Montorio al Vomano
Montorio al Vomano is a town and comune in the province of Teramo, in the Abruzzo region of central-southern Italy. It is located in the natural park known as the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park; the city is located at the upper inland entrance of the Vomano valley, on the banks of the river with the same name. The territory of the Montorio al Vomano commune contains a mountainous area but in larger part is made up of hills and open plains. A hilly incline known as Il Colle leads up from the right bank of this river and provides a beautiful view of the valley below. Above the town are the ruins of the Fortress San Carlo, initiated in 1686 by the Spanish Marchese del Carpio to fight against the brigand forces. There are several hypotheses regarding the origination of the name "Montorio"; the most is that the name derives from the Latin Mons Aureus, referring to the plains surrounding the town that were once covered in a luxurious open expanses of golden grains. Supporting this theory are the shape and configuration of the town symbol which shows three hills, each with a sheaf of grain planted atop.
The discovery of the ruins of a temple dedicated to Hercules attests to ancient origins of the city. It is believed that present-day Montorio al Vomano sits in the location of the old city of Beregra, mentioned by geographers in the classical age of Rome. Others historians and archaeologists believe that Beregra was located more to the north, near the current town of Civitella del Tronto). During medieval times, Montorio al Vomano experienced an important period of development. Records show the town referred to as Mons Aureus before taking on its current name of Montorio al Vomano. In the 15th century, by decree of Alfonso V of Naples, the town was annexed by the feudal state of Pietro Camponeschi from nearby L'Aquila. By way of marriage, Montorio al Vomano passed into the hands of the Carafa and Caracciolo families, both from Napoli. In 1596 the Crescenzi family from Rome took control of the town before ceding the area once again to Neapolitans, this time the Marchesi di Santo Spirito. Montorio al Vomano hosts a number of expanding economic enterprises.
A multinational Canadian glass bottle and container factory, Consumers Glass, is known throughout the world. The agriculture of the area is centered on olives as well as wood products. In the future and sulfur thermal springs located in nearby Piane di Collevecchio are to see increased activity and further serve to diversify the local economy. Situated in the principal city square, Piazza Orsini, is the Church of San Rocco. Commissioned by the Countess Vittoria Camponeschi, construction of this church was initiated in 1527; the irregular and asymmetrical façade of the church is built of stone and plaster. San Rocco contains four painted wooden altars decorated with gold leaf dating to the late 17th and early 18th centuries; the Sacristy houses a wooden bust of St. Roch dating from the 16th century, a Neapolitan silver statue of the same saint from about 1735, an ancient bell organ. Several ornate tapestries are on display. One, depicting the Resurrection, dates back to 1530 and a second, The Last Supper, to 1607.
The Capuchin Convent and Church of Santa Maria della Salute was founded in 1576. Its architectural features are influenced by the vows of poverty of the Franciscan Friars; the face of the church is adorned with a decorative rectilinear crown. The Church of the Zoccolanti is in the historical center of the town. Restored in 1755, but earlier records indicate that the church has much older origins. On the main altar is a coat of arms of a Franciscan Minor Order and a wooden statue of Mary Immaculate dating back to 1696. On another altar there is an exceptional painting of a penitent Saint Margaret; the enclosed cloisters contain 17th-century burial vaults with traces of fresco paintings. On the outskirts of town, towards Teramo, is the Church of San Lorenzo which sits atop ancient Roman archaeological findings; the remains of the Temple of Hercules is about 6 kilometres from Montorio al Vomano in the direction of L'Aquila along an ancient Roman road. A somewhat idiosyncratic tradition of the people of Montorio al Vomano occurs during the carnival season.
Its theme is death itself and derives from the comedy of arts, a populist style of theater developed in Italy in the 16th century. The origins of this custom relate to the removal and collection of the trappings of the just-completed carnival season on Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent. A coffin accompanied by throngs of people, including costumed mourners in funeral attire, is carried through the streets. Funeral dirges are interspersed with irreverent passages of joy and happiness; the tradition of the'Lu Stu, whose origination is unknown, takes place around the Christmas Holidays. During the celebration the townspeople gather together and are met by small groups of people carrying decks of 40 playing cards depicting historical figures; these encounters and card games are characterized by gestures, animated discussions, salty witticisms in the local vernacular dialect. This custom is practiced in few Italian communities and may well have ancient Irish roots from a pre-Christian era. Another important tradition recognizes a great battle known as the "Conspiracy of the Barons" that took place on the outskirts of Teramo on 7 May 1486.
At this time 500 soldiers from the Teramo area, under the orders of Pope Innocent VIII and led by Captain Roberto Sanseverino, encountered the troops of Alfonso, Duke of Calabria and son of King Ferdinand of Aragon. From the roofs of the houses and the city walls, the townspeople of Montorio al Vomano were able witness this fierce military engagemen
Basciano is a town and comune in the province of Teramo, in the Abruzzo region of east central Italy
Abruzzo is a region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.2 million. It is divided into four provinces: L'Aquila, Teramo and Chieti, its western border lies 80 km east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into a mountainous area in the west, which includes the Gran Sasso d'Italia, a coastal area in the east with beaches on the Adriatic Sea. Abruzzo is considered a region of Southern Italy in terms of its culture, language and economy, although geographically it may be considered central; the Italian Statistical Authority deems it to be part of Southern Italy because of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Abruzzo is known as "the greenest region in Europe" as half of its territory, the largest in Europe, is set aside as national parks and protected nature reserves. There are three national parks, one regional park, 38 protected nature reserves.
These ensure the survival of 75% of Europe's living species, including rare species such as the small wading dotterel, the golden eagle, the Abruzzo chamois, the Apennine wolf and the Marsican brown bear. Abruzzo is home to Calderone, Europe's southernmost glacier; the visiting nineteenth-century Italian diplomat and journalist Primo Levi said that the adjectives "forte e gentile" best describe the beauty of the region and the character of its people. "Forte e gentile" has since become the motto of its inhabitants. Abruzzo is divided into four administrative provinces: Human settlements in Abruzzo have existed since at least the Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti dates back to 6,540 BC under radiometric dating; the name Abruzzo appears to be derivative of the Latin word "Aprutium". In Roman times, the region was known as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum, Campania et Samnium; the region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages, arising from four possible sources: it is a combination of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, the old Teramo.
Many cities in Abruzzo date back to ancient times. Corfinio was known as Corfinium when it was the chief city of the Paeligni, was renamed Pentima by the Romans. Chieti is built on the site of the ancient city of Teate, Atri was known as Adria. Teramo, known variously in ancient times as Interamnia and Teramne, has Roman ruins which attract tourists. After the fall of the Roman Empire, there were a string of invasions and rulers in the region, including the Lombards, Byzantines and Hungarians. Between the 9th and 12th centuries, the region was dominated by the popes. Subsequently, the Normans took over, Abruzzo became part of the Kingdom of Sicily the Kingdom of Naples. Spain ruled the kingdom from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries; the French Bourbon dynasty took over in 1815, establishing the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled until Italian unification in 1860. Until 1963, Abruzzo was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise; the term Abruzzi derives from the time. The territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore and Abruzzo Ulteriore I and II from Naples, the capital of the kingdom.
Abruzzo Citeriore is now Chieti province. Teramo and Pescara provinces now comprise what was Abruzzo Ulteriore I. Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the province of L'Aquila. In the twentieth century, war had a great impact on the region. During the Second World War, Abruzzo was on the Gustav Line, part of the German's Winter Line. One of the most brutal battles was the Battle of Ortona. Abruzzo was the location of two prisoner of war camps, Campo 21 in Chieti, Campo 78 in Sulmona; the Sulmona camp served as a POW camp in World War 1. Geographically, Abruzzo is located in central Italy and southern Italy, stretching from the heart of the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, includes mountainous and wild land; the mountainous land is occupied by a vast plateau, including Gran Sasso, at 2,912 metres the highest peak of the Apennines, Mount Majella at 2,793 metres. The Adriatic coastline is characterized by long sandy beaches to the North and pebbly beaches to the South. Abruzzo is well known for its landscapes and natural environment and nature reserves, characteristic hillside areas rich in vineyards and olive groves, one of the highest densities of Blue Flag beaches.
The Abruzzo region has two types of climate that are influenced by the Apennine Mountains, dividing the climate of the coastal and sub-Apennine hills from the interior's high mountain ranges. Coastal areas have a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild winters and rainy hills with a sublittoral climate where temperatures decrease progressively with increasing altitude and precipitation with altitude. Precipitation is strongly affected by the presence of the Apennines mountain ridges of the region; the Adriatic coast are sidelined rainfall from the west to the barrier effect of the Apennines undergoing the action of gentle winds descending from it. The minimum annual rainfall, however, is found in some inland vall
Castel Castagna is a town and comune in the province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of central-southern Italy. It is a small hilltop town with a view of the Gran Sasso massif
Atri is a comune in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Atri is the setting of the poem The Bell of Atri by American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, its name is the origin of the name of the Emperor Hadrian. Ancient Adria was a city of Picenum, situated about 10 kilometres from the Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the Antonine Itinerary, it was distant 15 Roman miles from Castrum Novum and 14 from Teate, it has been supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan origin, a colony from the more celebrated city of the name, now Adria in the Veneto region, though there is no historical evidence of the fact. The city was founded by Greeks from Aegina and reestablished by Dionysius I the tyrant of Syracuse in the 4th century BC; the first certain historical notice of Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there about 282 BCE. In the early part of the Second Punic War its territory was ravaged by Hannibal. At a period, according to the Liber de Coloniis, it must have received a fresh colony under Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by Pliny and in inscriptions.
One of these gives it the titles of Colonia Aelia Hadria, whence it would appear that it had been re-established by the emperor Hadrian, whose family was derived from hence. Hadrian was a native of Italica in Spain, a colony of Italian settlers in Hispania Baetica and his family was the gens Aelia; the territory of Adria, though subsequently included in Picenum, appears to have formed a separate and independent district, bounded on the north by the river Vomanus, on the south by the Matrinus. Great part of the circuit of the ancient walls may be still traced, mosaic pavements and other remains of buildings are preserved. According to the Antonine Itinerary Adria, was the point of junction of the Via Salaria and Via Valeria, a circumstance which contributed to its importance and flourishing condition under the Roman Empire. After the fall of Rome, the region was subjected, along with most of northern and central Italy, to a long period of violent conflict. In the 6th century, the Lombards succeeded in establishing hegemony over the area, Atri and other parts of Abruzzo found themselves annexed to the Duchy of Spoleto.
The Lombards were displaced by the Normans, whose noble House of Acquaviva family ruled the town for decades from about 1393, before merging their lands into the Kingdom of Naples, but remaining dominant in the city as Dukes of Atri until the 19th century. The rule of the Acquaivivas marked the highpoint of splendor, it is now admitted that the coins of Adria belong to the city of Picenum, not that of the Veneto. They belong to the class known as aes grave, are among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in weight the most ancient Roman aeses. On this account they have been assigned to a remote antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, others to the Greek, settlers, but there seems much reason to believe that they are not so ancient, belong, in fact, to the Roman colony, founded previous to the general reduction of the Italian brass coinage. Some historians say that the city was founded by the Illyrians in the eleventh century BCE, they think. The ancient name has been described as the source from which the Adriatic Sea derived its name.
Others maintain that the sea was named for an Etruscan city in Veneto region. Duomo or Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta: This 13th century church was built on the remains of an earlier Romanesque structure; the cathedral incorporates a 56-metre high campanile, or bell tower, a cloister. It houses a fresco cycle by the 15th-century Abruzzi painter Andrea de Litio; the Diocesian museum is located adjacent to cathedral. The crypt was a large Roman cistern. Palazzo Ducale of Atri: Palace of the Duke of Acquaviva, built on the highest point in the city; the Palazzo now houses offices of both the provincial governments. Medieval Walls and Gates: The three remaining gates in the walls are the Porta Macelli, the Porta San Domenico, the Capo d'Atri. Museo Capitolare San Francesco: This church features a flight of stairs in the Baroque style. San Domenico: This church contains two 17th-century paintings by Giacomo Farelli. Sant'Agostino: 14th-century church. San Nicola Santa Chiara: 13th-century church. Santo Spirito: 12th to 18th century church.
Sant'Andrea Apostolo: 14th century church. Fonte Pila and the Fonte della Strega. Roman Theater: These ruins still contain unexplored grottoes. Belvedere of Viale Vomano and of the public park "Villa Comunale dei Cappuccini di Atri" offer panoramas of the valleys and sea below. The
Campli is a town and comune in the province of Teramo, in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It is located in the natural park known as the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park; the towns of Bellante, Civitella del Tronto, Sant'Omero, Torricella Sicura, Valle Castellana are nearby. During the 14th century, the composer Nicolaus Ricii de Nucella Campli was born in or near the town; the town was captured by the French under François de Guise in 1557 during his failed campaign against the Spanish in the Kingdom of Naples. Every year since 1964 in the month of August, there is a celebration that goes by the name of Sagra della porchetta italica, it is considered to be the first such event established in the Region of Abruzzo and one of the earliest organized in all of Italy. One highlight of this festival is a pork sandwich cookoff; the festival was founded by Fernando Aurini, seeking to attract tourists and to disseminate information about the town which once made up a portion of the holdings of the powerful Farnese family.
In celebration of this event a practical tourist guide entitled "Campli" was published each year. The Sagra della porchetta italica was an immediate success with crowds of up to 10,000 people attending in the mid 1960s. Museo Nazionale Archeologico - housed in the ancient 14th century Farnese palace San Pietro: its walls contain Ancient Roman and High Medieval stone fragments La Scala Santa, formed by 28 wooden steps which, if climbed on ones knees, bring absolution of sins by decree of Pope Clement IV Official website
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well