Senate of the Republic (Mexico)
The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress. After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators: Two for each of the 32 states elected under the principle of relative majority. In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote; the party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District assigns a senator to occupy the third seat, according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute. Senators serve six-year terms. Special elections are rare; until 2018, the Senate was renewed every six years since senators are barred from immediate reelection. As of 2018, Senators can now serve a second term. In Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term; the current session is known as the LXIV Legislatura.
Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current senators will serve during the 65th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies. According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the following requirements: Being a Mexican citizen by birth, in the exercise of their rights. Be twenty-five years old on election day Being from the state in the election, or neighbor of him with an effective residence of more than six months prior to the date of the election, or in the case of candidates is made by proportional representation of any of the states that as the constituency, with the same details. Not being active duty in the military or have control of police or rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election. Not be a secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election.
Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated from office three years before the election. Not a minister of some religious cult. Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and cannot be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately, they are elected by secret ballot in every state of the republic. Each political party registers a list with two formulas of candidates, consisting of two owners and their alternates: the number 1 of the formula First Formula is denominated to him, 2, Second Formula; the formula of candidates obtaining the highest number of votes is elected complete, becoming the first two senators of the entity. There are 32 senators elected by proportional representation. For this election, each political party registers a list of 32 candidates, these are allocated by proportional representation according to the number of votes obtained by each political party in the national election. For their internal government has two main instances, namely: Board: Composed of a Chairman, three Vice-Chairpersons and four Secretaries, elected for each regular session of the House, the chairman is the President of the Senate and is the head and representative of the Chamber.
Political Coordination Board: Considered the true governing body of the Chamber consists of a chairman and six members, which always include the Coordinators of the different parliamentary factions of political parties represented in the Senate. For the office of legislative affairs, senators integrate into Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue; the most important committees are those of Interior, Constitutional Issues, Finance, among others. Each senator belongs to at least three different commissions, each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 to coordinate their work. A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected, divided into two legislatures of three years each. From 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end its term on 31 August 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 elections for a period of six years and are at their posts from 1 September of that year, therefore they will hold office from the LXII Legislature to LXIII Legislature.
The two chambers of the General Congress divided its exercise into two ordinary sessions, the first from September 1 to December 15 and the second from February 1 to April 30, it should be required may convene special sessions to dispatch urgent or pertinent matters. The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses. There are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. During breaks, the Permanent Commission of the Congress is installed and serves as the depository of the legislature.
Congress of the Union
The Congress of the Union, formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States, is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress of the Union meets in Mexico City and consists of 628 members: 500 deputies and 128 senators; the Congress is a bicameral body, consisting of two chambers: Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, Articles 50 to 79 of the 1917 Constitution; the upper chamber is the Senate, "Cámara de Senadores" or "Senado". It comprises 128 seats, 96 members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms; the lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, or "Cámara de Diputados". It has 500 seats; the Congress of the Union has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies has 500 members, each elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies.
The 200 PR-seats are distributed without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions to that rule. A party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. A party cannot get more than 300 seats overall; the Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up; the "Comisión Permanente del Congreso de la Unión", translated variously as the Permanent Committee or Standing Committee, is a body of 19 deputies and 18 senators, responsible for tasks relating to the Congress when it is in recess. It is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the "LXIV Legislature"; the I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution.
Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I. Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección. In keeping with that long-held principle, until 2014, the 1917 Constitution stated that "Deputies and Senators could not be reelected for the next immediate term". On February 10, 2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the general election of 2018, Deputies and Senators are allowed to run for reelection. Members of the Chamber of Deputies may serve up to four terms of three years each while members of the Senate may serve two terms of six years each. A Of the 53 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 40 were taken by MORENA, 8 by the PES, 5 by the PT b Of the 25 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 16 were taken by the PAN, 6 by the PRD, 3 by the MC c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 7 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, 1 by the PNA a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, 56 by the PES b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, 9 by the PRD c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, 2 by the PNA Chamber of Deputies Senate Politics of Mexico List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies Senate
President of Mexico
The President of Mexico known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces; the current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018. The office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again; the constitution and the office of the President follow the presidential system of government. Chapter III of Title III of the Constitution deals with the executive branch of government and sets forth the powers of the president, as well as the qualifications for the office, he is vested with the "supreme executive power of the Union".
