The over 400-mile aqueduct is the principal feature of the California State Water Project. The Department of Water Resources operates and maintains the California Aqueduct, including one pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, Gianelli is located at the base of San Luis Dam, which forms San Luis Reservoir, the largest offstream reservoir in the United States. It is named after California Governor Edmund Gerald Pat Brown Sr, the Central Valley of California is surrounded by high mountains that are eroding into the valley itself. The valley is somewhat rebounding from recent ice age interglacial glaciations, the region is prone to significant earthquakes due to the many faults and fault lines that pass through. The flatness of the valley bottom contrasts with the hills or gentle mountains that are typical of most of Californias terrain. The valley is thought to have originated below sea level as an offshore area depressed by subduction of the Farallon Plate into a trench further offshore, the San Joaquin Fault is a notable seismic feature of the Central Valley.
The valley was enclosed by the uplift of the Coast Ranges, faulting moved the Coast Ranges, and a new outlet developed near what is now San Francisco Bay. The aqueduct begins at the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta at the Banks Pumping Plant, Water is pumped by the Banks Pumping Plant to the Bethany Reservoir. The reservoir serves as a forebay for the South Bay Aqueduct via the South Bay Pumping Plant, from the Bethany Reservoir, the aqueduct flows by gravity approximately 60 mi to the ONeill Forebay at the San Luis Reservoir. From the ONeill Forebay, it flows approximately 16 mi to the Dos Amigos Pumping Plant, after Dos Amigos, the aqueduct flows about 95 mi to where the Coastal Branch splits from the main line. The split is approximately 16 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City, after the coastal branch, the line continues by gravity another 66 mi to the Buena Vista Pumping Plant. From the Buena Vista, it flows approximately 27 mi to the Teerink Pumping Plant, after Teerink it flows about 2.5 mi to the Chrisman Pumping Plant.
Chrisman is the last pumping plant before Edmonston Pumping Plant, which is 13 mi from Chrisman, South of the plant the west branch splits off in a southwesterly direction to serve the Los Angeles Basin. At Edmonston Pumping Plant it is pumped 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains, Water flows through the aqueduct in a series of abrupt rises and gradual falls. The water flows down a long segment, built at a slight grade, the pumping station raises the water, where it again gradually flows downhill to the next station. However, where there are drops, the waters potential energy is recaptured by hydroelectric plants. The Edmonston Pumping station requires so much power that several power lines off of Path 15, a typical section has a concrete-lined channel 40 feet at the base and an average water depth of about 30 ft. The widest section of the aqueduct is 110 feet and the deepest is 32 feet, channel capacity is 13,100 cubic feet per second and the largest pumping plant capacity at Dos Amigos is 15,450 cubic feet per second
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity, a dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, that is mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, so the word should be understood as dike from dug out earth. The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East.
Dams were used to control the level, for Mesopotamias weather affected the Tigris. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan,100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman and this gravity dam featured an originally 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart. The structure is dated to 3000 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide. The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a dam for flood control. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III, two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called Mer-wer or Lake Moeris covered 1,700 km2 and is today as Berkat Qaroun. One of the wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC and these extensive works were not actually finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres.
By the mid-late 3rd century BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built, the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite dam and spring temple near Konya and it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC
A reservoir is a storage space for fluids. These fluids may be water, hydrocarbons or gas, a reservoir usually means an enlarged natural or artificial lake, storage pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created by controlling a stream that drains a body of water. They can be constructed in river valleys using a dam, alternately, a reservoir can be built by excavating flat ground or constructing retaining walls and levees. Tank reservoirs store liquids or gases in storage tanks that may be elevated, at grade level, tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, a dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are typically located at a part of a valley downstream of a natural basin. The valley sides act as walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength. In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, construction of a reservoir in a valley will usually need the river to be diverted during part of the build, often through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel.
In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs the new top water level exceeds the height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir, where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or quantity, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water. Such reservoirs are usually formed partly by excavation and partly by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may substantially reduce many contaminants and almost eliminate any turbidity. The use of reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time. Service reservoirs store fully treated potable water close to the point of distribution, many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers, often as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is relatively flat.
