Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them; the IAU is a member of the International Council for Science. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation; the IAU maintains friendly relations with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. The IAU has its head office on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Working groups include the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, which maintains the astronomical naming conventions and planetary nomenclature for planetary bodies, the Working Group on Star Names, which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars.
The IAU is responsible for the system of astronomical telegrams which are produced and distributed on its behalf by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The Minor Planet Center operates under the IAU, is a "clearinghouse" for all non-planetary or non-moon bodies in the Solar System; the Working Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature and the Meteor Data Center coordinate the nomenclature of meteor showers. The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919, at the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council held in Brussels, Belgium. Two subsidiaries of the IAU were created at this assembly: the International Time Commission seated at the International Time Bureau in Paris and the International Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams seated in Copenhagen, Denmark; the 7 initial member states were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece and the United States, soon to be followed by Italy and Mexico. The first executive committee consisted of Benjamin Baillaud, Alfred Fowler, four vice presidents: William Campbell, Frank Dyson, Georges Lecointe, Annibale Riccò.
Thirty-two Commissions were appointed at the Brussels meeting and focused on topics ranging from relativity to minor planets. The reports of these 32 Commissions formed the main substance of the first General Assembly, which took place in Rome, Italy, 2–10 May 1922. By the end of the first General Assembly, ten additional nations had joined the Union, bringing the total membership to 19 countries. Although the Union was formed eight months after the end of World War I, international collaboration in astronomy had been strong in the pre-war era; the first 50 years of the Union's history are well documented. Subsequent history is recorded in the form of reminiscences of past IAU Presidents and General Secretaries. Twelve of the fourteen past General Secretaries in the period 1964-2006 contributed their recollections of the Union's history in IAU Information Bulletin No. 100. Six past IAU Presidents in the period 1976–2003 contributed their recollections in IAU Information Bulletin No. 104. The IAU includes a total of 12,664 individual members who are professional astronomers from 96 countries worldwide.
83% of all individual members are male, while 17% are female, among them the union's former president, Mexican astronomer Silvia Torres-Peimbert. Membership includes 79 national members, professional astronomical communities representing their country's affiliation with the IAU. National members include the Australian Academy of Science, the Chinese Astronomical Society, the French Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academies, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, KACST, the Council of German Observatories, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Science Council of Japan, among many others; the sovereign body of the IAU is its General Assembly. The Assembly determines IAU policy, approves the Statutes and By-Laws of the Union and elects various committees; the right to vote on matters brought before the Assembly varies according to the type of business under discussion.
The Statutes consider such business to be divided into two categories: issues of a "primarily scientific nature", upon which voting is restricted to individual members, all other matters, upon which voting is restricted to the representatives of national members. On budget matters, votes are weighted according to the relative subscription levels of the national members. A second category vote requires a turnout of at least two-thirds of national members in order to be valid. An absolute majority is sufficient for approval in any vote, except for Statute revision which requires a two-thirds majority. An equality of votes is resolved by the vote of the President of the Union. Since 1922, the IAU General Assembly meets every three years, with the ex
L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards
The L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards aim to improve the position of women in science by recognizing outstanding women researchers who have contributed to scientific progress. The awards are a result of a partnership between the French cosmetics company L'Oréal and the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization and carry a grant of $100,000 USD for each laureate; each year an international jury alternates between life and material sciences and selects a winner from each of the following regions: Africa and the Middle East. Asia-Pacific Europe Latin America and the Caribbean North America The same partnership awards the UNESCO-L'Oréal International Fellowships, providing up to $40,000 USD in funding over two years to fifteen young women scientists engaged in exemplary and promising research projects; the Fellowship awards began in 2000 with a one-year award of $20,000 USD and offered ten awards until 2003. In 2003, the number of awards increased to 15 and in 2006, the grant period extended to two years and the amount of the award increased to $40,000 USD.
In 2015, the name Rising Talent Grants was implemented. Grace Oladunni Taylor: Biochemistry Myeong-Hee Yu: Microbiology Pascale Cossart: Bacteriology Gloria Montenegro: Botany Valerie Mizrahi: Molecular biology Tsuneko Okazaki: Molecular biology Margarita Salas: Molecular biology Eugenia María del Pino Veintimilla: Molecular biology Joanne Chory: Molecular biology 2000 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Adeyinka Gladys Falusi: Molecular genetics Suzanne Cory: Molecular genetics Anne McLaren: Reproductive biology Mayana Zatz: Molecular biology Joan Argetsinger Steitz: Molecular biophysics and biochemistry 2001 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Nagwa Meguid: Genetics applied to the prevention of mental diseases Indira Nath: The treatment of leprosy Mary Osborn: Methods for the observation of cell structures Ana María López Colomé: Prevention of blindness.
Shirley Tilghman: Gene expression and parental origin of chromosomes 2002 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Karimat El-Sayed: Physics Li Fanghua: Electron microscopy Ayse Erzan: Condensed matter physics Mariana Weissmann: Computational condensed matter physics Johanna M. H. Levelt Sengers: Thermodynamics 2003 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries; the initial awards list stated. Other awardees are: Jennifer Thomson: "For work on transgenic plants resistant to drought and to viral infections, in an effort to respond to the continent's chronic food shortage." Lúcia Mendonça Previato: "For studies which enable progress in the understanding and prevention of the Chagas disease." Philippa Marrack "For the characterization of lymphocyte T functions in the immune system and the discovery of superantigens.
Nancy Ip: "For discoveries concerning proteins which favour the growth and preservation of neurons in brain development." Christine Petit: "For research on the molecular and cellular bases of human hereditary deafness and other sensorial deficiencies." 2004 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Zohra ben Lakhdar: "For experiments and models in infrared spectroscopy and its applications to pollution detection and medicine." Fumiko Yonezawa: "For pioneering theory and computer simulations on amorphous semiconductors and liquid metals." Dominique Langevin: "For fundamental investigations on detergents and foams." Belita Koiller: "For innovative research on electrons in disordered matter such as glass." Myriam P. Sarachik: "For important experiments on electrical conduction and transitions between metals and insulators." 2005 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Habiba Bouhamed Chaabouni: "For her contribution to the analysis and prevention of hereditary disorders."
Jennifer Graves: "For studies on the evolution of mammalian genomes." Christine Van Broeckhoven: "For the genetic investigation of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases." Esther Orozco: "For the discovery of the mechanisms and control of infections by amoebas in the tropics." Pamela Bjorkman: "For the discovery of how the immune system recognizes targets." 2006 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Ameenah Gurib-Fakim: "For her exploration and analysis of plants from Mauritius and their bio-medical applications." Ligia Gargallo: "For her contributions to understanding solution properties of polymers." Mildred Dresselhaus: "For her research on solid state materials, including conceptualizing the creation of carbon nanotubes." Margaret Brimble: "For her contribution to the synthesis of c
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Royal Astronomical Society
The Royal Astronomical Society is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science and related branches of science. Its headquarters are on Piccadilly in London; the society has over 4,000 members, termed Fellows, most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK. Members of the public who have an interest in astronomy and geophysics but do not qualify as Fellows may become Friends of the RAS; the society holds monthly scientific meetings in London, the annual National Astronomy Meeting at varying locations in the British Isles. The RAS publishes the scientific journals Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Geophysical Journal International, along with the trade magazine Astronomy & Geophysics; the RAS maintains an astronomy research library, engages in public outreach and advises the UK government on astronomy education. The society recognises achievement in astronomy and geophysics by issuing annual awards and prizes, with its highest award being the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The RAS is the UK adhering organisation to the International Astronomical Union and a member of the UK Science Council. The society was founded in 1820 as the Astronomical Society of London to support astronomical research. At that time, most members were'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals, it became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving a Royal Charter from William IV. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women. One of the major activities of the RAS is publishing refereed journals, it publishes two primary research journals, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society in astronomy and the Geophysical Journal International in geophysics. It publishes the magazine A&G which includes reviews and other articles of wide scientific interest in a'glossy' format; the full list of journals published by the RAS, with abbreviations as used for the NASA ADS bibliographic codes is: Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society: 1822–1977 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Since 1827 Geophysical Supplement to Monthly Notices: 1922–1957 Geophysical Journal: 1958–1988 Geophysical Journal International: Since 1989 Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society: 1960–1996 Astronomy & Geophysics: Since 1997 Full members of the RAS are styled Fellows, may use the post-nominal letters FRAS.
Fellowship is open to anyone over the age of 18, considered acceptable to the society. As a result of the society's foundation in a time before there were many professional astronomers, no formal qualifications are required. However, around three quarters of fellows are professional geophysicists; the society acts as the professional body for astronomers and geophysicists in the UK and fellows may apply for the Science Council's Chartered Scientist status through the society. The fellowship passed 3,000 in 2003. In 2009 an initiative was launched for those with an interest in astronomy and geophysics but without professional qualifications or specialist knowledge in the subject; such people may join the Friends of the RAS, which offers popular talks and social events. The Society organises an extensive programme of meetings: The biggest RAS meeting each year is the National Astronomy Meeting, a major conference of professional astronomers, it is held over 4-5 days each spring or early summer at a university campus in the United Kingdom.
