the midpoint of the 20th century, it became apparent that an efficient office required discretion in the control of privacy, the main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their job.
Work spaces in an office are typically used for conventional office activities such as reading, there are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities. In addition to individual cubicles, there are meeting rooms, lounges. Some offices have an area where workers can make their lunches. There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function, managerial fashions and the culture of specific companies can be even more important. While offices can be built in almost any location and in almost any building, some modern requirements for offices make this difficult, such as requirements for light, networking. The primary purpose of a building is to provide a workplace and working environment primarily for administrative. These workers usually occupy set areas within the building, and usually are provided with desks, PCs. The structure and shape of the office is impacted by both management thought as well as materials and may or may not have walls or barriers.
The word stems from the Latin officium, and its equivalents in various, mainly romance, languages. An officium was not necessarily a place, but rather an often mobile bureau in the sense of a staff or even the abstract notion of a formal position
Six World Trade Center
Six World Trade Center was an eight-story building in Lower Manhattan in New York City. It opened in 1973 and was the building in the World Trade Center complex that had the fewest stories, the building served as the U. S. Customs House for New York. It was destroyed in 2001 due to the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks, Six World Trade Center was first proposed in 1968 as part of the original World Trade Center complex. The building was designed by Emery Roth & Sons, along with Yamasaki Associates, the original Six World Trade Center was home to the U. S. Customs Service for the state of New York, from 1974 to 2001. It was a 537, 693-square-foot, eight-story building, the shortest in the World Trade Center complex. From the Austin J. Tobin Plaza level, on which the structure was built. After burning for less than two hours, both 110-story towers collapsed, the collapse of the North Tower destroyed Six World Trade Center beyond repair, and the remnants of the building were pulled down using cables.
AMEC Construction handled the demolition, in which the building was weakened, the new One World Trade Center stands at the site where 6 World Trade Center originally stood. Marriott World Trade Center Emporis entry on this building Tenants of 6 World Trade Center via CNN
A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas and these include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and it may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses. Residential zoning usually includes a smaller FAR than business, commercial or industrial/manufacturing zoning, the area may be large or small. Development patterns may be regulated by restrictive covenants contained in the deeds to the properties in the development, restrictive covenants are not easily changed when the agreement of all property owners is required. The area so restricted may be large or small, residential areas may be subcategorized in the concentric zone model and other schemes of urban geography. Residential development is real estate development for residential purposes, some such developments are called a subdivision, when the land is divided into lots with houses constructed on each lot.
Such developments became common during the nineteenth century, particularly in the form of streetcar suburbs. In previous centuries, residential development was mainly of two kinds, rich people bought a townlot, hired an architect and/or contractor, and built a bespoke / customized house or mansion for their family. Poor urban people lived in shantytowns or in tenements built for rental, single-family houses were seldom built on speculation, that is for future sale to residents not yet identified. When cities and the class expanded greatly and mortgage loans became commonplace. Its large-scale practitioners disliked the term property speculator and coined the new residential development for their activity. Entire farms and ranches were subdivided and developed, often one individual or company controlling all aspects of entitlement, land development, infrastructure. Communities like Levittown, Long Island or Lakewood south of Los Angeles saw new homes sold at unprecedented rates—more than one a day.