Other service reservoirs can be almost entirely underground, especially in hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909, when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planets surface. The term most often refers to oceans and lakes, a body of water does not have to be still or contained, streams and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are considered bodies of water. Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial, there are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways, some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids. Arm of the sea - sea arm, used to describe a sea loch, arroyo - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally.
Artificial lake or artificial pond - see reservoir or impoundment, barachois - a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay - an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf, bayou - a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Bight - a large and often only slightly receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature, billabong - see Oxbow lake, a pond or still body of water created when a river changes course and some water becomes trapped. Boil - see Seep Brook - a small stream, canal - an artificial waterway, usually connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel - the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean consisting of a bed. See stream bed and strait, earth scientists generally use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay. Basin - a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, creek - an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove.
Delta - the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, distributary or distributary channel - a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Draw - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, fjord - a submergent landform which has occurred due to glacial activity. Glacier - a large collection of ice or a river that moves slowly down a mountain. Glacial Pothole - see Kettle Gulf - a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay, headland - an area of water bordered by land on three sides
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is located in the southwestern United States, primarily within southeastern California and southern Nevada, very small areas extend into Utah and Arizona. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Palmdale, the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, and the San Gabriel Mountains, the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults. The Mojave Desert displays typical basin and range topography and it occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is often referred to as the desert, in contrast to the low desert. However, the Mojave Desert is generally lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north, the spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English.
The Mojave Desert receives less than 13 in of rain a year and is generally between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation, zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, and the Colorado Plateau. Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater. The Mojave is a desert of temperature extremes and two distinct seasons, winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which dip precipitously to around 20 °F on valley floors, and below 0 °F at higher elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in places even snow. More often, the shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the regions weather, summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 120 °F and above 130 °F at the lowest elevations, low humidity, high temperatures, and low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
Autumn is generally pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events, october is one of the driest and sunniest months in the Mojave, and temperatures usually remain between 70 °F and 90 °F on the valley floors. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave, during the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed out into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows out into the Los Angeles basin, wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds. The other major factor in the region is elevation
Pacific Crest Trail
The Pacific Crest Trail is 2,659 mi long and ranges in elevation from just above sea level at the Oregon–Washington border to 13,153 feet at Forester Pass in the Sierra Nevada. The route passes through 25 national forests and 7 national parks and its midpoint is near Chester, where the Sierra and Cascade mountain ranges meet. It was designated a National Scenic Trail in 1968, although it was not officially completed until 1993, the PCT was conceived by Clinton Churchill Clarke in 1932. It received official status under the National Trails System Act of 1968 and it is the westernmost and second longest component of the Triple Crown of Hiking and is part of the 6, 875-mile Great Western Loop. The route is mostly through National Forest and protected wilderness, the trail avoids civilization and covers scenic and pristine mountainous terrain with few roads. A parallel route for bicycles, the Pacific Crest Bicycle Trail is a 2, the PCT and PCBT cross in about 27 places along their routes. The Pacific Crest Trail was first proposed by Clinton C, Clarke, as a trail running from Mexico to Canada along the crest of the mountains in California and Washington.
The original proposal was to link the John Muir Trail, the Tahoe-Yosemite Trail, the Skyline Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail System Conference was formed by Clarke to both plan the trail and to lobby the federal government to protect the trail. The conference was founded by Clarke, the Boy Scouts, the YMCA, from 1935 through 1938, YMCA groups explored the 2000 miles of potential trail and planned a route, which has been closely followed by the modern PCT route. In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the PCT, the PCT was constructed through cooperation between the federal government and volunteers organized by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. In 1993, the PCT was officially declared finished, thru hiking is a term used in referring to hikers who complete long-distance trails from end to end in a single trip. The Pacific Crest Trail, Appalachian Trail, and Continental Divide Trail were the first three long-distance trails in the U. S, successfully thru-hiking all of these three trails is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking.