To be eligible to serve as president, Article 82 of the Constitution specifies that the following requirements must be met: Be a natural-born citizen of Mexico able to exercise full citizenship rights, with at least one parent, a natural-born citizen of Mexico. Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty years. Be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election. Be a resident of Mexico for the entire year prior to the election. Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination. Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not be a secretary of state or under-secretary of state, attorney general, governor of a State, or head of the government of Mexico City, unless "separated from the post" at least six months prior to the election. Not have been president even in a provisional capacity; the ban on any sort of presidential re-election dates back to the aftermath of the Porfiriato and the end of the Mexican Revolution. It is so entrenched in Mexican politics that it has remained in place as it was relaxed for other offices.
In 2014, the constitution was amended to allow Deputies and Senators to run for a second consecutive term. Deputies and Senators were barred from successive re-election. However, the president remained barred from re-election if it is nonsuccessive; the presidential term was set at four years from 1821 until 1904, when President Porfirio Díaz extended it to six years for the first time in Mexico's history, again from 1917 to 1928 after a new constitution reversed the change made by Diaz in 1904. The presidential term was set at six years in 1928 and has remained unchanged since then; the president is elected by direct, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a simple plurality of the national vote is elected. Former President Felipe Calderón won with 36.38% of the votes in the 2006 general election, finishing only 0.56 percent above his nearest rival, Andrés Manuel López Obrador. Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the popular vote, Ernesto Zedillo won 48% of the vote, his predecessor Carlos Salinas won with a majority of 50%.
The most recent former president, Enrique Peña Nieto won 38% of the popular vote. The current President, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was elected in 2018 with a modern-era record of 53% share of the popular vote; the history of Mexico has not been a peaceful one. After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until 1929, when all the revolutionary leaders united in one political party: the National Revolutionary Party, which changed its name to the Party of the Mexican Revolution, is now the Institutional Revolutionary Party. From until 1988, the PRI ruled Mexico as a virtual one-party state. Toward the end of his term, the incumbent president in consultation with party leaders, selected the PRI's candidate in the next election in a procedure known as "the tap of the finger"; until 1988, the PRI's candidate was assured of election, winning by margins well over 70 percent of the vote—results that were obtained by massive electoral fraud.
In 1988, the PRI ruptured and the dissidents formed the National Democratic Front with rival center-left parties. Discontent with the PRI, the popularity of the Front's candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas led to worries that PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari would not come close to a majority, might be defeated. While the votes were being counted, the tabulation system mysteriously shut down; the government declared Salinas the winner, leading to stronger than allegations of electoral fraud. The PRI enacted a strict internal discipline and government presence in the country, electoral fraud became common. After the country regained its peace, this pattern of fraud continued, with the opposition losing every election until the part of the 20th century; the first presidential election broadly considered legitimate was the one held in 1994, when the PRI's Ernesto Zedillo took office, in his term several reforms were enacted to ensure fairness and transparency in elections. As a consequence of these reforms, the 1997 federal congressional election saw the first opposition Chamber of Deputies and the 2000 elections saw Vicente Fox of a P
Querétaro the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro, is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities, its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro. It is located in a region known as Bajío, it is bordered by the states of San Luis Potosí to the north, Guanajuato to the west, Hidalgo to the east, México to the southeast and Michoacán to the southwest. The state is one of the smallest in Mexico, but it is one of the most heterogeneous geographically, with ecosystems varying from deserts to tropical rainforest in the Sierra Gorda, filled with microecosystems; the area of the state was located on the northern edge of Mesoamerica, with both the Purépecha Empire and Aztec Empire having influence in the extreme south, but neither dominating it. The area the Sierra Gorda, had a number of small city-states, but by the time the Spanish arrived, these had all been abandoned, with only small agricultural villages and seminomadic peoples inhabiting the area. Spanish conquest was focused on the establishment of the Santiago de Querétaro, which still dominates the state culturally and educationally.