Hundreds of astronomers attend each year. More frequent smaller'ordinary' meetings feature lectures about research topics in astronomy and geophysics given by winners of the society's awards, they are held in Burlington House in London on the afternoon of the second Friday of each month from October to May. The talks are intended to be accessible to a broad audience of astronomers and geophysicists, are free for anyone to attend. Formal reports of the meetings are published in The Observatory magazine. Specialist discussion meetings are held on the same day as each ordinary meeting; these are aimed at professional scientists in a particular research field, allow several speakers to present new results or reviews of scientific fields. Two discussion meetings on different topics take place at different locations within Burlington House, prior to the day's ordinary meeting, they charge a small entry fee for non-members. The RAS holds a regular programme of public lectures aimed at a non-specialist, audience.
These are held on Tuesdays once a month, with the same talk given twice: once at lunchtime and once in the early evening. The venues have varied, but are in Burlington House or another nearby location in central London; the lectures are free. The society hosts or sponsors meetings in other parts of the United Kingdom in collaboration with other scientific societies and universities; the Royal Astronomical Society has a more comprehensive collection of books and journals in astronomy and geophysics than the libraries of most universities and research institutions. The library receives some 300 current periodicals in astronomy and geophysics and contains more than 10,000 books from popular level to conference proceedings, its collection of astronomical rare books is second only to that of the Royal Obser
Mexicans are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America. The Mexica founded Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas, it subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City; the modern nation of Mexico achieved independence from the Spanish Empire. This led to what has been termed "a peculiar form of multi-ethnic nationalism"; the most spoken language by Mexicans is Mexican Spanish, but some may speak languages from 68 different indigenous linguistic groups and other languages brought to Mexico by recent immigration or learned by Mexican immigrants residing in other nations. In 2015, 21.5% of Mexico's population self-identified as being Indigenous or Indigenous.
There are about 12 million Mexican nationals residing outside Mexico, with about 11.7 million living in the United States. The larger Mexican diaspora can include individuals that trace ancestry to Mexico and self-identify as Mexican; the Mexican people have varied origins and an identity that has evolved with the succession of conquests among Amerindian groups and by Europeans. The area, now modern-day Mexico has cradled many predecessor civilizations, going back as far as the Olmec which influenced the latter civilizations of Teotihuacan and the much debated Toltec people who flourished around the 10th and 12th centuries A. D. and ending with the last great indigenous civilization before the Aztecs. The Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish. After the conquest of the Aztec empire, the Spanish re-administered the land and expanded their own empire beyond the former boundaries of the Aztec, adding more territory to the Mexican sphere of influence which remained under the Spanish Crown for 300 years.
Cultural diffusion and intermixing among the Amerindian populations with the European created the modern Mexican identity, a mixture of regional indigenous and European cultures that evolved into a national culture during the Spanish period. This new identity was defined as "Mexican" shortly after the Mexican War of Independence and was more invigorated and developed after the Mexican Revolution when the Constitution of 1917 established Mexico as an indivisible pluricultural nation founded on its indigenous roots. Mexicano is derived from the word Mexico itself. In the principal model to create demonyms in Spanish, the suffix -ano is added to the name of the place of origin, it has been suggested that the name of the country is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexicas, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". Another hypothesis suggests; this meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco.
The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from the goddess of maguey; the term Mexicano as a word to describe the different peoples of the region of Mexico as a single group emerged in the 16th century. In that time the term did not apply to a nationality nor to the geographical limits of the modern Mexican Republic; the term was used for the first time in the first document printed in Barcelona in 1566 which documented the expedition which launched from the port in Acapulco to find the best route which would favor a return journey from the Spanish East Indies to New Spain. The document stated: "el venturoso descubrimiento que los Mexicanos han hecho"; that discovery led to the Manila galleon trade route and those "Mexicans" referred to Criollos and Amerindians alluding to a plurality of persons who participated for a common end: the conquest of the Philippines in 1565.
A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify neither with any indigenous culture nor with a Spanish cultural heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits incorporating elements from indigenous and Spanish traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje. Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje. Since the Mestizo identity promoted by the government is more of a cultural identity than a biological one it has achieved a strong influence in the country, with a good number of biologically white people identifying with it, leading to being considered Mestizos in Mexico's demographic investigations and censuses due the ethnic criteria having its base on cultural traits rather than biological ones.
A similar situation occurs regarding the d
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give