Thru-hiking is a commitment, usually taking between four and six months, that requires thorough preparation and dedication. The Pacific Crest Trail Association estimates that it takes most hikers between six and eight months to plan their trip, while most hikers travel from the Southern Terminus at the Mexico–US border northward to Manning Park, British Columbia, some hikers prefer a southbound route. In a normal year, northbound hikes are most practical due to snow. If snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is high in early June and low in the Northern Cascades, however, it is not currently possible to legally enter the United States from Canada by using the Pacific Crest Trail. Hikers have to determine their resupply points, resupply points are towns or post offices where hikers replenish food and other supplies such as cooking fuel. Hikers can ship packages to themselves at the U. S, post Offices along the trail, resupply at general and grocery stores along the trail, or any combination of the two
San Luis Dam
San Luis Dam is a major earth-filled dam in Merced County, which forms San Luis Reservoir, the largest off-stream reservoir in the United States. The dam and reservoir are located in the Diablo Range to the east of Pacheco Pass, San Luis Dam, a jointly-owned state and federal facility, stores more than 2 million acre feet of water for the California State Water Project and the federal Central Valley Project. Although the dam is located in the valley of San Luis Creek, the dam was built between 1963 and 1968, and filled for the first time in 1969. It generates hydroelectricity by releasing the water when it is needed, however, it has indirectly impacted the environment by enabling increased water diversion from sensitive estuary regions. In recent years and pumping restrictions to protect endangered fish have contributed to low levels at the San Luis Reservoir. The dam and reservoir are visible from the Romero Overlook Visitors Center and this water includes both natural river flows, and water that is evacuted from Shasta Lake, Lake Oroville, Folsom Lake and other reservoirs for flood control purposes.
This is accomplished via a system of canals and pumping stations which divert water from the Delta, when full, San Luis Reservoir is more than 300 feet deep, covers 12,700 acres, and contains 2,041,000 acre feet of water. The storage capacity of San Luis Reservoir is divided with 55 percent belonging to the state and 45 percent to the federal government. The Delta-Mendota Canal, originally built in 1951, carries water for the federal Central Valley Project operated by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation to supply San Joaquin Valley farms. The California Aqueduct was built in 1968 as part of the State Water Project, to water to Los Angeles and other cities. Both canals begin at the Clifton Court Forebay near Tracy, California where the Jones, the canals are linked to ONeill Forebay, a small reservoir located directly in front of San Luis Dam where the water is temporarily stored for distribution. Most CVP project water is dedicated to irrigation while the SWP water supply is split, the plant has eight reversible Francis turbine units which can generate up to 424 megawatts when releasing water.
The power consumption while pumping is 376 megawatts, the maximum water flow while generating is 13,120 cubic feet per second, and maximum pumping is 11,000 cubic feet per second. The sale of peaking power lowers the overall cost of operating the State Water Project, a short 230 kV power line heads eastward to deliver this electricity to Northern Californias electricity backbone, Path 15. However, due to friction losses when pumping water uphill, only about 70 percent of the energy can be recouped when the water is discharged, the Central Valley Project was begun in the 1930s to provide an additional water supply to the area and greatly expanded the irrigated acreage. However, the lack of water storage limited the systems flexibility. During the dry months when surface water was frequently unavailable, farmers pumped vast volumes of groundwater to irrigate their crops. The Bureau of Reclamation recognized the need for a storage reservoir in order to provide a year-round water supply
The Mojave River is an intermittent river in the eastern San Bernardino Mountains and the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County, United States. Most of its flow is underground, while its surface channels remain dry most of the time, with the exception of the headwaters and several bedrock gorges in the lower reaches. The Mohaves trail, the European immigrants Mojave Road, ran west from their villages on the Colorado River to Soda Lake, native Americans used this trade route where water could easily be found en route to the coast. Garcés explored the length of the Mojave River in early 1776 and he called the river Arroyo de los Mártires on March 9,1776 but Spaniards called it Río de las Ánimas. In 1826 Jedediah Smith was the first American of European origin to travel overland to California by following the Mojave Indian Trail and he called this the Inconstant River. Frémont intercepted this route to the river, riding east southeast from Lake Elizabeth, north of the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains on April 20,1844.