Many techniques which had made the automobile affordable made housing affordable, standardization of design and small, repetitive tasks, advertising. Mass production resulted in a similar uniformity of product, and a comfortable lifestyle than cramped apartments in the cities. With the advent of government-backed mortgages, it could actually be cheaper to own a house in a new residential development than to rent, as with other products, continual refinements appeared. Curving streets, greenbelt parks, neighborhood pools, and community entry monumentation appeared, diverse floor plans with differing room counts, and multiple elevations appeared
Larry A. Silverstein is an American businessman. Silverstein was born in Brooklyn, and became involved in real estate, together with his father, Silverstein separated from his business partner, Bernard Mendik, in 1977, and bought a number of large office buildings in Midtown and Lower Manhattan in the late 1970s. In 1980, Silverstein won a bid from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to construct 7 World Trade Center, to the north of the World Trade Center site. Silverstein was interested in acquiring the entire World Trade Center complex, Silverstein won the bid when a deal between the initial winner and the Port Authority fell through, and he signed the lease on July 24,2001.55 billion coverage per event. A settlement was reached in 2007, with insurers agreeing to pay out $4.55 billion, Silverstein ran into multiple disputes with other parties in the rebuilding effort, including with the Port Authority. Silverstein was born in Bedford-Stuyvesant, in Brooklyn in 1931 into a Jewish family, growing up, Silverstein enjoyed classical music and played the piano.
He attended the High School of Music and Art in New York, during college, Silverstein worked at a summer camp, where he met his wife, Klara. The couple married in 1956, and had three children, Lisa and Sharon and his wife worked as a school teacher, supporting the family on her salary for the first few years of their marriage while Silverstein attended classes at Brooklyn Law School. Silverstein became involved in real estate, together with his father, Harry G. Silverstein, in 1957, they established Silverstein Properties, as Harry G. Silverstein & Sons, and bought their first building, in Manhattan. Mendik and Silverstein continued the business after the elder Silversteins death in 1966, in 1977, Mendik divorced Annette Silverstein Mendik, with the business partnership splitting up at that time. Mendik cited disagreements over real estate strategies, with Mendik wanting to buy buildings while Silverstein wanted to build, after splitting with Mendik, both remained involved in the real-estate industry, but in separate firms.
By 1978, Silverstein owned five buildings on Fifth Avenue, as well as 44 Wall Street, in 1980, he renovated the building at 11 West 42nd Street, and acquired the lease for the Equitable Building at 120 Broadway. In 1983, Silverstein sold the building at 711 Fifth Avenue to Coca-Cola for $57.6 million, in 1980, Silverstein bought the building at 120 Wall Street, which was constructed in 1930. In 1980, Silverstein won a bid to lease and develop the last undeveloped parcel from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, to build the 47-story building 7 World Trade Center. During the 1990s, New York was suffering from the effects of the 1987 stock market crash, george Pataki became Governor of New York in 1995 on a campaign of cutting costs, including privatizing the World Trade Center. A sale of the property was considered too complex, so it was decided by the Port Authority to open a 99-year lease to competitive bidding. In January 2001, via Silverstein Properties and Westfield America, Silverstein was outbid by $30 million by Vornado Realty, with Boston Properties and Brookfield Properties competing for the lease.
However, Vornado withdrew and Silversteins bid for the lease to the World Trade Center was accepted on July 24,2001 and this was the first time in the buildings 31-year history that the complex had changed management
Construction of the World Trade Center
The construction of the first World Trade Center was conceived as an urban renewal project, spearheaded by David Rockefeller, to help revitalize Lower Manhattan. The project was developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the towers were designed as framed tube structures, which provided tenants with open floor plans, uninterrupted by columns or walls. This was accomplished using numerous closely spaced perimeter columns to provide much of the strength to the structure, Construction of the World Trade Centers North Tower began in August 1968, and the South Tower in 1969. Extensive use of prefabricated components helped to speed up the construction process, the first tenants moved into the North Tower in December 1970 and into the South Tower in January 1972. Four other low-level buildings were constructed as part of the World Trade Center in the 1970s, in 1942, Austin J. Tobin became the Executive Director of the Port Authority, beginning a 30-year career during which he oversaw the planning and development of the World Trade Center.
The concept of establishing a trade center was conceived during the post–World War II period. In 1946, the New York State Legislature passed a bill called for a world trade center to be established. The World Trade Corporation was founded, and a board was appointed by New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to develop plans for the project. Architect John Eberson and his son Drew devised a plan that included 21 buildings over a ten-block area, in 1949, the World Trade Corporation was dissolved by the New York State Legislature, and plans for a world trade center were put on hold. During the post-war period, economic growth was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan, in part stimulated by the Rockefeller Center, Lower Manhattan was left out of the economic boom. One exception was the construction of One Chase Manhattan Plaza in the Financial District by David Rockefeller, in 1958, Rockefeller established the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association, which commissioned Skidmore and Merrill to draw up plans for revitalizing Lower Manhattan.
The plans, made public in late June 1960, called for a World Trade Center to be built on a 13-acre site along the East River, from Old Slip to Fulton Street and between Water Street and South Street. The complex would include a 900-foot long exhibition hall, and a 50–70 story building, other amenities would include a theater and restaurants. The plan called for a new exchange building, which the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association hoped would house the New York Stock Exchange. After a year-long review of the proposal, the Port Authority formally backed the project on March 11,1961, the States of New York and New Jersey needed to approve the project, given their control and oversight role of the Port Authority. Objections to the plan came from New Jersey Governor Robert B, who resented that New York would be getting this $335 million project. Toward the end of 1961, negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Meyner regarding the World Trade Center project reached a stalemate, in acquiring the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, the Port Authority would acquire the Hudson Terminal and other buildings which were deemed obsolete.
On January 22,1962, the two reached an agreement to allow the Port Authority to take over the railroad and to build the World Trade Center on Manhattans lower west side
Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts
Four Seasons Hotels Ltd. trading as Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, is a Canadian international luxury hospitality company headquartered in Toronto, Ontario. It operates more than 100 hotels worldwide, since 2007, Bill Gates and Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal have been majority owners of the company. Canadian businessman Isadore Sharp founded Four Seasons in 1960, while a young architect working for his father, Sharp designed a motel for a family friend, its success motivated him to try creating his own hotel. He bought a parcel of land in a run-down area of Toronto and planned a stopover for business travelers. Four Seasons built more hotels, including the 1963 Inn on the Park, upscale luxury became part of the brand when the company expanded to London. When a developer approached Four Seasons about building a hotel in London, Sharp planned it to compete with the citys old-world, elite hotels, such as Claridges, in 1974, cost overruns at a Vancouver property nearly led the company into bankruptcy.
As a result, the company began shifting to its current, management-only business model, eliminating costs associated with buying land, the company went public in 1986. The first full-service spa was introduced in 1986 at Four Seasons Resort, nearly all Four Seasons hotels and resorts have spa facilities, and the remainder offer spa services. Many of the hotels have integrated high-end restaurants, economic downturns in the early and mid-2000s affected the company. The company recovered, and in 2007 it agreed to a buyout by Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates, the pair own 95 percent of the company, in equal shares, and Sharp owns the rest. Challenges returned again during the crisis of 2007–2010. The company made the first corporate layoffs in its history, cutting 10% of its Toronto workforce, in April 2010, after a year-long dispute with Broadreach Capital Partners and Maritz, Wolff & Co. The arbitrators ordered Broadreach pay Four Seasons to terminate the contract, the resort is no longer a Four Seasons.
Four Seasons has continued to add more hotels and resorts to its portfolio and it opened a new hotel in Hangzhou in 2010 and Guangzhou, and a second property in Shanghai in 2012. In India it has one hotel in Mumbai, in 2013, it opened its first hotel in Russia in the Lobanov-Rostovsky Residence in St. Petersburg, and opened a second hotel in Moscow. In October 2012, Four Seasons opened a new 259 room Toronto property in Yorkville, the hotel will include an upscale restaurant led by celebrity chef Daniel Boulud. It was hailed by The Globe and Mail as the renewal of an iconic Canadian brand in its hometown, the penthouse was bought by entrepreneur Robert Österlund, the founder of Xacti, LLC and Inbox. com, for a Canadian record price of over $28M. The Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts offers trips in a company-owned Boeing 757 with 52 seats, Four Seasons does not own most of its properties, it operates them on behalf of real estate owners and developers