Querétaro is located in the north-central area of the country of Mexico, connecting the wetter climes of the south with the drier deserts of the north. The state is divided into 18 municipalities: Amealco de Bonfil, Arroyo Seco, Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Corregidora, El Marqués, Ezequiel Montes, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pedro Escobedo, Peñamiller, Pinal de Amoles, Querétaro, San Joaquín, San Juan del Río, Tequisquiapan and Tolimán. Three of Mexico’s geographic zones cover parts of the state; the Mesa del Centro is in the center-west of the state, consists of small mesas with an average altitude of 2,000 meters above sea level. A few elevations reach over 3,000 meters; the Sierra Madre Oriental occupies the northeast of the state and includes the cities of Huasteca area. The topography of this area is rugged, with narrow valleys. Elevations here range between 900 m and 3,000 m m ASL; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occupies about half of the state in the south. The area is volcanic rock with peaks and mesas between 200 m and 3,000 m and valleys between 1,800 m and 1,900 m ASL.
The state is divided into five geographical regions: The Sierra Gorda, El Semidesierto Queretano, Los Valles Centrales, El Bajío Queretano and La Sierra Queretana. The Sierra Gorda is located in the north of the state and is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental in a subprovince called the Huasteco Karst, it is found in the municipalities of Arroyo Seco, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and San Joaquín and covers an area of 3,789km2 or 32.2% of the state. The topography is rugged, with steep valleys, it is a conjunction of mountains and hills formed by limestone, with wide contrasts in climates and vegetation. They range from near desert conditions to forests of pine and holm oak to the tropical rainforests of the Huasteca area in the state of San Luis Potosí; the Sierra Gorda was made a biosphere reserve in 1997, the Reserva de la Biosfera de la Sierra Gorda, to protect its abundance of species and ecosystems. In 2001, the area was registered with the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO.
This area is managed by la Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources federal agency. El Semidesierto Queretano is a wide strip that crosses the state from east to west, dry due to the blocking of moist air from the Gulf by the Sierra Madre Oriental; the area is found in the municipalities of Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Peñamiller and Tolimán, with an area of 3,415.6km2 or 29% of the state. As it is near the mountain range, its topography is rugged. Los Valles Centrales is in the center of the state, overlapping all of the area formed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, with the exception of the north of the El Marqués municipality, in the Mesa del Centro; the continental divide runs through here marked by the Sierra Queretana, the El Macizo and El Zamoarano mountain chains. This area occupies the municipalities of Ezequiel Montes, El Marqués, Pedro Escobedo and San Juan del Río with an extension of 2,480.2kmw or 21.1% of the state.
El Bajío Queretano is in the western part of the state, a low elevation area that extends into neighboring Guanajuato. This area covers 1,005.7km2 or 8.5% of the state, contains low hills and small mountain chains that are part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. La Sierra Queretana is in the extreme south of the state, part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, it is found in the municipalities of Amealco de Bonfil and Huimilpan, covering an area of 1,078.3 km or 9.2% of the state. The area has high plains that narrow into valleys and canyons; some of the flat areas border the Lerma River. The state contains two river basins: the Pánuco; the first is represented by the Lerma and La Laja Rivers and the second is represented by the Tamuín and Moctezuma Rivers. Other important rivers include the San Juan; these rivers contain 16 dams, including the Santa Catarina, El Batán, Constitution de 1917 and the San Ildefonso. Most of the state is dry, with the exception of the north, temperate and rainy; the average temperature is 18 °C.
Three well-defined climate areas are in the state. The south has
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate; the structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative for every 200,000 citizens; the Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts; the remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; the 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare. From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature.
Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world, renewed at an election. However, this will change at the 2018 elections. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections. After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location. President of the Chamber of Deputies Directive Board Congress of Mexico Senate of Mexico Politics of Mexico Official website