Frémont named the river Mohahve after the Mohave people on April 23,1844 and he had met six travelling Mohaves that day. Some early Mormon ranchers called it the Macaby River, the fork of the trails there on the Mojave River, became known as Fork of the Road. From 1847, Mormons pioneered the road that became the Mormon Road from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles closely following the route of the Old Spanish Trail from Parowan. They followed the Mojave River from the Fork of the Road to the Lower Narrows, in 1849 Forty-niners late on the main trail to California used the Mormon Road as a winter alternative route to California, referring to it as the Southern Route of the California Trail. Later emigrants to California followed the route during the winter months. In 1859, as part of the Mohave War, the Mohave peoples trail was improved as the route of the Mojave Road. It followed the Mojave River from where the Mormon Road turned north away from the river near Daggett, to where historic Camp Cady was located.
From 1863 to 1864 the Mojave River valley was a refuge from the drought in California in those years. The rivers source is in the San Bernardino Mountains, one of the Transverse Ranges, the West Fork of the Mojave flows into Silverwood Lake, formed by Cedar Springs Dam, which overflows in the Mojave River Forks Reserve area. On occasion, the lake water into the river. Downstream, Deep Creek meets the West Fork, forming the Mojave River immediately upstream of the Mojave Forks Dam, downstream of the dam, the Mojave River flows north and east, underground in most places, through Hesperia and Barstow. Near its terminus, the Mojave River flows out onto a large inland delta called the Mojave River Wash at the edge of Mojave National Preserve
Castaic Dam is an embankment dam in northern Los Angeles County, near the city of Castaic. Although located on Castaic Creek, a tributary of the Santa Clara River. The lake is the terminus of the West Branch of the California Aqueduct, the dam was built by the California Department of Water Resources and construction was completed in 1973. The lake has a capacity of 325,000 acre feet, Castaic is an earth-fill dam with its surfaces covered with boulders and cobble-sized rocks to prevent erosion. The dam is 340 feet high above the streambed,425 feet above the foundations, the maximum thickness of the base is 2,350 feet. Flood waters are released through an ungated, concrete spillway on the west side of the dam. The total storage capacity of Castaic Lake is 325,000 acre·ft, the inactive capacity is only used during periods of extended drought or interrupted water delivery, most recently in 2014. At maximum water elevation of 1,509 ft AMSL, the lake covers 2,235 acres, the much smaller Castaic Lagoon can hold 5,560 acre·ft and covers 200 acres.
Castaic Lake is the lower and larger of two main reservoirs for the West Branch of the California Aqueduct. The West Branch first enters Pyramid Lake, formed by Pyramid Dam, the two reservoirs can store 505,000 acre·ft, or about a years supply of water. During normal operations, Castaic Lake serves as a reservoir for water delivered through the California Aqueduct. Below the dam, the majority of the flows to Los Angeles via a system known as the Foothill Feeder. The water travels about 20 miles south via a 16. 75-foot diameter pipeline to the Jensen Filtration Plant near San Fernando, the mostly underground, pre-stressed concrete pipe has walls nearly 4 feet thick. Water from the Foothill Feeder is stored in the smaller Los Angeles Reservoir in the San Fernando Valley, the water continues south via the 45-mile Sepulveda Feeder, which provides water to Los Angeles proper and other municipalities in south Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The main customer water agencies are the Central Basin Municipal Water District, West Basin Municipal District, as many as 12 million people in these areas receive their full or supplemental water supply from Castaic Lake and the feeder system.
A smaller portion of the supply is distributed by the Castaic Lake Water Agency. The service area covers about 195 square miles in Ventura and north Los Angeles counties, the main constituents of the agency include the Los Angeles County Waterworks District No. 36, Newhall County Water District, Santa Clara Water Division, the 11 MW Foothill Feeder hydroelectric power plant is located at the base of the dam and generates electricity when water is needed in Los Angeles
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the county seat is San Bernardino. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaskas boroughs and census areas are larger. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20,1810, the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county.
Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, some of the southern parts of the countys territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 20,105 square miles. It is the largest county by area in California and the largest in the United States and it is slightly larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined. It borders both Nevada and Arizona, the bulk of the population, roughly two million, live in the roughly 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering roughly 280 square miles in Victor Valley, roughly another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the desert, especially between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15, trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley. This national park, mostly within Inyo County, has a portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley, Hesperia. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near Twentynine Palms, additional places near and west of Twentynine palms include Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree, and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, and include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, the San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley